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and the still uncultivated Bar lies a tract of country irrigated by inun-
dation canals from the Sutlej. The population in 1901 was 109,727,
compared with 106,050 in 1891. It contains 332 villages, including
Mailsi, the head-quarters. The land revenue and cesses in 1903-4
amounted to 2-1 lakhs.

Maimana. — Head-quarters of the district of the same name in
Afghan-Turkistan, situated in 35° 55' N. and 64° 46' E.; 2,860 feet above
the sea. The town, which is a large one as far as area is concerned,
the circuit of its walls equalling that of Herat, comprises about 3,000
houses and 233 shops, but has a generally deserted and decayed look.
There are no important industries, the manufactures being limited to
barak and hirk (both woollen fabrics), and a coarse blue cotton cloth.
The principal articles of trade are Bokhara and Meshed silk, Russian
leather, and printed cotton goods, English cotton cloth, velvets, tea,
indigo, and hardware ; and the usual agricultural products of the
country — wheat, barley, tobacco, and dried fruits. Maimana derives
such importance as it possesses from being the place of exchange for
goods brought from Herat, Kandahar, and Meshed on one side, from
Kabul and Balkh on another, and from Bokhara and Andkhui on the
third. The population is chiefly Uzbeg, but representatives of every
race in Central Asia and Afghanistan are to be found in the bazars.
Until the reign of Amir Abdur Rahman Khan, Maimana maintained
a semi-independence under its own chiefs; but in 1883-4 the AmTr
dispatched a force to bring it under subjection, and Dilawar Khan, the
chief, surrendered and was sent to Kabul. The Amir at first appointed
a member of the chiefs family as Wall, with very restricted powers, the
real control resting in the hands of an Afghan Resident. In 1892 the
tribal levies and inhabitants of the Maimana district broke into
rebellion, which Abdur Rahman soon suppressed ; the Wall was
removed, and Maimana has since been treated as an ordinary Afghan
district.

Maimansingh. — District, subdivision, and town in Eastern Bengal
and Assam. See Mymensingh.

Maindargi. — Head-quarters of the tahika of the same name in the
Kurandvad State, Bombay, situated in 17° 28' N. and 76° 20' E.
Population (1901), 6,153. I^ is administered as a municipality, with
an income of about Rs. 400. Weaving of coarse cloth and blankets
is carried on.

Maingkaing. — North-eastern township of the Upper Chindwin
District, Upper Burma, comprising the basin of the Uyu river, and



MAINPURI DISTRICT 33

lying between 24° 22' and 25*^ 48° N. and 94^ 41' and 96*= 20' E., wiih
an area of 4,665 square miles. The population, which is almost wholly
Shan, amounted approximately l(j 11,000 in 1891, and to 23,303 in
1901, distributed in 248 villages. Maingkaing (population, 470), on
the Uyu river, about 30 miles from its mouth, is the head-quarters.
The population is confined to the banks of the Uyu and a few of its
tributaries. Except for a few patches of level ground near the Uyu,
the whole country is a maze of hills. The greater part of the township
is dense jungle, and is exceedingly unhealthy. The area cultivated in
1903-4 was 29 square miles, and the land revenue and tJiathameda
amounted to Rs. 39,000.

Maini. — Town in the Khatao tdhika of Satara District, Bombay.
Sec Mayni.

Mainpat. — A magnificent table-land in the Surguja State, Central
Provinces, 18 miles long and 6 to 8 miles broad, lying between 22° 46'
and 22° 54' N. and 83° 8' and 83° 24' E. It rises to a height of 3,781
feet above the sea and forms the southern barrier of the State. From
the southern face of the plateau, which is mainly composed of gneiss
and ironstone, long spurs strike out into the plains of Udaipur, while
the northern side is a massive wall of sandstone, indented like a coast-
line with isolated bluffs standing up in front of the cliffs from which
they have been parted. The plateau is well watered throughout, and
affords, during the summer months, abundant grazing for the cattle of
Mirzapur and Bihar.

Mainpuri District. — District in the Agra Division, United Pro-
vinces, lying between 26° 53' and 27° 31' N. and 78° 27' and 79° 26' E.,
with an area of 1,675 square miles. It is bounded on the north by
Etah ; on the east by Farrukhabad ; on the south by Etawah and Agra;
and on the west by Agra and Etah, The whole District forms a level
plain, and variations in its physical features are chiefly due to the rivers

which flow across it or along its boundaries, generally , . ,

Physical
from north-west to south-east. The Jumna, which asoects

forms part of the southern boundary, is fringed by
deep ravines, extending two miles from the river, incapable of culti-
vation, but affording good pasturage for cattle, as well as safe retreats
for the lawless herdsmen or Ahirs. North-east flow, in succession, the
Sirsa, the Aganga, the Sengar, the Arind or Rind, the Isan, and the
Kali Nadi (East), which last forms the greater part of the northern
boundary. A well-defined sandy ridge lies in the west of the District,
and a range of sandhills follows the course of the Kali NadT, a little
inland. Shallow lakes or marshes abound over the whole area, but are
most common in the central table-land, in which are many large
stretches of barren soil called usar.

The soil consists entirely of Gangetic alluvium ; but kankar is abun-



34 MAIXPURI DISTRICT

dant, iDoth in nodular and block form. Saline efllorescences occur in
many parts.

The flora presents no peculiarities. The District is well wooded, and
extensive groves of mango and shisham {^Dalhergia Sissoo) abound.
The great dhak jungles {Butea frondosa) which formerly studded the
District have been largely cut away. Babul {Acacia arabica) is common.
The weed haistn'i {Pluchea lanceolata) is a pest in the west, and kdns
{Sacc/ia?-itm spimtaneiim) is sometimes troublesome in the sandy soil
to the north-east.

There are few wild animals in the District. Antelope occur in some
numbers, and nilgai in the dhak jungles. Leopards and hyenas are
found in the Jumna ravines, and wolves everywhere. Pigeons, water-
fowl, and quail are common. Fish are plentiful, and the right of fishing
in the rivers and tanks is often valuable.

The climate of Mainpurl is that of the Doab generally. It is hot,
but not excessively sultry during the summer months. The annual
rainfall averages 31 inches, and the tract near the Jumna receives
slightly more than the rest. Variations from year to year are con-
siderable.

Nothing definite is known of the early history of Mainpurl, though
mounds concealing ancient ruins are common. A few places are, as
usual, connected with episodes in the Mahabharata.
The first precise notice of the District, however, is
found in the records of its Muhammadan invaders. In 1194 RaprI
was made the seat of a Musalman governor, and continued to be
the local head-quarters under many successive dynasties. During the
vigorous rule of Sultan Bahlol (1450-88) Mainpuri and Etawah formed
a debatable ground between the powers of Delhi and Jaunpur, to both
of which they .supplied mercenary forces. After the firm establishment
of the Lodi princes, Rapri remained in their hands until the invasion of
the Mughals. Babar occupied it in 1526, and Etawah also came into
his hands without a blow. RaprI was wrested from the Mughals for
a while by the Afghan, Kutb Khan, son of Sher Shah, who adorned it
with many noble buildings, the remains of which still exist. On the
return of Humayun, the Mughals once more occupied Mainpurl.
Akbar included it in the sarkdrs of Kanauj and Agra. The same
vigorous ruler also led an expedition into the District for the purpose
of suppressing the robber tribes by whom it was infested. During the
long ascendancy of the line of Babar the Musalmans made little
advance in Mainpuri. A few Muhammadan ftunilies obtained posses-
sions in the District, but a very small proportion of the natives accepted
the faith of Islam. Under the successors of Akbar RaprI fell into
cornparative insignificance, and the surrounding country became sub-
ordinate to Etawah.



POPULA TION



35



Like the rest of the (Central Doab, Mainpurl passed towards the end
of the eighteenth century into the i)o\ver of the Marathas, and finally
became a portion of the province of Oudh. When the region was
ceded to the British by the Nawab of Oudh in 1801, MainpurT was
made the head-quarters of the extensive District of Etawah. A\'ith the
exception of a raid by Holkar in 1804, which was repulsed by the
provincial militia, there are no events of importance to recount during
the early years of British supremacy. Its unwieldy size was gradually
reduced by the formation of Etah and Etawah as separate Districts.
The construction of the Ganges Canal was the only striking event
between the cession and the Mutiny of 1857.

News of the outbreak at Meerut reached Mainpurl on May 12; and
on the 22nd, after tidings of the Aligarh revolt had arrived at the
station, the 9th Infantry rose in open mutiny. The few Europeans at
Mainpurl gallantly defended the town till the 29th, when the arrival
of the Jhansi rebels made it necessary to abandon the District entirely.
The Magistrate and his party were accompanied as far as Shikohabad
by the Gwalior troopers, who then refused to obey orders, but quietly
rode off home without molesting their officers. The fugitives reached
Agra in safety. Next day the Jhansi force attacked the town, but was
beaten off by the well-disposed inhabitants. The District remained in
the hands of the rebel Raja of Mainpurl, who held it till the re-
occupation, when he quietly surrendered himself, and order was at
once restored.

There are 8 towns and 1,380 villages. Population has fluctuated
during the last thirty years. Between 1881 and 1891 excessive floods
threw much land out of cultivation ; but the seasons
in the following decade were more favourable. The
number of inhabitants at the last four enumerations was: (1872)
765>845> (1881) 801,216, (1891) 762,163, and (1901) 829,357. The
density of population is below the average of the western plain. The
District is divided into five tahslls — Mainpuri, Bhoxgaox, Karhal,
Shikohabad, and Mustaf.^bad — the head-quarters of which (except
that of Mustafabad, which is at Jasrana) are at places of the same
names. The principal town is the municipality of Mainpuri. The
table on the next page gives the chief statistics of population in 1901.

About 93 per cent, of the population are Hindus, and less than 6 per
cent. Musalmans, a very low proportion for the United Provinces.
Western Hind! is spoken almost universally, the prevailing dialect
being Braj.

The most numerous Hindu castes are Ahirs (graziers and culti-
vators), 143,000; Chamars (tanners and labourers), 107,000; Kachhis
(cultivators), 68,000 : Brahmans, 68,000 ; and Rajputs, 68,000. Among
Musalmans the chief tribes or castes are Shaikhs, 8,100; Pathans,



36



MAINPURI DISTRICT



6,600; Fakirs, 5,700; and Behna.s (cotton-carders), 5,200. Agriculture
supports 70 per cent, of the population, a high proportion ; general
labour 6 per cent., and personal service 6 per cent.



Tahsil.


Area in square
miles.


Number of


c



%
"a
a.


u

Pi


Percentageof
variation in

population be-
tween 1891
and IQOI.


Number of

persons able to

read and

write.


c


1
a

>


Mainpuri .
Bhont^aon .
Knrhkl
Shikohabad
Mustafabad


386

4.^9
218
294
.^18


1

I

2

1


249

.^90
189
287
265


183,180

226,940

98,398

I.S7.6.S9
163,180


475
494
451
636
513


+ 7-0

+ l6-2

- 1.9

+ 12-5

+ 5-1


5,327
5.832
2.3S6

3,792
2,241


District total


1,675


8


1,380


829,357


495


+ 8.8


19,578



Agriculture.



There were only 308 native Christians in 1901, of whom 196 were
Methodists and 45 Presbyterians. The American Presbyterian Church
commenced work here in 1843.

The District is divided by its rivers into three tracts of varying
qualities. On the north-east the area between the Isan and the Kali
Nadi is composed of light sandy soil called d/iur,
with here and there loam, especially near the west,
where these two rivers are farthest apart. Between the Isan and Sirsa
lies the garden of the District, a rich tract of fertile loam, interspersed
with many .shallow lakes, patches of barren iisar land, and occasional
jungle. The third tract, commencing a little south of the Sengar, has
some sandy stretches, but is much better than the north-eastern tract,
and as far as the Sirsa little inferior to the central tract. South of
the Sirsa the soil deteriorates ; there are no J/ii/s and no f/sar; the land
is not so rich, and irrigation is scantier, the spring-level sinking rapidly
as the Jumna ravines are approached.

The District contains the usual tenures of the Provinces, but zatnln-
dd7-i and patilddri are more common than bhaiyachdrd mahdls. There
is one large talukddri estate belonging to the Raja of Mainpuri, which
is described separately. The main agricultural statistics are given on
the next page, in square miles.

The chief food-crops, with the area under each (in square miles),
are: wheat {220), joivdr (122), barley (no) bdjra (100), and gram (90).
Poppy and cotton are the most important non-food crops, covering
28 and 39 square miles respectively.

No improvements can be noted in agricultural practice, except the
increase in the area double cropped, and in the area under wheat,
maize, and poppy. A steady demand exists for advances under the
Agriculturists' and Land Improvement Loans Acts, which aggregated
1-3 lakhs during the ten years ending 1900. One-third of this sum



TRAl^E AND COMMUNICATIONS



37



was advanced in the famine year 1896-7. The loans in 1903-4
amounted to Rs. 4,500. In the central and part of the south-western
tract drainage was defective and has recently been improved, especially
in the latter, where the 15hognipur bnmch of the Lower Ganges Canal
had caused some obstruction.



Taksil.


Total.


Cultivated.


Irrigated.


Cultivable
waste.


Mainpurl .
Bhongaon .
Karhal
Shikohabad
Mustafabad

Total


386

459
21S
294
318


260

no

196

iSi


152
205
lOI

160

lOI


50
61
27

44
26


i>675


926


719


208



Note. — These figures are for various years from igcK) to 1903, later figures
not being available.

The cattle are of the ordinary inferior type, though a little success
has been achieved in improving the strain by imported bulls. Some-
thing has also been done to improve the breed of horses, and stallions
have been kept here for many years. In 1870 an attempt was made,
without success, to improve the breed of sheep. The best goats are
imported from west of the Jumna. Sirsaganj is the great cattle market.

Mainpurl is well supplied by canal-irrigation in almost every portion,
and 900 square miles are commanded. In the latest years for which
statistics are available, out of 719 square miles irrigated canals supplied
266. The central tract is served by the Cawnpore and Etawah branches
of the Lower Ganges Canal, which originally formed part of the Upper
Ganges Canal. The tract north-east of the Isan is served by the Bewar
branch, and part of that south-west of the Sengar and Sirsa by the
BhognTpur branch. The last tract is perhaps that in which irrigation
is most defective. Wells .supplied 396 square miles, and other sources,
chiefly small streams, 57. Towards the Jumna, and in the sandy tracts,
wells cannot be constructed easily.

Kajikar is found abundantly in both block and nodular form. The
only other mineral product of the District is saltpetre, which is largely
manufactured from saline efflorescences.

The District has few arts or manufactures. Glass bangles are made
from ?-eh. Wood-carving was once popular in many parts, including
a peculiar variety in which the wood is inlaid with
brass or silver wire. There is one cotton-gin at
Shikohabad, another was recently built at Mainpurl,
and a third is working at Sirsaganj. Indigo is still made in twenty-
three factories, which employ about 1,000 hands.

The chief exports are wheat and other grains, oilseeds, hides, and
cotton ; and the imports arc salt, metals, piece-goods, sugar, tobacco.



Trade and
communications.



38 MAINPURI DISTRICT

and rice. The trade is largely with Cawnpore, but sugar comes from
Rohilkhand and tobacco from Farrukhabad. Some traffic is carried
by the canal.

The East Indian Railway crosses the south-western corner, and
a branch line, recently constructed, connects Shikohabad with Mainpurl
and Farrukhabad, thus traversing the District from west to east. There
are 197 miles of metalled and 200 miles of unmetalled roads. The
Public Works department has charge of the former; the cost of all
but 83 miles of the metalled and of all the unmetalled roads is met
from Local funds. Avenues of trees are maintained on 102 miles.
Few Districts in the Provinces are so well supplied with roads, and
only in the south-west are communications defective. The grand
trunk road passes through the north-west, with a branch to Agra
through Mainpurl town, which is also connected by metalled roads
with the surrounding Districts.

Mainpurl suffered severely in 1837-8, when extensive remissions of
revenue were necessary, but nothing more was done to relieve distress.
In 1 860-1 relief works were opened and 4,000 able-
bodied persons worked daily, besides 4,600 who
received gratuitous relief In 1868 the situation was saved by timely
rain, and grain was actually exported. Distress was felt in 1877-8,
especially in the south-west of the District, where canal-irrigation was
not available, and relief works had to be opened. In 1896-7 prices
were high, but 2,000 temporary wells were made from Government
advances, besides 12,000 constructed from private capital, and distress
was confined to the immigrants from Rajputana. A test work attracted
only a daily average of 100 persons. The four branches of the canal
now make the District practically immune.

The ordinary District staff includes the Collector, and four Deputy-
Collectors recruited in India. There is a tahsildar at the head-quarters

of each tahs'il. Mainpurl is also the head-quarters

Administration. ^ „ .• t- ■ • 1 r r • • r

of an Executive Engineer in charge of a division of

the Lower Ganges Canal, and of an officer of the Opium department.

There are two regular Munsifs. The District and Sessions Judge
of Mainpurl and the Sub-Judge exercise jurisdiction also over Etawah
District. Crime is of the usual nature, but outbreaks of dacoity are
frequent. Cattle-theft is not uncommon, and offences against the
opium law are numerous. Mainpurl has long held a bad reputation
for female infanticide, and 21,082 persons were still under surveillance
in 1904, by far the largest number in any District of the United
Provinces.

In 1 80 1 Mainpurl became the head-quarters of the District of
Etawah, which then included, besides the present District, parts
of Farrukhabad, Agra, Etah, and Etawah. In 1803 large additions



ADMimSTRA TION



39



were made, and in 1824 four subdivisions were formed, the Mainpuri
portion remaining under the Collector of Etawah, who still resided
at Mainpuri. The District began to take its present form in 1837.
Early settlements were for short periods, and were based on the records
of previous collections and on a system of competition, preference,
however, being given to the hereditary zamlnddrs, if they came forward.
The first regular settlement was made in 1839-40, when a revenue
of 12-5 lakhs was fixed. This assessment was, as it turned out,
excessive, owing to the failure to allow for the after-effects of the
famine of 1837-8; and it was reduced in 1845-6 to 10-5 lakhs, rising
gradually to 11-4 lakhs in 1850-1. The next settlement was made
between 1866 and 1873. Soils were marked off on the village map by
actual inspection, and the rents payable for each class of soil were
ascertained. The revenue assessed amounted to rather less than half
the ' assets ' calculated by applying these rates, and was fixed at
12-8 lakhs. In 1877, owing to floods, mainly along the Kali Nadi, the
settlement of seventy villages was revised. Between 1883 and 1887
serious injury from floods again occurred along the Kali NadT, and
kdfis grass spread, while in the south the new Bhognipur branch of
the canal had caused damage. The revenue was reduced by about
Rs. 19,000. The present demand falls at an incidence of Rs. 1-5
per acre, varying from little more than 8 annas to nearly Rs. 1-12.
A revision of settlement has just been completed.

Collections on account of land revenue and total revenue are
given below, in thousands of rupees : —





1 880- 1.


i8go-i.


1 900- 1.


1903-4.


Land revenue
Total revenue


12,60
14,46


12,23
16,95


17.91


12,44
18,31



Besides the single nmnicipality (jf Mainpuri, there are seven towns
administered under Act XX of 1856. Outside these, local affairs are
managed by the District board, which has an income of about a lakh,
chiefly derived from rates. In 1903-4 the largest item of expenditure
was Rs. 81,000 on roads and buildings.

The District Superintendent of police has a force of 4 inspectors,
83 subordinate officers, and 340 men, besides 102 municipal and town
police, and 1,859 ''^'"al and road police. A sub-inspector and 11 head
constables are specially maintained in connexion with the surveillance
of villages where female infanticide is belie\ed to be prevalent. There
are 15 police stations. The District jail contained a daily average
of 293 prisoners in 1903.

Mainpuri takes a very low place in respect of literacy. In 1901 only
2-4 per cent, of the [)opulation (4-2 males and 0-2 females) could



40 MAIXPURI DISTRICT

read and wTite. The number of public schools fell from 151 in 1881
to 133 in 1 90 1, but the number of pupils rose from 4,146 to 4,851.
In 1903-4 there were 153 public schools with 5,151 pupils, of whom
173 were girls, besides 82 private schools with 811 pupils. Three
of the public schools are managed by Government, and most of the
remainder by the District or municipal boards. In 1903-4, out of a
total expenditure on education of Rs. 38,000, Local funds contributed
Rs. 32,000 and fees Rs, 3,000.

There are 8 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for
36 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 47,000, of
whom 772 were in-patients, and 1,920 operations were performed.
The expenditure in the same year was Rs. 8,200, chiefly met from
Local funds.

About 25,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, repre-
senting 30 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination is compulsory only
in the municipality of Mainpuri.

[M. A. McConaghey and D. M. Smeaton, Settlement Report {iZ-]^) ;
District Gazetteer (1876, under revision).]

Mainpuri Tahsil. — Central northern tahs'il of Mainpuri District,
United Provinces, comprising the parganas of Mainpuri, Ghiror, and
KuraulT, and lying between 27° 5' and 27° 28' N. and 78° 42' and
79° 5' E., with an area of 386 square miles. Population increased
from 171,152 in 1891 to 183,180 in 1901. There are 249 villages and
three towns, Mainpuri (population, 19,000), the District and tahsil
head-quarters, being the largest. The demand for land revenue in
1903-4 was Rs. 2,24,000, and for cesses Rs. 36,000. The density of
population, 475 persons per square mile, is slightly below the District
average. The tahsil is bounded on the north by the Kali Nadi, and
is also crossed by the Isan and its tributary the Kaknadiya, and by the
Arind. Near the KaU Nadi lies a considerable area of sandy soil or
bhiir ) but most of the tahsil consists of fertile loam, in which some
large swamps or jhlls, now partly drained, and patches of i^isar or
barren land alone break the uniformly rich cultivation. Three branches
of the Lower Ganges Canal provide ample means of irrigation. In
1900-1 the area under cultivation was 179 square miles, of which 152
were irrigated. Wells supply about half the irrigated area, canals one-
third, and tanks ox J hi Is most of the remainder.

Mainpuri Estate. — A talukddri estate in the District of the same
name, United Provinces, with an area of 89 square miles. The rent-
roll for 1903-4 amounted to more than a lakh, and the revenue and
cesses payable to Government by the estate were Rs. 58,000. The
Raja of Mainpuri is regarded as the head of the Chauhan Rajputs in
the Doab. He traces descent to the renowned Prithwi Raj of Delhi,
who fell before Muhammad Ghori in 1192. According to tradition.