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of the present fort. A copperplate found on the site of the fort in
1780 contains an inscription of uncertain date, recording that the
armies of Raja Deb Pal here crossed the Ganges by a bridge of boats ;
the date usually assigned to Deb Pal is the tenth century. Monghyr
is first mentioned by Muhammadan historians as having been taken
by Muhammad-i-Bakhtyar Khilji, during the conquest of Bihar, about
1198; and henceforth it is often referred to as u place of military
importance. Prince Daniyal, son of Ala-ud-din Husain, the Afghan
king of Gaur, repaired the fortifications in 1497 and built a vault over
the tomb of Shah Nafah. the Muhammadan patron saint of the town ;
and in 1580 Raja Todar Mai, on being deputed by Akbar to reduce
the rebellious Afghan chiefs of Bengal, made Monghyr his head-
(juarters and constructed entrenchments between the Ganges and the
hills. Shah Shuja, after his defeat by Aurangzeb near Khajuha,
retreated here in 1659, and, resolving to make a stand against the
imperial troops, strengthened the fortifications and threw up lines of
entrenchment ; on learning, however, that Mir Jumla had got round
to his rear by forced marches through the hills of Jharkand, he hurriedly
withdrew his troops from the trenches and beat a retreat to Rajmahal.
In the next century, when the Nawab, Mir Kasim .VlT, determined on
war the English, he selected Monghyr as his capital in 1763,
and established an arsenal under the supervision of his Armenian
general, Ghurghin (Gregory) Khnn : the gun-making industry for which
the town is famous is said to date from the establishment of this
arsenal. He retreated here after the defeat of his army at Udhua
Nullah, but fled on the approach of the British troops under Major
Adams ; and the governor who was left in command of the fort
capitulated after a two days' bombardment. A spot by the side of
the fort is still pointed out as the scene of the memorable outrage,
when the two Seths, the great Hindu bankers of Murshidabad, were
thrown into the Ganges on a charge of favouring the British cause.
Monghyr has been a place of considerable importance since the earliest
days of the British occupation of Bengal, although it did not become
a civil station until 181 2 ; and the old Afusalman fort was once
occupied by a regiment belonging to the East India Company.


At present ^^onghyr is a purely civil station, and in some respects
one of the most picturesque in Bengal. It consists of two distinct
portions — the fort, within which are situated the public offices and
residences of the Europeans ; and the native town, stretching away
from the former eastward and southward along the river. The fort
is formed by a great rampart of earth enclosing a rocky eminence,
and is faced with stone. It was probably at one time a strong position ;
towards the west the river comes up to the walls, forming a natural
defence, while to the landward a deep wide ditch surrounds and
protects it.

The population fell from 59,698 in 1872 to 55,372 in 1881 ; it rose
again to 57,077 in 1891 but dropped to 35,880 in 1901, when it
included 26,715 Hindus and 8,950 Muhammadans. The decrease on
the last occasion was due to the fact that the plague was raging
severely in the town at the time when the Census was taken, and
that a large number of the inhabitants had temporarily left to
escape its ravages. A second enumeration, taken at the end of July
when the plague had disappeared, gave a population of 50,133. The
town is favourably situated for trade by both rail and river ; formerly
the trade was carried almost exclusively by river, but the greater part
has been diverted to the railway. It is connected by a short branch
with the loop-line of the East Indian Railway, and by a steam ferry
with the railway system on the north of the Ganges.

Monghyr was constituted a municipality in 1864. The income
during the decade ending 1901-2 averaged Rs. 64,000, and the
expenditure Rs. 60,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 73,000,
including Rs. 23,000 derived from a tax on houses and land, Rs, 13,000
from tolls, Rs. 10,000 from a conservancy rate, Rs. 3,000 from a tax
on vehicles, &c., Rs. 7,000 from revenue from municipal property and
interest on investments, and Rs. 12,000 as grants from various
sources. The incidence of taxation was nearly R. i per head of the
population. In the same year the expenditure amounted to Rs. 68,000,
the chief items being Rs. 1,500 spent on lighting, Rs. 6,000 on drainage,
Rs. 21,000 on conservancy, Rs. 13,000 on medical relief, Rs. 8,000 on
roads, and Rs. 3,000 on education. A drainage scheme and a project
for providing a filtered water-supply are under preparation.

Mongkiing (Burmese, Maingkavig). — A large State in the eastern
division of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying between 21° 15' and
22° 4' N. and 97° 8' and 97° 58' E., with an area of 1,643 square miles.
It is bounded on the north by the Northern Shan State of HsTpaw; on
the east by HsTpaw, Kehsi Mansam, and Mongnawng ; on the south by
Laihka ; and on the west by Lawksawk. The eastern part and the centre
of the State are drained by the head-waters of the Nam Teng ; and the
large plain surrounding Mongkiing (population, 1,190), the residence of

404 .]/o.y(rA'('y(;

the Myoza, is almost entirely under cultivation and thickly populated.
The western side is watered by the Nam Lang. Excepting the central
plain and the valley of the Nam Lang, the country is formed of low
hills covered with oak and pine. Rice is grown in the central plain
and in the bottoms of valleys where water is obtainable, and a good
deal is exported. Taiingya cultivation is but little practised. On the
hills towards the western border, and on the range lying west of the
capital, poppy is cultivated by the Palaungs. The population in 1901
was 30,482, distributed in 627 villages. Of the total, about 27,500 were
Shans and nearly 2,000 Palaungs, the rest being Yins (Yanglam) and
Taungthus. TJke other States in this neighbourhood, Mongkiing has
only recently recovered from the dire effects of the disturbances that
followed the annexation of Upper Burma. The revenue in 1903-4
amounted to Rs. 34,000 (nearly all from thathameda) ; and the chief
items of expenditure were Rs. 15,000 tribute to the British Govern-
ment, Rs. 7,400 officials' salaries and administration charges, Rs. 8,900
privy purse, and Rs. 2,700 public works.

Mongmit State. — A Shan State, at present administered as a
temporary measure as a subdivision of the Ruby Mines District, Upper
Burma. It lies between 22° 44' and 24° 6' N. and 96° 10' and 97° 38' E.,
comprising the townships of Mongmit and Kodauno, with an area of
about 3,562 square miles. The population in 1901 was 44,208. Except
in the valley of the Shweli, it is mountainous. At the time of the
annexation of Upper Burma Mongmit was in a very disturbed con-
dition ; and in 1889 Saw Maung, who had been driven out by rebels
from the Sawbwaship of Yawnghwe, was appointed regent as an experi.
mental measure, with a view to the restoration of order. It was not
long, however, before it became apparent that Saw Maung was unable
to manage the affairs of the State, and in 1892 the administration was
taken over by Government. The State is about to be restored to the
Sawbwa, who has attained his majority. The revenue in 1903-4 was
Rs. 14,900.

Mongmit Township (Burmese, Afomeik). — A tract occupying the
greater part of the Mcingmit State, and at present administered as a
township of the Ruby Mines District, Upper Burma. It lies between
22° 44' and 24° (i N. and 96*^ 10' and ()7° 10' E., with an area of
2,802 square miles. In 1901 the population was 22,581, composed
of I^urmans, Shans, Palaungs, and Kachins in the ratio of 10, 5, 4,
and 2. It contains 236 villages, the head-quarters being at Mongmit
(population, 1,767), on a tributary of the Shweli. The township
occupies almost the whole drainage of the Shweli river. Away from
ilie Shweli valley it is hilly and forest-clad, and a large number of the
inhabitants are occupied in tree felling and in bamboo-cutting under
forest contractr)rs. Rice is exported to Mogok and Tawngpeng.


Mongnai (Burmese, Motie). — A large State in the eastern division
of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying between 20° 22' and
21° 12' N. and 97° -^z' ^"^ 98° 5^1' E., with an area (including its
dependency of Kengtawng or Kyaingtaung) of 2,717 square miles.
A large isolated circle abuts on the eastern boundary of Yawnghwe,
bringing the effective western boundary to 97° 17' E. The State is
bounded on the east by Kengtung, from which it is separated by the
Salween ; on the south by Mongpan and Mawkmai ; on the west by
Mongsit and Laihka ; and on the north by Laihka, Mongnawng, and
Kenghkam. Mongnai proper occupies only the western half of this
area. The eastern half forms the Kengtawng dependency, the two
being separated by a long range, running north and south, averaging
about 4,000 feet in height. The Nam Teng river, entering the State
near its north-west corner, runs eastward till it doubles round the
northern end of this range, and waters the greater part of Kengtawng.
The southern part of Mongnai proper is watered by the Nam Tawng,
which runs in a southerly direction past the capital to join the Nam
Teng, the valley being shut in on the west by a lofty range of moun-
tains that forms the greater part of the boundary of the State. In the
central plain watered by the Nam Tawng, and in the wide valley of the
Nam Teng, rice is grown in considerable quantities, the latter area
being particularly fertile. Sugar-cane and tobacco are cultivated here
and there, while gardens contain betel, coco-nut, oranges, and other
fruits. Large quantities of Shan paper are manufactured from the
bark of a species of mulberry, and exported to other States and to
Burma for use in decorations, and for the manufacture of umbrellas,
&c. The early records of Mongnai are vague and unsatisfactory.
The part it played after annexation is briefly touched upon in the
article on the Southern Shan States. The population of the
State in 1901 was 44,252, distributed in 981 villages. Of this total,
more than five-sixths are Shans. The Taungthus are fairly well
represented (their total being over 4,000), and there are a certain
number of Yins. The Sawbwa's head-quarters are at Mongnai (popu-
lation, 3,078), near the Nam Tawng, once the largest place in the
Southern Shan States, and still (jf considerable importance. The
American Baptist Mission has a station at Mongnai, with a hospital
attached which does valuable work locally. The revenue in 1903-4
amounted to Rs. 46,000 (mainly from thathameda) ; and the main
items of expenditure were Rs. 20,000 tribute to the British Govern-
ment, Rs. 18,000 spent on official salaries and general administration,
Rs, 4,800 credited to the privy purse, and Rs. 3,000 spent on public

Mongnawng (Burmese, Afaini^nainii:;). - !^ large State in the
eastern division of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying between

4o6 ^royc y.1 wyo

20° 59' and 2V 55' X. and 97^ 48' and 98° 49' F,.. with an area
of 1,575 square miles. It is hounded on the north by Kehsi Mansam,
Kenglon, and Mongsang ; on the east by the Shan States of Manglon
and Kengtung, from which it is separated for the most part by the
Salween river ; on the south by Kenghkam and Mongnai ; and on the
west by Laihka and Mongkiing. The State at one time formed part
of Hscnwi, but was made independent in 1850. In 1886 its ruler
joined the Linbin confederacy, and was involved in the disturbances
which culminated in the Linbin prince's surrender. The greater part
of the State is open undulating country, with here and there jagged
limestone hills rising from it. To the nortli and west are regular
downs, almost treeless ; to the south scrub jungle : to the east are
rugged hills extending towards the Salween. The only river of
importance is the Nam Pang, adjoining whose banks are many fertile
paddy-fields. Rice is grown both on these plains and in tai/?!gyas,
the level area round Mongnawng (population, 693), the residence of
the Myoza, in the northern part of the State, being especially fertile.
The population in 1901 was 39,102, distributed in 777 villages.
Of the total more than 37,000 were Shans, the rest being Vins,
Palaungs, and other hill tribes. The revenue in 1903-4 amounted
to Rs. 23,000 (mainly from thathariteda) ; and the chief items of
expenditure were Rs. 10,000 tribute to the British Government,
Rs. 6,700 official salaries and administration charges, Rs. 3,300
privy purse, and Rs. 3,000 public works.

Mongpai (Burmese, Mobye). — State in the central division of the
Southern Shan States, Burma, lying between 19° 20' and 19° 53' N.
and 96° 36' and 97° 9' E., with an area of 660 square miles. It is the
most south-westerly of the Shan States, being bounded on the south
and east by Karenni ; on the north by Loilong and Sakoi ; and on the
west by the Districts of Toungoo and Yamethin. The general char-
acter of the country is hilly, rising gently from the Nam Pilu (or Balu
chming), which traverses the north-east corner. The western part of
the State consists of a confused mass of hills running generally north
and south, and culminating in a ridge about 5,000 feet in height, which
separates the basins of the Sittang and the .Salween. Most of the level
rice land is situated near the I'ilu, and is irrigated from it by water-
wheels, or by the diversion of small affluent.s. In the hills taufigya
(shifting) cultivation prevails. The Shans and Taungthus till the
usual homestead gardens, in which mustard, tobacco, sugar-cane,
cotton, and various fruits and vegetables are grown ; and maize and
millet are cultivated by the Red Karens. The population of the
State in 1901 was 19,351, distributed in 158 villages, and consists of
Padaungs, Zayeins, Taungthus, and other Karen tribes, besides a few
Shans. Only 4,612 persons were returned as Buddhists, and 13,380


as Animists. The Padaung speakers numbered 9,321, the Shan
speakers 2,837, and the Taungthu speakers 1,416. The revenue of
the State amounts to Rs. S,ooo, derived ahiiost entirely from thatha-
meda. In 1903-4 the expenditure included Rs. 3,000 tribute to the
British Government, Rs. 2,200 spent on general administration,
Rs. 1,500 on the pay of officials, and Rs. 1,200 made over to the
privy purse. The head-quarters of the Sawbwa are at Mongpai
(population, 642), on the bank of the Pilu river.

Mongpan (Burmese, Maingpaii). — State in the eastern division
of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying (with its trans-Salween
dependencies) on both sides of the Sahveen river, between 19° 40'
and 20° 32' N. and 98° 2' and 99° 12' E., with an area of 2,300
square miles. On the north it is bounded by Mongnai ; on the north-
east by Kengtung ; on the east and south by Siam ; on the west
by Mawkmai. Little is known of the early history of Mongpan. It
went through troublous times after the annexation of Upper Burma,
and was ravaged by the troops of the Linbin confederacy in 1886.
The negotiations between the British and Siamese Governments in
connexion with its trans-Salween dependencies are alluded to in the
article on the Southern Shan States. The centre of the State
proper is a large fertile plain surrounding the capital, Mongpan.
On all sides rise low hills covered with scrub jungle, culminating in
a range about 5,000 feet in height, on the other side of which runs
the Nam Teng. Between the central plain and the Salween, to the
south and east, and towards the northern border is a confused mass
of mountains. Of the trans-Salween dependencies, Mongton is the
most northerly. It borders on the Kengtung State ; and population
is confined practically to the narrow valley of the Nam Ton, which
joins the Me Hang, a tributary of the Salween, from which the neigh-
bouring dependency of Monghang takes its name. This sub-State is
mostly covered with jungle, its main feature being Loi Hkilek, a moun-
tain nearly 7,000 feet high. On the border of the State, along the
Salween west of Monghang, is the dependency of Mongk)'awt, a moun-
tainous tract, with a small population, confined to the valley of the
Nam Kyawt, which runs through the sub-State first eastwards, then
westwards, and then northwards, to join the Salween, The minute
dependency of Monghta lies in the basin of the Nam Hta, a tributary
of the Nam Kyawt, to the west of Mongkyawt. Cultivation is prac-
tically confined to rice, both irrigated and taungya ; and the central
plain round Mongpan (population, 1,355), ^^e residence of the Sawbwa,
is very fertile. The State contains valuable teak forests, which in
1904 brought in a revenue of Rs. 17,700. The population in 1901
was 16,629 (distributed in 196 villages), of whom nearly all were
Shans, only a few being Taungthus. Ihe revenue in 1903-4 amounted


to Rs. 15,000 (mainly from thatha/iieda); the items of expenditure
were Rs. 5,000 tribute to the British Government, Rs. 7,700 official
salaries, ^^-c, and Rs. 2,300 privy purse.

Mbngpawn (Burmese, Maingpiin).- \ small State in the eastern
division of the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying between 20° 24'
and 21° o' N. and 97° 20' and 97° 32' E., with an area of 371 square
miles. It lies in the Upper Nam Pawn valley, and is bounded on the
north by Laihka ; on the east by Laihka and Mongsit ; on the south
by Hsahtung ; and on the west by Wanyin, Nawngwawn, Namhkok,
Hopong, and an outlying portion of Mongnai. Mongpawn played an
imi)ortant part in the history of the Shan States after the annexation
of Upper Burma, its chief being the most active supporter of the
Linbiii prince. The State consists of the narrow valley of the Nam
Pawn, on which rice irrigated by water-wheels is cultivated, the other
main crops being taungya rice, cotton, sugar-cane, and thanatpet. The
population in 1901 was 13,143, of whom about 7,000 were Shans and
about 4,500 Taungthus ; the former live in the valley, the latter on the
hill-slopes. A few Yins are also found in the State. In 1901 the number
of villages was 212, the residence of the Sawbwa being at Mongpawn
(population, 1,230), on the Nam Pawn, where it is crossed by a bridge
on the main road between Burma and Kengtung. The revenue in
1903-4 was Rs. 14,000 (mainly from thathameda) : and the chief items
of expenditure were Ks. 4,500 tribute to the British Government,
Rs. 3,000 official salaries, &:c., and Rs. 5,300 privy purse.

Mbngsang. — State in the Southern Shan States, Burma. See


Mongsit (liurmese, J/a/y'/^''.sr/y^). State in the eastern division
ul' the Southern Shan States, Burma, lying between 20° 20' and
20^ 47' N. and 97° 27' and 97° 47' E., with an area of 303 square
miles. It is bounded on the north and east by Mongnai ; on the south
by Mawkmai ; and on the west by Mongpawn. The State consists of
a plain about 1 2 miles long, the northern part lying in the basin
of the Nam Teng, the southern in that of the Nam Pawn. The chief
crop is lowland rice, a large part depending for irrigation upon the
rainfall, but rice is also cultivated in taungyas. The population in
1901 was 9,013, distributed in 184 villages. Of the total, about
6,500 were Shans, 1,200 Yins (Yangsek), and 1,000 Taungthus.
Mongsit (population, 1,223), ^^ residence of the Myo/.a, lies in a
valley towards the north of the State. The revenue in 1903-4
amounted to Rs. 11,000 (mostly from thathameda); and the chief
items of expenditure were Rs. 4,500 tribute to the British Govern-
ment, Rs. 3,800 general administration charges, and Rs. 2,500
|)ri\y ])urse.

Montgomery District. -District in the Lahore iJivision of the


I'unjab, lying between 29° 58' and 31" 21' N. and 72'' 27' and 74^ 8' E.,
with an area of 4,771 square miles. It is named after the late Sir
l\.obcrt Montgomery, sometime Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab.
In shape it is a rough parallelogram, whose south-east side rests on
the Sutlej, while the Ravi flows through the District parallel to the
Sutlej and not far from the north-west border. It is bounded by
the Districts of Lahore on the north-east, J hang on the north-west,
and Multan on the south-west, while on the south-east it marches
with the Native State of Bahawalpur and the British District of
Ferozepore. Except along the river banks and
where watered by canals, Montgomery is practically aspects.

a waste of sand. The desert strip or Bar to the
north of the Ravi is a continuation of the Jhang Bar. The Gugera
branch of the Chenab Canal has now been extended to it, and the
country is rapidly assuming a fertile appearance, though part of it is
still desert. On either bank of the Ravi is a strip of riverain culti-
vation ; here inundation canals carry the water for varying distances
up to 23 miles, population is fairly thick, and cultivation good. South
of this tract stretches the Dhaia or central ridge of the District.
Absolutely bare in a dry season, this tract produces a good crop of
grass if the rains are plentiful. The head-quarters of the District arc
situated in the middle of it. The Dhaia is bounded on the south by
the high bank which marks the ancient bed of the Beas, south of
which is the Sutlej \alley, watered by the Khanwah and U[)per Sohag
canals of the Upper Sutlej Canal system. The Deg torrent enters
the District from Lahore, and after a course of 35 miles through the
Gugera tahsil flows into the Ravi.

Montgomery contains nothing of geological interest, being situated
entirely on the alluvium. The flora is essentially of the Bar or desert
type, Ja?id (Proso/'/s), vcvi {Salvadora), karl {Capparis aphylla)^ and
a tamarisk {Tamarix articnlata) abounding where the soil can support
them ; but wide stretches show nothing but saltworts {/ana, lani, &c.),
such as Haloxylon reairvioii, Sa/sola foetida, Siiaeda, (Src. The type
is, however, changing with the spread of cultivation. In the low
grounds near the Ravi there is a good deal of kikar {Acacia arabica),
which may possibly be indigenous in this part of the Punjab and
in Sind.

Wolves and wild cats are the principal beasts of prey. ' Ravine
deer' (Indian gazelle) are fairly numerous, but nilgai and antelope
are confined to the banks of the Ravi on the Lahore border. Wild
hog are becoming scarce as cultivation advances.

The climate is very dry and the temperature in summer is oppressive.
P'roni May to the middle of October, and especially in June and July,
the heat during the day is intense : but, except on the fretjuent occa-


siuns whtii heavy dust-storms blow, tlie nights are cumparatively cool.
The District is fairly healthy. Pneumonia is common in the winter,
caused by the intense cold and dryness of the air. Fevers are preva-
lent, as the majority of the population live along the banks of the
rivers and in the canal tracts.

The rainfall is generally scanty, the annual average ranging from
8 inches at Pakpattan to lo inches at Montgonier\- town. The average
number of rainy days is twenty-three between Ai)ril and October, and
eight during the winter.

In the time of Alexander the District of Montgomery appears to
have been held by the Malli, who occupied the cities of Kamai.ia
and Hakapp.\ taken by the Macedonian conqueror.
All that is known of its history during the next
.2,000 years is summarized in the paragraph on Archaeology and in
the articles on Pakpattan and'r. After the hold of the
Mughal empire had relaxed, the District was divided among a number
of independent tribes engaged in a per[)etual warfare with one another,
and with invaders belonging to the Sikh confederacies. 'J'he most
important of the Muhammadan tribes were the Kharrals, Sials, Wattus,
and Hans, while the Sikh Nakkais occupied a considerable part of
the District. Between 1804 and i8io Ranjit Singh obtained possession
of the whole District except a strip on the Sutlej, held, on payment
of tribute, by the Nawab of Bahawalpur, and occupied in default of
payment by the Lahore government in 1830. About 1830 all but
the Dipalpur tahsll and the cis-Ravi portion of Gugera was entrusted
to Dlwan Sawan Mai. The Kharrals and Sials took the opportunity of
the first Sikh War to rise against the Sikhs, but were suppressed. British
influence extended to the District for the first time in 1847, when an
officer, under orders from the Resident at Lahore, effected a sunnnary
settlement of the land revenue. Direct British rule commenced on
the annexation of the Punjab in 1849, when a District was formed