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Punjab. Situated in the most arid and dreary part of the uplands
between the Ravi and Sutlej, the station is almost unequalled for dust,
heat, and general dreariness, but is not unhealthy. It has no commer-
cial or industrial importance, and merely consists of a bazar and the
residences of the District officials. The Central jail situated here
usually contains about 1,500 prisoners. The municipality was consti-
tuted in 1867. Its income and expenditure during the ten years ending
1902-3 averaged Rs. 13,100. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 16,600,
chiefly derived from octroi and school fees ; and the expenditure was
Rs. 15,200. It maintains a girls' school and a dispensary. The high
school is managed by the Educational department. The town contains
two factories for ginning cotton, of which one was working in 1904 and
gave employment to 37 persons.

Monwel. —Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay.

Monyo.— Western township of Tharrawaddy District, Lower Burma,
lying between 17° 51' and 18° 21' N. and 95° 15' and 95° 38' E., with
an area of 182 square miles. It extends along the eastern bank of the
Irrawaddy, and is flat and level throughout. It is the only township
of the District not traversed by the railway. The population was
34,648 in 1891, and 39,964 in 1901. The density is 219 persons per
square mile, which, for Burma, is high. The township contained 172
villages in 1901, its largest urban area being ]\Ionyo (population, 3,042),
the head-quarters, situated on what was once the bank of the Irrawaddy
but now some distance from the stream. The area cultivated in 1903-4
was 55 square miles, paying Rs. 33,000 land revenue.



420 MOXVJVA SUBDIVISION

Monywa Subdivision. — Subdivision of the Lower Chindwin Dis-
trict, Upper Burma, lying east of the Chindwin river. It comprises
the BuDALiN and Monvwa townships.

Monywa Township. — South-eastern township of the Lower Chin-
dwin District, Upper Burma, lying between 21° 55' and 22° 21' N. and
95° 3' and 95° 39' E., from the Mu river in the east to the Chindwin
river in the west, with an area of 487 square miles. The population
was 71,971 in 1891, and 90,164 in 1901, distributed in 297 villages, and
one town, Monywa (population, 7,869), the head-quarters of the Dis-
trict. The township head-quarters are at Alon (population, 3,624), the
terminus of the Sagaing-Alon branch railway, on the Chindwin, about
7 miles above Monywa. Trade has greatly increased since the annexa-
tion, and communications have been largely improved. The township,
which is on the whole level and dry, contained 191 square miles under
cultivation in 1903-4, and the land revenue and thathajiieda amounted
to Rs. 1,89,500.

Monywa Town. — Head-quarters of the Lower Chindwin District,
Upper Burma, situated in 22° 6' N. and 95° 8' E., on the left or eastern
bank of the Chindwin river, about 50 miles north of its junction with
the Irravvaddy, and 65 miles west of Sagaing, with which it is connected
by a branch railway. The town, which is low-lying and fairly well
shaded by tamarind-trees, is protected from the annual rise of the river
by an embankment along the water's edge. It contains the usual head-
quarters buildings, courthouse, and jail, all of which are situated at its
northern end, as well as large barracks and a hospital for the Chindwin
military police battalion. The railway station is at some little distance
from the river, to the east of the civil station. The club and a good
many of the houses of the European residents are close to the river
bank. The town is said to derive its name (which being interpreted is
'cake village') from a baker maiden whom a king of ancient days
found selling cakes, and took to himself as queen. It was of little
importance at the time of annexation, the head-quarters of the 7vun
being at Alon, about 7 miles farther up the river ; but it has since then
grown in importance and prosperity, and the last Census showed that
the population had increased from 6,316 in 1891 to 7,869 in 1901, the
latter total including over 1,000 natives of India. It is a fairly thriving
trade centre, and one of the chief ports of call for river steamers on
the Chindwin. Monywa was constituted a municipality in 1888. The
municipal revenue and expenditure during the ten years ending 1901
averaged about Rs. 17,000. In 1903-4 the receipts were Rs. 26,800,
including Rs. i r,8oo from bazars and slaughter-houses. The ex-
penditure was Rs. 27,000, including Rs. 6,700 spent on conservancy,
l^s. 3,300 on the hospital, and Rs. 4,400 on roads. The town is well
laid out and intersected by good thoroughfares. A civil hospital has



MORADABAD DISTRICT 421

accommodation for 32 in-patients. There is no municipal school, but
the Wesleyan Mission school supplies most of the higher educational
needs of the town.

Moodkee. — Town and battle-field in Ferozepore District, Punjab.
See MuDKi.

Mooltan. — Division, District, iahsil, and town in the Punjab. See

MULTAN.

Moradabad District. — District in the Bareilly Division, United
Provinces, lying between 28° 20' and 29° 16' N. and 78° 4' and
79° o' E., with an area of 2,285 square miles. On the north it is
bounded by Bijnor and NainI Tal ; on the east by the State of
Rampur ; on the south by Budaun ; and on the west the Ganges
divides it from the Districts of Meerut and Bulandshahr. Near the
Ganges lies a stretch of low khadar land, from which
rises a high sandy ridge. The central portion of ^^'^^

the District comprises a fertile level plain, chiefly
drained by the Sot or Yar-i-\Vafadar river, into which many smaller
channels flow. This plain sinks gradually into the broad valley of
the Ramganga, which crosses the north-east corner of the District,
cutting off a portion which borders on the Tarai and presents the
usual characteristics of the sub-Himalayan tracts ; many small streams
rising for the most part in the Tarai flow through it. There are a few
ponds in the District, but none of considerable size.

Moradabad consists almost entirely of alluvium, in which boulders
of stone occasionally occur. Kankar or nodular limestone is obtained
in all parts south-west of the valley of the Ramganga. The saline
efflorescence called reh is found in the southern part of the Ganges
khadar.

The sandy tracts in the west are extremely bare, and produce
nothing spontaneously except long thatching-grass. In the richer
tract near the centre trees are more common, especially near the
older towns, which are shaded by fine mango groves. On the whole
the District is not well wooded.

Tigers are occasionally shot in the jungles in the north-east of the
District or in the Ganges khadar, and leopards are more common.
Hog deer and wild hog are numerous in the same tracts, and nilgai
are found in small numbers. The wolf, fox, badger, otter, weasel,
porcupine, and monkey are found more or less throughout the District.
The commoner game-birds include quail, sand-grouse, grey and black
partridge, wild duck of many varieties, snipe, wild geese, &c. Fish
of many kinds are found in the rivers, and form an important element
in the food-supply of the people.

The climate of Moradabad is generally healthy, except in the sub-
montane tract which borders on the Tarai, and in the lowlands of the



42 2 morAdabad district

Ganges and Sot. The temperature is cooler than in Districts west
of the Ganges and farther from the Himalayas, and frost is common
in the winter. The annual mean is about 75°, the minimum monthly
temperature being 56° in January, and the maximum 90° to 92'^ in May
or June.

The annual rainfall averages about 40 inches, varying from 35 inches
in the sandy tract to 45 in the damp submontane area in the north-
east. Variations are considerable, and the amount has ranged from
about 20 to nearly 60 inches.

Tradition ascribes great antiquity to .Sambhal, but very little is
known of the early history of the District. Prithwi Raj, the last Hindu
king of Delhi, is said to have fought, first with the
half-mythical Saiyid Salar, and later with Jai Chand,
king of Kanauj. The first historical events are, however, in the early
Muhammadan period. Sambhal became the seat of a series of gov-
ernors, whose duties were largely taken up with suppressing revolts of
the turbulent Katehriyas. In 1266 Ghiyas-ud-din Balban attacked
Amroha, where he ordered a general massacre. In 1365 Firoz Tughlak
invaded Katehr, as Rohilkhand was then called, to punish a chief
named Rai Kakara, who had murdered the Musalman governor. Rai
Kakara fled to Kumaun, whereupon the emperor plundered the
country, and left Malik Khitab as governor. Ibrahim, the famous
Sultan of Jaunpur, conquered Sambhal in 1407, and placed his own
deputy in the town ; but a year later Mahmud Tughlak, emperor of
Delhi, expelled the intruder, and replaced his own officials. In 1473,
under Sultan Husain, the Jaunpur dynasty once more established itself
for a while in Sambhal. The emperor Sikandar Lodi recovered the
District in 1498 for the Delhi throne, and resided at Sambhal for four
years. Thenceforward the surrounding country remained a permanent
fief of the imperial court. In the middle of the sixteenth century,
Ahya Maran, .governor of Sambhal, rebelled against Sultan Muhammad
Adil, and defeated a force sent against him by the emperor. In the
succeeding year. Raja Mittar Sen, Katehriya, seized Sambhal, and
Ahya Maran attacked him. A fierce battle ensued at KundarkhT,
in which the Raja sustained a crushing defeat. Under Humayun,
All Kull Khan was governor of Sambhal and repelled an incursion
of the still-independent Katehriyas. In 1566 some Mirzas, descendants
of Timur, rebelled and seized Akbar's officers, whom they confined
in the fort of Sambhal. Husain Khan marched against them, and
they fled to Amroha. On his following them up to their retreat, they
finally escaped across the Ganges. Shah Jahan appointed Rustam
Khan governor of Katehr ; and the latter founded Moradabad about
1625, calling it after Murad Bakhsh, one of the imperial princes, who
was afterwards murdered by Aurangzeb. After the death of that



POPULATION 423

emperor, and subsequent decline of the central power, the Katehriyas
revolted, becoming independent for a time, and the Musalman governor
removed his head-quarters to Kanauj. On the rise of All Muhammad,
the Rohilla chief, an attempt was made by the governor of Moradabad
to crush him; but the new leader was victorious and by 1740 had
acquired the whole of this District. Rohilla rule lasted till 1774, when
Rohilkhand became subject to Oudh, and the District passed to the
British with other territory by the cession of 1801. Very soon after-
wards, in 1805, the notorious Amir Khan, a native of Sambhal, swept
through the District with a swarm of Pindari horsemen, but was not
successful in his attempt to plunder the Government treasury.

Apart from a few serious riots the District remained peaceful till
1857. News of the Meerut rising arrived on May 12 in that year, and
on the 1 8th the Muzaffarnagar rebels were captured. Next day, how-
ever, the 29th Native Infantry mutinied, and broke open the jail ; but
on the 2ist they united with the artillery in repelling a Rampur mob.
On the 31st the Rampur cavalry, who had gone to Bulandshahr,
returned ; and on the succeeding day news of the Bareilly and Shah-
jahanpur outbreaks arrived. On June 3 the 29th Native Infantry
fired on the officials, who then abandoned the station, and reached
Meerut in safety on the 5th. Ten days later, the Bareilly brigade
arrived at Moradabad, and shortly afterwards marched on for Delhi,
taking with them the local mutineers. At the end of June, the Nawab
of Rampur took charge of the District for the British ; but he possessed
little authority, and a rebel named Majju Khan was the real ruler of
Moradabad, till the arrival of General Jones's brigade on April 25, 1858,
when he was hanged. Early in May the District was occupied by
Mr. (afterwards Sir S.) Cracroft Wilson, the Judge of Moradabad, with
a body of troops, and order was restored.

Many ancient mounds exist in the District, especially in the Bilari
tahs'il, but they have not been explored. Amroha and Sambhal
contain some fine mosques and shrines, and the former has also a few
Hindu remains. Moradabad city dates only from the seventeenth
century.

There are 15 towns and 2,450 villages in the District. Population
is increasing steadily, though variations occur in different areas owing
to the vicissitudes of the seasons. The numbers
at the four enumerations were as follows : (1872)
1,122,357, (1881) 1,155,173. (1891) 1,179,398, and (1901) 1,191,993.
There are six tahslh — Moradabad, Thakurdwara, Bil.^ri, Sambhal,
Amroha, and Hasanpur — each named from its head-quarters. The
principal towns are the municipalities of Moradabad, Chandausi,
Amroha, and Sambhal. The chief statistics of population in 1901
are shown in the following table : —



424



MORADABAD DISTRICT



Tahsil.


nl

a .

<


Number of


Population.


11

(2"


Percentage of
variation in

population be-
tween 1891
and 1901.


Number of

persons able to

read and

write.


e
I


>


Moradabad
Tliakurdwara .
Bilari
Sambhal .
Aniroha .
Hasanpur

District total


313

240

333
469

383

547


3

I

3
3
2

3


298
261

387
466
508
530


245,369
116,814
216,340
245,886
206,564
161,020


784
487
650
524
539
294


-f 1.9

- 3-6

- 6.7

-(- O-I

-f 10-9

+ 4.8


7,668
1,605
5,003
4,035
4,467
2,412


2,285


15


2,450


1,191,993


521


-f- i-i


25,190



About 64 per cent, of the total are Hindus and 35 per cent. Musal-
mans, the latter being a high proportion. Christians number 6,103,
and Aryas 2,834. Moradabad is the head-quarters of the Arya Samaj
in the United Provinces. More than 99 per cent, of the population
speak Western Hindi, the prevailing dialect being Hindustani.

The most numerous Hindu caste is that of the Chamars (leather-
dressers and cultivators), who form more than 21 per cent, of the
total. Other important castes are Jats, 71,000; Rajputs, 62,000;
Brahmans, 44,000; Khagis (cultivators), 41,000; and Ahars (agri-
culturists), 37,000. Jats are not found in considerable numbers east
of this District, while Ahars and Khagis chiefly reside in and near
it. Bishnols, a small caste with 1,600 members, which was originally
a religious sect, are hardly found elsewhere in the United Provinces.
More than one-third (153,000) of the Musalmans are so-called Shaikhs,
many of whom are descended from converts. The Julahas (weavers),
33,000; Barhais (carpenters), 23,000; and Telis (oil-pressers), 16,000,
are also largely of Hindu origin. The Saiyids, numbering 16,000, are
the most considerable of the foreign tribes. About 62 per cent, of
the total population are supported by agriculture, more than 6 per cent,
by personal services, nearly 5 per cent, by general labour, and 3 per
cent, by weaving.

Of the 5,866 native Christians in 1901, 4,780 w^re Methodists.
The American Methodist Church commenced work in 1859, and the
American Reformed Presbyterian Church in 1894.

The Ganges khddar is raised in the centre and escapes ordinary
floods, but the lower portions are liable to inundation and to over-
saturation. This tract chiefly produces wheat, rice,
and sugar-cane. Above the khddar is a broad sandy
tract, consisting of ridges separated by level plains and minor drainage
channels. The land is poor and liable to waterlogging in wet years,
while crops fail in seasons of drought. Wheat, mixed with barley,
and bdjra are the chief crops. The great central plain is a fertile
tract, known as Katehr, which produces wheat, y^zf/^/-, bdjra, rice, and



Agriculture.



AGRICULTURE



425



sngar-cane. In the Ramganga khddar floods frequently occur, and
the autumn harvest is liable to great loss ; but wheat, rice, and sugar-
cane are grown. Rice is the principal crop grown in the damp sub-
montane area north-east of the Ramganga. In good years irrigation
is hardly required. A striking feature of the cultivation is the distribu-
tion of manure in all parts of a village where sugar-cane is grown,
instead of its concentration on the fields near the village site.

The ordinary tenures of the United Provinces are found ; but
zaminddri mahdls are more common than pattiddri^ and bhaiydchdrd
mahdls are rare. A large number of separate blocks of land are found
in the Amroha tahsll, the owners of which have no connexion with
the village communities. About half of the 7)iahdls in the same tahs'il
are revenue free, subject to a peculiar quit-rent payable to Government.
The main agricultural statistics for 1902-3^ are shown below, in
square miles : —



TahsU.


Total.


Cultivated.


Irrigated.


Cultivable
waste.


Moradabad .

Thakurdwara

Bilari .

Sambhal

Amroha

Hasanpur

Total


313
240

333
469

383

647


221
164
279
399
304
315


19
14

34

25

16


41
38
21
26

34

157


2,285


1,682


127


317



Wheat is the crop most largely grown, covering 599 square miles,
or 35 per cent, of the total cultivated area. Rice (152 square miles),
bdjra (260), barley (160), gram (125), andy(97£/Jr(59), are also important
food-crops. The most valuable crop is, however, sugar-cane, grown
on 70 square miles. Cotton, oilseeds, and hemp {saft) are the remain-
ing products of importance.

There have been no marked improvements in agricultural practice,
and no increase in cultivation in recent years. The area double
cropped is probably increasing, and the more valuable crops — wheat,
sugar-cane, and rice — are being more largely grown. The cultivation
of poppy is spreading. Advances under the Agriculturists' Loans and
Land Improvement Loans Acts are rarely taken. The total amounted
to only Rs. 56,000 between 1892 and 1904, and Rs. 45,000 of this
sum was advanced in two unfavourable seasons.

The cattle bred in the District are of the ordinary inferior type.
Something has been done to improve the breed of horses and ponies,
and Government maintains one stallion and the District board six,
besides three donkey stallions for mule-breeding. The sheep and goats
are inferior.

' Later figures are not available, owing to settlement operations.



426 MORADABAD DISTRICT

Masonry wells are rarely used for irrigation, except in the south of
the rich Katehr tract ; but earthen wells lasting for a single harvest can
be made in most parts of the District, except in the sandy tract above
the Ganges khddar. Out of 121 square miles irrigated in 1903-4, wells
supplied 89, tanks or y/^J/i- 18, and rivers 14. In drier years the rivers
are more largely used.

Kankar or nodular limestone is the only mineral product, and is
used for metalling roads and for making lime.

The chief industry in the District is sugar-refming, which is carried

on in many places after native methods. Cotton cloth is woven,

especially in the towns, and woollen carpets are made

Trade aiid -^^ ^ ^^^^, places. Moradabad city is known for the
commumcations. , , , , , , ,

ornamental brassware produced there, and other

local industries are the pottery of Amroha and the manufacture of

rough glass in the south-west of the District, where reh is found.

Cotton-weaving is said to be declining. There are four cotton gins

and presses at ChandausT, besides one steam press and several hand

presses for baling hemp {sa^i).

Agricultural products form the chief exports, sugar being the most
important, followed by wheat, rice and other grain, and cotton. A
good deal of the trade is with Calcutta, but the old trade with Delhi
has been revived by a railway extension. Salt, tobacco, metals, and
piece-goods are the principal imports. The largest commercial centre
after Moradabad is Chandausi, and there are several smaller flourish-
ing market towns.

The main line of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway passes through
the north-east of the District, while the south is crossed by the Bareilly-
Allgarh branch through Chandausi, whence another line runs to
Moradabad city. A branch from Moradabad to Ghaziabad on the
East Indian Railway traverses the north-west of the District. Another
branch from Gajraula to Chandpur in Bijnor has been surveyed, and
a branch of the Rohilkhand and Kumaun Railway is being constructed
from Moradabad to Ramnagar. There are ri8 miles of metalled roads
and 473 miles of unmetalled roads. The cost of all but 52 miles of
the former is met from Local funds, but the Public Works department
has charge of all the metalled roads. Avenues of trees are maintained
on 119 miles. The main route is that from Bareilly through Morad-
abad city to the Ganges and on to Meerut. Communications are, on
the whole, not good beyond the few metalled roads.

The District has suffered repeatedly from scarcity, but has escaped

visitations of great severity. In 1803-4 distress was chiefly due to

losses caused by the Maratha invasions and the raids

amine. ^^ ^^^ Pindari freebooter. Amir Khan. The second

famine after cession, in 1825, was aggravated by rack-renting, and the



ADMINISTRA TION 4 2 7

throwing of lands out of cultivation by landholders in view of the
approaching settlement. In the famine of 1837-8, Moradabad, like
all Rohilkhand Districts, suffered less than the Doab. The famine
of 1 860-1 was aggravated by the effects of the Mutiny. Relief works
were undertaken, but this was not among the Districts where distress
was most intense. Relief was again necessary in 1868-9 ^"^d in
1877-8, but the number of workers never became high. In the latest
famine of 1896-7 the labouring classes were distressed, but the cultiva-
tors suffered comparatively little, and the number on relief was only
about 7,000.

The Collector is usually assisted by a member of the Indian Civil
Service, and by five Deputy-Collectors recruited in
India. A tahsllddr is stationed at the head-quarters
of each tahsil.

There are five District Munsifs. The District Judge, an Additional
Judge, and the Sub-Judge have civil jurisdiction over the neighbouring
District of Bijnor. Both Bijnor and Budaun are included in the
Sessions Judgeship of Moradabad. Serious crime is heavy, and
offences against public tranquillity and crimes of violence are especially
common. Religious differences, both between Hindus and Musal-
mans, and between the Sunni and Shiah sects of the latter, have
caused serious riots from time to time. Female infanticide was
formerly suspected, but no repressive measures are now necessary.

At cession in 1801 Rohilkhand was divided into two Districts
called Moradabad and Bareilly, the former including, besides its
present area, the District of Bijnor, parts of Budaun, Bareilly, and
the Rampur State. Bijnor was made a separate subdivision called
Northern Moradabad in 1817, and Budaun was taken away in 1822.
The early settlements were for short periods, and proprietary rights
were only gradually recognized, the system being practically a farm to
the highest bidder. A feature of the early settlements was the inquiry
into the terms on which the very numerous revenue-free grants were
held. The District was surveyed between 1831 and 1836, and the first
regular settlement under Regulation IX of 1833 w^as carried out
between 1840 and 1843. It involved a summary inquiry into rents
actually paid in each village ; but the ' assets ' assumed as the basis of
the assessment were very roughly estimated, and a good deal of reliance
was placed on the reports of the kdnungos as to the annual value of
villages. The revenue assessed amounted to 11-5 lakhs, which rose to
12 lakhs during the currency of settlement owing to additions to the
District area. In the Thakurdwara tahsil, which is dependent on rice
cultivation, a succession of bad seasons ruined the zamlnddrs, who had
fallen into the clutches of a usurer, and from i860 to 1863 the tahsil
was taken under direct management. Elsewhere the settlement worked

VOL. xvn. E e



423



MORADABAD DISTRICT



well. The next revision was carried out between 1872 and 1880.
Soils were carefully classified, either according to the estimate of their
productive value formed by the Settlement officer, or according to their
physical characteristics. Rates were then ascertained for application to
these. In some parts of the District cash rents were paid, and these
were carefully analysed and rent rates were selected, which were applied
with necessary corrections to the large area of land paying rent in kind.
The revenue fixed was 14-3 lakhs, amounting to half the assumed
'assets.' This has been raised by small alterations to 14-6 lakhs, which



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