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with its head-quarters at Pakpattan, including as much of Montgomery
as now lies in the Bari Doab. The trans- Ravi portion of the District
was added in 1852, and the head-ijuarters were then moved to (jugera.
In 1865, when the railway was opened, a village on the railway, thence-
forward known as Montgomery, became the capital.

During the Mutiny of 1857 the District formed the scene of the
only rising which took place north of the Sutlej. liefore the end of
May, emissaries from Delhi crossed the river from Sirsa and Hissar,
where open rebellion was already rife, and met with a ready reception
from the Kharrals and other wild Jat clans. The District authorities,
however, kept down the threatened rising till August 26, when the
prisoners in jail made a desperate attempt to break loose. At the
same time Ahmad Khiin, a famous Kharral leader, who had been



POPULATION 411

detained at Gugera, broke his arrest, and, though apprehended, was
released on security, together with several other suspected chieftains.
On September 16 they fled to their homes, and the whole country
rose in open rebellion. Kot Kamalia was sacked; and Major Chamber-
lain, moving up with a small force from Multan, was besieged for some
days at Chichawatni on the Ravi. The situation at the civil station
remained critical till Colonel Paton arrived with substantial reinforce-
ments from Lahore. An attack which took place immediately after
their arrival was repulsed. Several minor actions followed in the open
field, until finally the rebels, driven from the plain into the wildest
jungles of the interior, were utterly defeated and dispersed. Our troops
then inflicted severe punishment on the insurgent clans, destroying
their villages, and seizing large numbers of cattle for sale.

Mounds of brick debris at Harappa, Kamalia, Akbar, Satghara,
and Bavanni mark the sites of forgotten towns. The coins found at
Harappa and Satghara prove that both were inhabited in the time of
the Kushan dynasty, while General Cunningham upholds the identity
of Kamalia and Harappa with cities of the Malli taken by Alexander
in 325 B.C. Carved and moulded bricks have been found at Bavanni
and Akbar, and it is not improbable that Harappa was one of the
places visited by Hiuen Tsiang. The fortified town of DTpalpur is
built on an old Kushan site. The fortifications themselves are very
ancient, though it is impossible to determine their date. All that can
be said is that they are older than the visit of Timur (1398). The
tomb of the famous saint Baba Farid, at Pakpattan, is supposed to
have been built about 1267 and was repaired by Firoz Shah. The
style is simple and destitute of ornament. There are shrines at
Shergarh and Hujra, decorated with floral designs and dating from
about 1600.

Montgomery District contains 3 towns and 1,371 villages. Its
population at the last four enumerations was: (1868) 360,445, (1881)
426,529, (1891) 499,521, and (1901) 497,706. In papulation
seasons of drought large numbers of people migrate
to the Chenab Colony, where their friends or relatives have obtained
grants ; but when there is a prospect of a good harvest they return to
their homes. The District is divided into four tahs'ils : Montgomery,
Gugera, Dipalpur, and Pakpattan, the head-quarters of which
are at the places from which each is named. The towns are the
municipalities of Montgomery, the head-quarters of the District,
Kamalia, and Pakpattan. The principal statistics of population in
1 90 1 are shown in the table on the next page.

Muhammadans number 355,892, or more than 72 per cent, of the
total; and there are 118,837 Hindus and 22,602 Sikhs. The density
of population is considerably below the average for the Punjab

VOL. XVII. D d



412



MONTGOMER V DISTRICT



(209 persons per square mile), and varies with the extent of cultivation
from 52 in the Montgomery tahsi / io 184 in Dipalpur. The decrease
of 18 per cent, in the Montgomery fahsJl is due almost entirely to
migration into the Chenab Colony. The language of the people is
a form of Western Punjabi, very much tinged by the Multanl dialect.



Tahsil.


u
3 .


Number of


Population.


t6


"l-S-^3._-





c
is






>


nl - ov

S.2 « l-v
S i: 3 > =

•^ a.


Number

persons ah

read an

write


Montgomery .
Gugera .
Dipalpur .
Pakpattan

District total


1,471
824
978

1,339


2

I


218
.341

458

354


76,573
119,622

179,735
121,776


52.1

145-2

183.8

90.8


- 18.2

+ 5-4
- 0.4
+ 8.8


4,732
3,907
6,378
4,046


4,771*


3


1,371


497,706


1044


- 0.4


19.063



* The only figures available for the areas of /a/isf/s are those derived from the
revenue returns, and the tahsil densities have been calculated on the areas given in
the revenue returns for iqoo-i. These returns do not always cover the whole of the
country comprised in a tahsil, and hence the total of the tahsil areas does not agree
with the District area as shown in the table above, which is the complete area as
calculated by the Survey department. The tracts not included in the revenue survey
are as a rule uninhabited or very sparsely populated.

Here, as in all the western Districts of the Punjab, where the
influence and example of the frontier races is strong, caste is little
more than a tradition, and the social unit is the tribe. Thus the
terms Jat and Rajput are of the most indefinite significance, Jat
including all pastoral or agricultural tribes who (being Muhammadans
of Indian origin) do not distinctly claim Rajput rank. The pastoral
clans inhabiting the District bear collectively the name of the ' Great
Ravi' tribes, in contradistinction to the purely agricultural classes,
who are contemptuously nicknamed the ' Little Ravi.' Their principal
subdivisions include the Kathia, who have been identified with the
Kathaeoi of Arrian ; the Kharral, the most turbulent and courageous
of all the clans ; together with the Fattiana, Murdana, Vainiwal,
Baghela, Wattu, and Johiya. The Great Ravi Jats possess a fine
physique, and have handsome features ; they lay claim to a Rajput
origin, and look down upon all who handle the plough. In former
days they exercised practical sovereignty over the agricultural tribes
of the lowlands. There were 56,000 persons returned as Jats and
53,000 as Rajputs in 1901. The Mahlams (12,000), Arains (34,000),
and Kambohs (23,000) are hard-working tribes, the two latter being,
as elsewhere, first-rate cultivators. The Kharral (21,000), Baloch
(13,000), and Khokhar (8,000) are chiefly pastoral. Brahmans
number only 4,000 and Saiyids 5,000. Aroras (51,000) are the
principal commercial tribe, and there are 5,000 Khaltrls and 10,000
Muhammadan Khojas. Of the artisan and menial classes, the chief



AGRICULTURE



413



are the Chuhras (scavengers, 31,000), Julahas (weavers, 23,000),
Kumhars (potters, 20,000), Machhis (fishermen and water-carriers,
18,000), Mochls (cobblers, 16,000), Nais (barbers, 7,000), Mirasis
(village minstrels, 9,000), Kassabs (butchers, 6,000), Sonars (gold-
smiths, 4,000), and Tarkhans (carpenters, 12,000). Chamars, so
common in the Eastern Punjab, are hardly represented. Nearly
50 per cent, of the population are supported by agriculture, 20 per cent.
by industries, and 5 per cent, by commerce.

A branch of the Reformed Presbyterian Mission was established at
Montgomery town in 1895. In 1901 the District contained 314 native
Christians.

The scanty and uncertain rainfall makes systematic cultivation in
unirrigated land precarious, and agriculture depends almost entirely
on artificial irrigation or river floods. The prevailing
soil of the District is loam, but sandy and clay soils
are also found ; soils impregnated with soda and other salts are not
uncommon. The spring harvest (which in 1903-4 occupied 69 per
cent, of the total area harvested) is sown from the middle of Sep-
tember to the middle of December; the autumn harvest is sown
chiefly in June, July, and August, except cotton, which is sown as
early as May.

The District is held chiefly by small peasant proprietors ; but large
estates cover about 491 square miles, and lands leased from Govern-
ment 220 square miles. The area for which details are available from
the revenue records of 1903-4 is 4,619 square miles, as shown
below : —



Agricultiire.



Tahstl.


Total.


Cultivated.


Irrigated.


Cultivable
waste.


Montgomery
Giigera
Dipalpur .
Pakpattan .

Total


1,472
S24
984

1,339


96

162
475
331


33
66

3."^ 5
196


230
203
300
260


4,619


1,064


. 650


995



About 837 square miles were harvested in 1903-4. Wheat is the
chief spring crop, covering 354 square miles ; gram and barley covered
89 and 19 square miles. In the autumn, cotton is the principal crop,
covering 64 square miles ; rice is the chief food-crop (27 square miles),
followed by the great and spiked millets, jowdr and bajra (22 and 26
square miles), pulses (18 square miles), and maize (16 square miles).

The cultivated area fluctuates violently from year to year according
to the rainfall and the amount of water in the rivers ; and the in-
creasing tendency to leave the District in bad years and to seek
employment in the Chenab Colony has already been mentioned. The

D d 2



414 MONTGOMERY DISTRICT

chief prospects of improvement in the agricultural conditions lie in
the direction of increased irrigation. The Sohag Para Colony, estab-
lished on Government lands irrigated by the canals of the Upper
SuTLEj Canal system, has a population of over 25,000, cultivating
about 21,000 acres. Loans for the construction of wells are popular,
and during the five years ending 1904 more than Rs. 22,000 was
advanced under the Land Improvement Loans Act. Nothing has
been done in the way of improving the quality of the crops grown.

Camels are the most important live-stock of the District, and a large
proportion of the population returned as agricultural earn their chief
livelihood by camel-breeding. The horses bred in the country on the
Lahore border had a great reputation in ancient times. The District
board now maintains two horse and two donkey stallions. The stud
farm of the nth Prince of Wales's Own Lancers is situated at
Probynabad in the Dipalpur tahsil. The District breeds all the cattle
it requires, and a considerable surplus is exported. The cows are
famous as the best milkers in the Province. Buffaloes are but
little used.

Of the total cultivated area in 1903-4, 650 square miles were
irrigated, 223 square miles being supplied from wells, 103 from wells
and canals, 307 from canals, and 17 from streams and tanks, in addition
to 190 square miles which were irrigated or moistened by inundation
from the Sutlej. Ten villages north of the Ravi are irrigated from the
Gugera branch of the Chenab Canal, which is designed to water
45 square miles ; but the chief canal-irrigation is near the Sutlej from
the Khanwah and Upper and Lower Sohag canals of the Upper
Sutlej Canal system, from which it is proposed to irrigate ultimately
about 400 square miles. Some small canals from the Deg and Ravi
serve a small area in the north of the District, and the spill water from
the Sutlej is controlled by dams and channels in many places. Except
in the riverain tracts, wells are of masonry and worked with Persian
wheels by cattle; the District has 11,546 masonry wells, besides
1,536 lever wells, water-lifts, and unbricked wells.

The District, which forms a Forest division, contains 87 square
miles of ' reserved ' and 703 of ' unclassed ' forests under the Forest
department. The forest growth consists chiefly of tamarisk [Tamarix
orientalis)^ Jand {Prosopis spicigera), leafless caper {Capparis aphylla\
and van {Sa/vadora oleoides), with a considerable crop of mttnj grass
{Sacchartim Sara). In 1903-4 the total receipts were 1-7 lakhs. The
wood is chiefly sold to the North-Western Railway for fuel, while the
forests afford valuable fodder reserves. The District also contains
1,804 square miles of 'unclassed' forests and Government waste under
the control of the Deputy-Commissioner.

The only mineral products are saltpetre and some beds of inferior



FAMINE 415

kankar or nodular limestone. Okara contains an important saltpetre

refinery. Impure carbonate of soda is also produced by burning the

weed known as khangan khdr {Chloroxyloti Griffithii).

Various articles, such as bed-legs, boxes, toys, spinning-wheels, &c.,

are made of lacquered woodwork at Pakpattan, and the industry has

more than a local celebrity. The cotton fabrics of

1 r 1 1- J A Trade and

the same place are of good quality, and very good communications.

cotton prints are prepared at Kamalia. Cotton

carpets are made at Kamalia and in the Central jail ; and carpets, both

cotton and woollen, are woven at an orphanage at Chak Baba Khem

Singh established by Baba Sir Khem Singh Bedi. Vessels of brass and

white metal are made in a few places. Silk is used to a small extent

for embroidery, and in the manufacture of lutigis. There are four

cotton-cleaning factories in the District, at Montgomery, Dipalpur,

and Okara. The three which were working in 1904 gave employment

to 86 persons.

The principal exports are wheat, cotton, oilseeds, wool, hides, and
ghi ; and the principal imports are millets, rice, sugar, cloth, hardware,
and piece-goods. Wheat, wool, cotton, and oilseeds go chiefly to
Karachi. Kamalia and Pakpattan are the only trading towns of
importance.

The North-Western Railway from Lahore to Multan runs through
the District, and takes practically all the export and import trade. The
District has only 5 miles of metalled road ; but as there is no wheeled
traffic the want is not felt, and it is traversed in all directions by broad
unmetalled roads, the most important being the trunk road from Lahore
to Multan, and that from Jhang via Pakpattan to the Sutlej, which is a
great route for caravans from Afghanistan bound to Delhi. The total
length of unmetalled roads is 1,079 miles, of which 25 are under the
Public Works department, and the rest are maintained by the District
board. The Ravi is crossed by fourteen and the Sutlej by ten ferries,
but there is practically no traffic up and down these rivers.

The great famines of 1783, 1813, and 1833 all affected this District,
while the famine of 1 860-1 was severely felt, and there was considerable
distress in 1896-7. Owing to the extremely small
proportion of cultivation depending on rainfall, real
famine such as occurs from a total or partial failure of the crops is not
likely to affect the District ; but, on the other hand, the effect of the
shortage of fodder for the cattle is most serious, as large numbers
die, and with the half-starved animals that remain it is impossible to
plough and irrigate more than half the area that can be cultivated in
a good year. The area matured in the famine year 1 899-1 900
amounted to 65 per cent, of the normal.

The District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, with three



4i6 MOXTGOMERY DISTRICT

Assistant or Extra-Assistant Commissioners, one of whom is in
charge of the treasury and another is District Judge. Montgomery is
. . . also the head-quarters of the Executive Engineer in
charge of the Upper Sutlej Canals, and the Extra-
Assistant Conservator in charge of the Montgomery Forest division.

The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible
for criminal justice, and civil judicial work is under the District
Judge. Both are supervised by the Divisional Judge of the Multan
Civil Division, who is also Sessions Judge. There is one Munsif,
who sits at head-quarters. Burglary and cattle-theft are the chief
forms of crime.

The first summary settlement, made between 1848 and 185 1, was
based on a scrutiny of the revenue returns of the Sikhs. The main
defect of the assessment was its inequality of distribution. A second
summary settlement was completed in 1852, and local knowledge
was then available to adjust the demand to the varying capacity
and resources of estates with a considerable degree of fairness.
The regular settlement was begun by Mr. Vans Agnew in 1852, and
completed by Captain Elphinstone in 1856. Mr. Vans Agnew pro-
posed a fluctuating assessment on land irrigated by canals or floods,
but it was finally decided to impose a water-rent. This was to be
paid for all canal-irrigated land, in addition to the ordinary revenue
assessed at rates for unirrigated land ; but remissions could be claimed
if the supply of water failed. The total demand so fixed amounted
to 3-4 lakhs.

The settlement was revised between 1868 and 1872. A system of
fixed assessments was continued in the Ravi tahslls (Gugera and
Montgomery), the revenue consisting of a lump sum for each well
in use (Rs. 8-12), a charge of from 8 annas to R. i per acre on
all cultivation, and a rate on all new fallow of 4 or 6 annas per
acre. In 1879 fluctuating assessments were introduced in the riverain
villages of this tract. All cultivable land was assessed at a fixed rate
of I or I ^ annas an acre, and a charge of Rs. 10 per wheel was levied
on each well worked during the year, while, in addition, fluctuating
crop rates were framed for different forms of irrigation, varying
from Rs. i-io to R. 0-12 per acre. Experience showed that the
new system pressed hardly on the flood lands, and the rates were
modified three times before 1886. In 1887 a still more lenient system
was adopted, which practically assessed all crops at R. i an acre. This
was extended to an increasing number of estates, so that by 1892-3
364 villages were under fluctuating assessments, and the demand had
fallen from Rs. 85,000 to Rs. 31,000. In 1891 the Ravi tahslls again
came under settlement. A fixed demand was imposed on wells, deter-
mined by the area it was estimated they could irrigate during the



ADMINISTRATION 417

year. All crops actually maturing on areas supplied by wells in excess
of this estimate were liable to assessment at a rate per acre which was
the same for all crops, though it varied in different tracts. The result
of reassessment in the Ravi tahslls was an increase of a quarter of
a lakh.

The system adopted at the regular settlement was no more successful
in the Sutlej tahslls (Pakpattan and Dipalpur). It was found that the
people wasted water, for which they were paying next to nothing, and
the canal tracts were not yielding their fair share of the public burdens.
It was therefore decided to adopt Mr. Vans Agnew's original proposals
in carrying out the revised settlement. Thus the fixed revenue of a
village consisted of the amount which would have been assessed if it
had no source of irrigation, plus a charge for each well it contained.
In addition, villages taking canal water had to pay separately a sum
I)roportionate to the area of crops matured by its means, as calcu-
lated by the canal officer. The new Sohag Para Colony, established in
1888-91, was also placed under a fluctuating assessment. Consolidated
rates for land revenue and canal water were imposed, varying from
Rs. 3-4 to Rs. I- 1 2 per cultivated acre for irrigated land, while
a uniform rate of 12 annas was imposed on 'dry' land. The total
assessment of the two Sutlej tahsils for the year preceding the latest
settlement (1897-8) was 2-2 lakhs. The latest revision was made
between 1894 and 1899 ; and the new demand, including the estimated
fluctuating revenue, was 3-5 lakhs, representing 40 per cent, of the net
'assets.' The land revenue of the whole District in the current settle-
ment is thus about 5 lakhs, an increase of 47 per cent, on the previous
assessment.

The grazing tax {tirni) is an inheritance from the Sikhs. Captain
Elphinstone imposed it on all cattle, including well-bullocks. In 1857
the tax produced Rs. 32,000, in 1872 Rs. 1,08,000, in 1881 Rs. 48,000.
In 1870 Government waste lands were divided into blocks and leased
annually to farmers, who then realized grazing dues at fixed rates for
all cattle grazing in their respective blocks. This system, however,
led to extortion and was given up in 1879. In 1886 the Multan system
was introduced, by which each //>«z'-paying village contracted to pay a
fixed annual sum for a period of five years. In March, 1891, the sum
for the succeeding five years was fixed at Rs. 1,41,000. The coloni-
zation of the Sandal Bar seriously curtailed the grazing grounds, and
in 1899 the system was again altered. The quinquennial assessment
was retained for camels only, and the grazing for cattle, sheep, &c., was
auctioned annually in large blocks. The amount realized under the
new system in 1903-4 was Rs. 46,000.

The collections of land revenue and of revenue from all sources have
been, in thousands of rupees : —



4i8



MONTGOMER V DISTRICT





1880-1.


1890-1.


1900-1.


1903-4.


Land revenue .
Total revenue .


4.87

6,82


5,36
6,62


3,41
5,18


4,19
6,54



The District contains three nuinicipahties : Montgomery, Kamalia,
and Pakpattan. Outside these, the affairs of the District are managed
by a District board, whose income, derived mainly from a local rate,
amounted in 1903-4 to Rs. 50,000. The expenditure was Rs. 43,000,
schools and dispensaries forming the largest items.

The regular police force consists of 449 of all ranks, of whom 21
are municipal police. The Superintendent usually has 4 inspectors
under him. The village watchmen number 584. There are 17 police
stations, one outpost, and 5 road-posts. Trackers are enlisted in the
District police force, and one is kept at each police station. They
often render most valuable assistance in the pursuit of criminals and
stolen cattle. The combined Central and District jail at head-quarters
has accommodation for 1,522 prisoners. The principal jail manu-
factures are carpets, matting, and cotton and woollen clothing.

Montgomery stands thirteenth among the twenty-eight Districts of
the Province in the literacy of its population, of whom 3-8 per cent.
(6'7 males and 0-4 females) are able to read and write. The pro-
portion is highest in the Montgomery tahs'il. The number of pui)ils
under instruction was : 1,505 in 1 880-1 ; 3,371 in 1890-1 ; 3,097 in
1900-1; and 3,824 in 1903-4. In the last year there were 5
secondary and 37 primary (public) schools, and 2 advanced and 116
elementary (private) schools, with 125 girls in the public and 128 in
the private schools. The District possesses two high schools, one the
(iovernment high school at Montgomery and the other a private school
at Kamalia. 'i"he total expenditure on education in 1903-4 was
Rs. 23,000, of which fees brought in Rs. 8,000, District and niunicij)al
funds contributing Rs, 10,000 and Rs. 3,000 respectively.

Besides the civil hospital at Montgomery town, the District possesses
six outlying dispensaries. In 1904 the number of cases treated was
91,816, of whom 1,859 were in-patients, and 3,649 operations were
performed. The expenditure was Rs. 15,000, chiefly contributed by
municipal funds.

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was
^3j398> representing 29-9 per r,ooo of the population.

[P. J. Fagan, District Gazetteer (1898-9); and Settlement Report
(1899).]

Montgomery Tahsil.— 7'rt//^?7 of Montgomery District, Punjab,
lying between 30° 16' and 31° 2' N. and 72° 27' and 73° 26' E., on
both banks of the Ravi, with an area of 1,472 square miles. The



MONYO 419

population in 1901 was 76,573, compj^red with 93,648 in 1891, the
decrease being due to migration into the Chenab Colony. It contains
the towns of Montgomery (population, 6,602), the head-quarters, and
Kamalia (6,976); and 218 villages. The land revenue and cesses
in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 78,000. The greater part of the tahsil is
uncultivated. It includes on the south a narrow strip of the Sutlej
valley, from which it rises abruptly into the desert uplands lying between
the old banks of the Beas and the Ravi, Farther north lie the Ravi
lowlands, interspersed with great stretches of jungle, and, beyond the
river, sloping gently upwards towards the fertile plateau irrigated by
the Chenab Canal. Cultivation is confined to the lands along the river,
and a few scattered patches round the wells elsewhere. The scanty
cultivation accounts for the low density of population, 52 persons per
sfjuare mile.

Montgomery Town. — Head-quarters of the District and tahstl of
the same name, Punjab, situated in 30° 39' N. and 73° 8' E., on the
North-Western Railway. Population (1901), 6,602. In 1865 the village
of Sahlwal was selected as the head-quarters of the District and re-
named after Sir Robert Montgomery, then Lieutenant-Governor of the



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