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falls at an incidence of Rs. 1-3 per acre, varying from R. o-6 to Rs. i-8
in different parts. A new revision of settlement commenced in 1905.

The total collections on account of land revenue and of revenue
from all sources have been, in thousands of rupees : —





1 880- 1.


1890-1.


igoo-i.


1903-4-


Land revenue .
Total revenue .


13,36
18,14


13,88
22,09


15,81
24,48


14,61
24,17



There are four municipalities — Moradabad, AiMroha, Sambhal,
and ChandausT — and eleven towns are administered under Act XX of
1856. Beyond the limits of these, local affairs are managed by the
District board, which in 1903-4 had an income of i-6 lakhs and an
expenditure of 1-7 lakhs. The expenditure included Rs. 92,000 on
roads and buildings.

There are 20 police stations in the District ; and the Superintendent
of police has a force of 4 inspectors, 100 subordinate officers, and
480 constables. Municipal and town police number 284, and rural
and road police 2,285. There is a police training school at Morad-
abad city. The District jail contained a daily average of 393 prisoners
in 1903.

The population of Moradabad is not distinguished for its literacy,
and in 1901 only 2 per cent, of the total (4 males and 0-3 females)
could read and write. The number of public schools rose from 184
with 5,549 pupils in 1880-1 to 290 with 9,167 pupils in 1900-1. In
1903-4 there were 301 such institutions with 10,794 pupils, of whom
1,280 were girls, besides 293 private schools with 4,122 pupils. Five
of the public schools were managed by Government, and 139 by the
District and municipal boards. The total expenditure on education
was Rs. 50,000, of which Rs. 40,000 was provided by Local funds
and Rs. 9,000 from fees. A normal school for teachers is maintained
at Moradabad city, which is also the head-quarters of an Inspector
and an Inspectress of schools.

There are 13 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for
116 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 160,000, of



MORADABAD CITY 429

whom 3,500 were in-patients, and 7,000 operations were performed.
The expenditure amounted to Rs. 16,000, chiefly met from Local
funds.

About 41,000 persons were vaccinated in 1903-4, representing 34 per
1,000 of population. Vaccination is compulsory only in the munici-
palities.

[District Gazetteer {i%Z^, under revision); E, B. Alexander, Settle-
ment Report {i?>^i).']

Moradabad Tahsil. — North-eastern tahsll of Moradabad District,
United Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the same name,
lying between 28° 41' and 29° '^' N. and 78° 42' and 79° E., with an
area of 313 square miles. Population increased from 240,795 in 1891
to 245,369 in 1901. There are 298 villages and three towns, including
Moradabad City (population, 75,128), the District and tahsJl head-
quarters. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,58,000,
and for cesses Rs. 47,000. The density of population, 784 persons per
square mile, is the highest in the District, owing to the inclusion of the
city. A large part of the tahsll consists of the valley of the Ramganga
and is liable to inundation, but it is generally fertile and irrigation is
easy when required. In 1902-3 the area under cultivation was 221
square miles, of which only 19 were irrigated. Wells supply about
half the irrigated area, and tanks or jhlls and rivers the remainder
in equal proportions.

Moradabad City. — Head-quarters of the District and tahsil of the
same name. United Provinces, situated in 28° 51' N. and 78° 46' E.,
on the Delhi-Bareilly road, and on the main line of the Oudh and
Rohilkhand Railway, 868 miles by rail from Calcutta and 1,087 from
Bombay. Population is rising steadily. The numbers at the four
enumerations were as follows: (1872) 62,417,(1881) 69,352,(1891)
72,921, and (1901) 75,128. Hindus numbered 31,141 in 1901 and
Musalmans 42,472. The city was founded by Rustam Khan, governor
of Katehr under Shah Jahan, and named after the ill-fated Murad
Bakhsh, the emperor's son. From this time Moradabad takes the
place of Sambhal as the seat of the local governor. Early in the
eighteenth century it was for a few years ruled by Nizam-ul-Mulk, who
afterwards distinguished himself as Nizam of the Deccan. A later
governor of Moradabad attempted to arrest the growing power of All
Muhammad, leader of the Rohillas, but was defeated and slain ; and by
1740 Moradabad was included in the new State of Rohilkhand. Its
subsequent history is that of the District, which has already been
related. In 1774 the Rohilla possessions fell into the power of Oudh,
and in 1801 were ceded to the British. Four years later Amir Khan,
the Pindari leader of part of Holkar's forces, dashed through Rohil-
khand, but was foiled in his attempt to plunder the Government



430 MORADABAD CITY

treasury by Mr. Leycester, the Collector, who shut himself up in the
courthouse, defended by two small field-pieces.

Moradabad is built on a ridge forming the right bank of the Ram-
ganga, and drains naturally into that river. The Jama Masjid, or chief
mosque, which stands high on the river bank, is a handsome building,
erected in 1631 by Rustam Khan. Close by are the ruins of the fort
built by the same governor. The city contains a municipal hall, a
tahslli, male and female dispensaries, and a mission church. Part of
the barracks of the old cantonment, which is no longer a station for
troops, is used as a police training school, where candidates for
employment as sub-inspectors and newly appointed Assistant Super-
intendents pass a period of probation, the school being in charge of
a selected District Superintendent assisted by an inspector. A poor-
house and leper asylum were built near the railway station in i88r.
ISIoradabad is the head-quarters of an Inspector and an Inspectress of
schools, and is the central station of the American Methodist and
Reformed Presbyterian Missions in the District.

The municipality was constituted in 1863. During the ten years
ending 1901 the income averaged Rs. 66,000 and the expenditure
Rs. 64,000. In 1903-4 the income was i-i lakhs, chiefly derived from
octroi (Rs. 81,000) and municipal property (Rs. 25,000). The expendi-
ture was 1-2 lakhs, including conservancy (Rs. 29,000), public safety
(Rs. 22,000), and administration (Rs. 11,000).

The trade largely consists of sugar, wheat, and, in good years, rice,
which are exported by rail. The recent extension of direct railway
communication with Delhi, which has long been one of the important
markets for the produce of Rohilkhand, has favoured commerce. The
principal manufacture of Moradabad is brassware, some of which is highly
ornamental. Formerly brass articles were plated with tin and patterns
were then engraved, so that the pattern showed the brass ground. In
place of tin a coating of lac is now generally used, the lac being coloured
black, blue, or red. Cotton is also woven, and some calico-printing
is done ; but both the brass and cotton industries are declining in
prosperity. The municipality manages three schools and aids twelve
others with 1,458 pupils. The District school has 274 boys, and the
Arya Samaj, the Muhammadan Association, and a private school
educate about 450 more. A normal school for training teachers is also
maintained here. There are twenty-three printing presses, about half of
which issue newspapers, but none is important.



Oxford : Printed at the Clarendon Press by HORACE Hart, M.A.



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