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the trade with the ports of Sonmiani and Ormara in Las Bela. No
statistics are available regarding the trade which is carried on with
places in the Persian Gulf, Arabia, and Africa. The chief centres are
Gvvadar, where the largest transactions take place, Pasni, Turbat, and
Isai. Wholesale trade is carried on entirely by Hindus from Sind and
Khojas from Cutch Mandvi. The retail trade is mostly in the hands
of Hindus, but a few of the indigenous inhabitants and some Babis
from Kalat are also engaged in it. The principal exports are raw wool,
hides, cotton, matting, dates, salted fish, fish-maws, and shark-fins ; and
the chief imports are piece-goods and grain, including large quantities
of wheat, rice, ?ir\d Jozvdr.

The communications consist solely of caravan routes, most of which
are exceedingly bad, especially those from north to south, which cross
the hill ranges at right angles. The main road from Quetta to Bampiir
in Persia passes through the Panjgur valley ; another important route
between Karachi, Las Bela, and the west traverses the Kolwa and
Kech valleys and eventually also reaches Bampiir. Routes from
Gwadar and Pasni converge on Turbat northwards. The latter has
been recently improved under skilled supervision, and is being con-
tinued to Panjgur through Buleda. Another track from Turbat reaches
Panjgur through Balgattar. Steamers of the British India Steam
Navigation Company carrying the mails call at Pasni and Gwadar
on alternate weeks. Both these places have post and telegraph
offices.

The production of grain in the country is probably insufficient for



50 MAKRAN

its requirements, but ;i good date-harvest is enough to meet the needs
of the scanty population for the year. In times of scarcity the inhabi-
tants, rapidly dispersing, find a plentiful demand for labour at Karachi
and in Rajputana.

The administration of the country is conducted, on behalf of the
Khan of Kalat, by an officer known as the Jiazim. He is assisted

by four naii>s, who are stationed in Tumi), Kolwa,

Administration. ,, • j i, • - t i i • • ^ • j

Pasni, and ranjgur. Irregular levies are maintained,

numbering 79 horse and 81 foot, at a total cost of about
Rs. 32,000 per annum. The infantry hold the important forts of
Turbat, Naslrabad, and Tump in Kech, Bit in Buleda, and Isai in
Panjgiir. All persons, including holders of revenue-free grants, are
bound to assist the ndzim with armed men when occasion requires.
For this purpose allowances amounting to Rs. 6,000 per annum are
granted to certain leading men by the Khan. A telegraph subsidy
of Rs. 5,520 is paid by the British Government for the protection of
the Indo-European Telegraph line. A Levy Corps of 300 men under
two British officers, with its head-cjuarters in Panjgur, is being stationed
along the western frontier. Its cost, about 1-2 lakhs per annum, is
borne by the British Government. Disputes are generally referred to
kdzis for decision according to the Muhammadan law. Important
awards are confirmed by the Political Agent in Kalat. Crime is con-
spicuous by its absence, the number of criminal cases decided in 1 900-1
being only 63. The total cost of administration, including the pay
of the irregular levies, is about Rs. 80,000 per annum.

It has been stated that Nasir Khan I obtained from the Gichkis only
a right to the collection of half the revenues of the country. In the
course of the long series of struggles between the Khans of Kalat and
the dominant groups which followed, the position gradually changed ;
and the Khan has now obtained, by confiscation, exchange, &c., the
exclusive right to the revenue of some places, while retaining the right
to a moiety in others. Elsewhere, the dominant classes hold exclusive
rights to collect. The revenue is taken by the appraisement of cereals,
the State share being generally one-tenth ; by contract ; and by a cash
assessment on irrigated lands, known as zarr-e-shdh, which has now
degenerated into a poll-tax of very unequal incidence. A cash assess-
ment is levied on date-trees, and grazing tax is collected at the rate of
one sheep in 40 or 50 and one seer of ghl. Among other receipts
are transit dues, tithes in kind on all fresh fish caught on the coast, and
duties on imports and exports. In 1902-3 the total revenue derived
from the country by the Khan was Rs. 45,500, to which a grant of
Rs. 36,700 was added by him to meet the expenses of administration.

A little education is imparted by a few ignorant mullds and kdzis,
generally Uarzadas and Afghans. A Hospital Assistant is attached to



MAKRANA 51

the Hdzim, who affords medical reHef in a few cases. The people are
very superstitious and attribute almost all diseases to evil spirits, for
casting out which special processes are employed. Night-blindness,
which is attributed by the people to their diet of fish and dates, is
common. Fevers, sore eyes, and ulcers are of constant occurrence
Cholera and small-pox not infrequently visit the country. Vaccination
is unknown, but inoculation is popular, the usual fee being four annas.
The people thoroughly understand the value of segregation, and careful
precautions are taken against the transport of infection by fiies.

[Ross, Memorandiini on Makrdii (Bombay, 1867); East and JVes/,
vol. iii. No. 31, May, 1904, contains an account of the ancient history
of the country by Shams-ul-ulama J. J. Modi.]

Makran Coast Range.— Mountain range in Baluchistan, known
locally as Bahr-i-Garr, which skirts the Arabian Sea for 280 miles
between 25° 22' and 26° o' N. and 61° 44' and 66° 3' E. Its width
varies from 35 to 70 miles. ']"he prevailing rock is a pale-grey clay or
marl, occasionally intersected by veins of gypsum and interstratified
bands of shelly limestone and sandstone. The parallel ranges of the
system descend graduall}- from east to west. Everywhere defiles, rents,
and torrent beds are to be seen. The principal ridges from east to
west are Dhrun (5,177 feet), Gurangatti (3,906 feet), Taloi (3,022 feet),
and Gokprosh, whose highest point is Janzat (4,345 feet). Gokprosh
is famous as the scene of the defeat of the Baloch rebels in 1898.
Neither permanent inhabitants nor cultivated lands exist. A few
stunted trees and scrub jungle compose the only vegetation. Sind
ibex and mountain sheep are plentiful.

Makran Range, Central. — Mountain range in Baluchistan, occu-
pying the centre of Makran, between 26° 3' and 27° 39' N. and 62°
19' and 65° 43' E. Springing from the hills of the Jhalawan country
its two well-defined and gradually descending ridges, the Zangi Lak
or Dranjuk hills (6,166 feet) on the north and the Koh-i-Patandar
(7,490 feet) with its continuation the Kech Band (3,816 feet) on the
south, run west-south-west for about 250 miles. The tumbled mass in
the centre merges on the west into the Zamuran hills, and the northern
portion stretches into the Persian Bampusht range. The width is
uniform, about 45 miles. .Sandstone is the prevailing rock, sometimes
associated with shaly strata and limestone. Within the range lie the
valleys of the Raghai, Gichk, and Gwargo rivers, Balgattar, Buleda,
and Parom. The Zamuran hills are alone inhabited, and have some
cultivation and vegetation.

Makrana. — Village in the Parbatsar district of the State of Jodhpur,
Rajputana, situated in 27^ 3' N. and 74° 44' E., on the Jodhpur-
Blkaner Railway. Population (1901), 5,157. The village derives' its
inip(;rtance from its marble quarries, which have been noted for



52 MAKRANA

m

centuries, and from which the material used in the construction of the
Taj Mahal at Agra was obtained. It has been proposed to use this
marble for the Victoria Memorial Hall at Calcutta. The quarries vary
in depth from 30 to 75 feet, and the yearly out-turn averages about
900 or 1,000 tons. The marble is excavated by blasting, and is then
cut into required sizes by means of steel saws. The chips and dust
left behind after the blocks have been hauled to the surface are burnt
into lime, and used for the finer kinds of plastering. There are now
twenty-six quarries being worked, which give employment to about
100 labourers daily, mostly of the Silawat caste of Muhammadans.

Maksudabad.-Old name of Murshidabad Town, Murshidabad
])istrict, Bengal.

Maksudangarh {Naidkila). — Petty State in Central India, under
the Bhopal Agency, with an area of a.bout 81 square miles. It lies in
Malwa and takes its name from the chief town. The State originally
formed a part of Raghugarh. In 1776 Raja Balwant Singh of Raghu-
garh granted the tract to his brother Budh Singh, whose son Durjan
Sal (1795-1811) considerably extended his possessions, founding a
State of which the town of Bahadurgarh (now Isagarh in Gwalior) was
the capital. Early in the nineteenth century his lands were seized
by Sindhia, but were in part restored by Sindhia's general, Jean
Baptiste Filose, who in 1816 installed Beri Sal Khichi, of the Lalawat
branch of the family, as chief of Maksudangarh. Since then it has
existed as a separate State, feudatory to Gwalior, to which, however,
it pays no tribute. Its position is thus peculiar, as the chief does not
hold under a British guarantee. Since the establishment of the Bhopal
Agency, however, the internal administration has invariably been con-
ducted under the supervision of the Political Agent, without inter-
ference on the part of the Gwalior Darbar. The present chief,
Raghunath Singh, succeeded in 1S64 at the age of fifteen. The State,
which had been mismanaged, was taken under superintendence by the
Political Agent in 1880, with tlie concurrence of the Maharaja Sindhia,
and is still under supervision. The chief bears the hereditary title
of Raja.

The population was: (1891) 14,422, and (1901) 14,284, giving a
density of 176 persons per square mile. Hindus number 12,214, or
85 per cent.; Animists, 1,661, or 12 per cent.; and Musalmans, 398.
The State contains 80 villages. About 16 square miles are cultivated.
The soil is fertile and bears good crops, but the absence of roads
prevents any great development of trade. Opium, the most important
product, has to be taken more than 50 miles by country track to the
railway. The total revenue is about Rs. 37,000, cjf which Rs. 28,000
is derived from land.

The chief town is MaksudcUigarh, situated in 24" 4' N. and 77^^



MALABAR 53

18' E., about 1,700 feet above sea-level. Population (igoi), 2,222.
It is a small place, formed of an irregular congeries of houses
dominated by the fort called Naiakila or the 'new fort,' which was
built by Raja Vikramaditya of Raghugarh about 1730. A school,
a hospital, a jail, and a British post office are situated in the town,
which is 30 miles by fair-weather road from Biaora on the Bombay-
Agra high road.

Makurti. — Peak in the Kuxdahs in the Ootacaniund iaii/k of the
Nilgiri District, Madras, situated in ri° 22' N. and 76° 31' E., at an
elevation of 8,403 feet above sea-level. This is a favourite point for
excursions from Ootacaniund, the ascent being made by a zigzag path
cut on the eastern face. Its western side is an almost unbroken
precipice, several hundred feet in depth. The spirits of men and
buffaloes are supposed by the Todas to take a leap together into
Hades from this peak.

Malabar (Malayalam, or Malayam, ' the land of hills "). — Perhaps
the most beautiful, and certainly one of the richest and most fertile,
of the Districts of Madras, lying on the west coast of the Presidency,
between 10° 15' and 12° 18' N. and 75° 11' and 76'' 51' E. Its
ancient name was Kerala, which included also the District of South
Kanara and the Native States of Cochin and TravancorC; the form
Malabar appears to be derived from Arabic sources, the termination
bar meaning ' country.'

Excluding the Laccadive Islands, the District has an area of 5,795
scjuare miles, and stretches for a distance of 150 miles along the
Arabian Sea from South Kanara in the north to Cochin State on
the south. On the east it is separated from Coorg, the Nilgiris, and
Coimbatore by the Western Ghats, which form a continuous mountain
barrier from 3,000 to 8,000 feet high, at a distance from the coast
which varies from 20 miles in the north to 60 in the south, and are
interrupted only at the Palghat Gap, 16 miles wide, the one break in
the whole of the range. In two places the limits of the District extend
beyond the mountain wall : namely, in the Wynaad
taluk, a plateau 3,000 feet above sea-level, which asDects

really forms part of the great Mysore table-land ; and
in the Attapadi and Silent Valleys, which lie behind the irregular
ridge stretching from the Kundahs to the northern pillar of the
Palghat Gap. The most conspicuous peak in the Malabar hills is
the Vavul Mala or * Camel's Hump,' 7,600 feet high, which heads
a magnificent buttress thrown out to the south-west below the Tamar-
asseri pass, where the general line of the Ghats recedes eastward.
This spur constitutes the right flank of the Nilambur Valley, while
the left is formed by the Kundahs, which rise to over 8,000 feet in
the Nilgiri Hills and Makurli peaks on the Nilgiri boundar)'.



54 MALABAR

The Ghats are thickly wooded in most parts, and contain mountain
scenery of unrivalled beauty, many of the peaks being precipitous and
inaccessible. The country below presents the general appearance of
a sea of forest-covered hills. Long wooded spurs with deep ravines
run down from the main range, and are succeeded by gentler slopes,
covered with low jungle, and by bare downs with gradually widening
valleys of luxuriant cultivation. Nearer the coast the laterite downs
shelve suddenly into rice plains and lagoons fringed with coco-nut palms.
Along the coast is a level strip seldom more than 2 or 3 miles wide.
It was thus described by Ibn Batuta as early as the fourteenth
century: 'The whole of the way by land [down the coast] lies under
the shade of trees, and in all the space of two months' journey there
is not one span free from cultivation ; everybody has his garden, and
his house is planted in the middle of it.'

With the exception of three tributaries of the Cauvery — the Bha-
VANi, which rises in the x\ttapadi Valley and flows through Coim-
batore, the Kabbani and the Rampur, which rise in the Wynaad
and traverse Mysore— all the numerous rivers of Malabar flow west-
ward from the Ghats to the sea, where they are backed up by littoral
currents and discharge into a line of backwaters and lagoons parallel
to the coast. Most of the rivers are navigable by small boats for some
miles beyond tidal influence, and many of the lagoons are connected
by small canals ; there is thus an extensive system of inland waterways
of great commercial importance. The longest of the rivers is the
Ponnani, but the most important are the Beypore and the Valar-
PATTANAM ; all three are connected with extensive systems of back-
waters.

The seaboard is entirely open except in the extreme north at Mount
Delly, a massive laterite island hill, celebrated as the first point of
India sighted by the Portuguese ships. South of this as far as Calicut
small headlands of laterite cliffj forming shallow bays, alternate with
long stretches of sand ; beyond Calicut is one unbroken stretch of
sand. The sea bottom shelves very gradually, and there is no deep
water within three miles of the shore. Thereafter it plunges suddenly
down to 1,000 fathoms and more. Small craft find shelter in the
mouths of the bigger rivers ; while at Calicut, Quilandi, and Cochin
shifting mudbanks afford a calm roadstead in all weathers.

The greater part of the low country is covered with laterite, but the
underlying rock consists of fine-grained gneisses, quartzose, garneti-
ferous, and quartzo-felspathic. The laterite is of two kinds : namely,
vesicular, derived from the decomposition of the gneiss in situ ; and
pellety, a detrital rock formed of the debris of the vesicular variety.
The Wynaad plateau is composed chiefly of rocks of the charnockite
scries with biotite gneiss and biotite granite, in the former of which



J'HYSICAL ASPECTS 55

auriferous reefs occur. \'eins of pegmatite, carrying ruby mica of fair
size and quality, are found in the south of it.

Owing to the perennial humidity of the climate, the flora of the
District is very luxuriant. It is similar in its general character to that
of Ceylon, but varies with the many changes in altitude and moisture
which occur. Palms, bamboos, the jack-tree, and the pepper-vine are
among the more characteristic plants of the lower levels. Higher up
are heavy evergreen forests full of large timber ; and tree-ferns, orchids,
and mosses are plentiful. The Hortiis Malabariciis of Van Rheede,
a Dutch governor of this part of the country, is the earliest treatise on
the flora of Southern India and describes as many as 794 different plants.

The fauna of Malabar is extremely varied. Throughout the Ghats
and the ^^'ynaad are found the usual large game common to the South
Indian hills, such as tigers, bears, leopards, bison, sdj?ibar, and hog.
Elephants abound, especially in the Wynaad and Nilambur forests,
where large numbers are caught in pits by the Forest department.
Spotted deer are confmed to the hills at the foot of the Ghats, and
the Nilgiri ibex {Hemitragiis hylocrius) to the Palghat hills and the
Kundahs. Crocodiles and otters abound in the backwaters, and a large
number of edible fish of many kinds are caught all along the coast.

The climate, though excessively damp, is on the whole healthy; but
the \\'ynaad and lower slopes of the Ghats, with the country imme-
diately at the foot of the hills, are malarious, especially from February
to June. The temperature of the low country varies little the whole
year round, seldom rising as high as 90° or falling below 70° ; there
is a constant sea-breeze during the day in the hottest weather. The
mean temperature for the year at Calicut is below 81°.

The rainfall is heavy and unfailing throughout the District, and the
seasons are regular. Thunderstorms begin among the hills in April.
In May the south-west monsoon sets in, and banks up the clouds
against the Ghats. The rains break early in June and continue to the
end of September, when the south-west monsoon dies away. Three-
fourths of the total fall is received during these four months. In
October the north-east monsoon sets in, the rains slacken, and by
December the dry season is established. The rainfall is lightest in
Palghat, where the gap in the Western Ghats prevents the accumulation
of so much moisture as elsewhere, and heaviest among the high hills
in the south of the Wynaad. The annual fall for the whole District
averages 116 inches.

Famine, therefore, is practically unknown ; while, since the rapid
rivers have cut deep beds for themselves, floods are rare. Nor is there
any record of serious natural calamities of other kinds, such as cyclones
or earthquakes, except the storm-wave of 1847, which did much damage
on the Laccadive Islands and a little on the mainland.



56 MALABAR

The early history of Alalabar is insejiarable from that of tlie adjoining-
State of Travancore. Identical in people, language, laws, customs, and
climate, the whole of ancient Kerala is homogeneous
in every respect, except in the accident of a divided
political administration. To trace the successive waves, whether of
invasion or of peaceful colonization, which are now represented by the
Cherumans and Tiyans, Nayars and Nambudris, overlying one another
in social strata, or to examine the physical justification for the legendary
origin of this interesting country, is beyond the scope of this article.

It is probable that the later flood of immigration which gave to
Kerala or Chera its Nayars and Nambudris was part of a general
movement southward, which in prehistoric times brought the best of
its people and its Brahmanism to Southern India. It is also likely
that the physical formation of Kerala was due to some natural process,
gradual or convulsive, which gave rise to the local legend of its having
been the gift of the ocean. In very ancient times a traffic sprung up
between the Mediterranean and the roadsteads of Malabar, The
Phoenicians came by way of the Persian Gulf and afterwards by the
Red Sea. Possibly the Jews made the same voyage in the reigns of
David and Solomon. The Syrians under the Seleucids, the Egyptians
under the Ptolemies, the Romans under the emperors, the Arabs after
the conquest of Egypt and Persia, the Italians, more especially the
Republics of Venice, Florence, and Genoa, have each in turn main-
tained a direct trade with the western ports of the Madras Presidency.
In the early political history of Malabar the first figure that emerges
from the mist of tradition is Cheraman Perumal, the last of the
sovereigns of Chera. He is represented as voluntarily resigning his
throne, subdividing his kingdom, and retiring to Mecca to adopt Islam.
The date of Cheraman has been the subject of much discussion ; but
recently information has been received that his tomb still exists at
Sabhai on the Arabian coast, and the dates on it were said to indicate
that he reached that place in a.h. 212 (a. d. 827) and died there in
A.H. 216 (a.d. 831). His departure from Malabar may possibly have
taken place on August 25, 825, which is the first day of the KoUam era
still in use on the coast. The epoch popularly assigned to him is the
middle of the fourth century. It is probable that, if the resignation
and partition actually occurred, they were forced on the ruler by the
growing power and turbulence of his feudatory chiefs and by the
encroachments of the Western Chalukya dynasty. From this time
Malabar remained divided among numerous small chieftains, of whom
Kolattiri or ("hirrakkal in the nortli and the Zamorin (or Samilri) in the
south were the most conspicuous. It was with these last two, and with
the Cochin Raja, that the early Portuguese adventurers first entered
into relations.



HISTORY



57



\'asco da Gama visited Malabar in 1498, and his successors speedily
established themselves at ("ochin, (Calicut, and Cannanore. In
1656 the Dutch appeared in the Indian seas to compete with the
Portuguese for the trade of the country. They first conquered Can-
nanore, and in 1663 captured the town and fort of Cochin, as well
as Tangasseri, from their rivals. In 1717 they secured the cession
of the island of Chetwai from the Zamorin. But in the next half-
century their power began to wane : Cannanore was sold to the
Cannanore family, represented at that time by All Raja, in 1771;
Chetwai was conquered by Haidar in 1776, and Cochin captured by
the English in 1795. The French first settled at C^alicut in 1698.
In 1726 they obtained a footing in Mahe, and in 1751 acquired
Mount Delly and a few outposts in the north, all of which fell into
the hands of the English in 1761. Their frequent wars with the
English ended in the destruction of their commerce in the East,
Mahe having been thrice taken and thrice restored. The English
established themselves in 1664 at Calicut, in 1683 at Tei.lichkrrv,
and in 1684 at Anjengo, Chetwai, and other commercial factories.
Tellicherry became their chief entrepot for the pepper trade ; and so
rapid was the extension of their power and influence that in 1737 the
English factors mediated a peace between the princes of Kanara and
Kolattiri. They obtained the exclusive privilege of purchasing the
valuable products of the country : namely, pepper, cardamoms, and
sandal-wood.

For nearly a century the Maratha pirates under Angria and other
chiefs infested the coast, and ravaged even inland towns by sailing up
the Beypore, Ponnani, and other rivers, till 1756, when they were
destroyed by a British expedition. The Ikkeri or Bednur Raja in
1736 and 1751 invaded the country of Kolattiri and imposed fines
on the northern division. The Palghat State, after dismemberment
by the Rajas of Calicut and Cochin, sought the alliance of Mysore,
then ruled by its Hindu Raja, who stationed a subsidiary force in
Palghat. It was this connexion which afforded Haidar All, when he
became ruler of Mysore, a pretext for invading Malabar in defence of
his ally, the Palghat Achchan. In 1760 Haidar sent an army to
Palghat and descended the ghats through Coorg in person. Again
in 1776, at the instigation of All Raja, the Mappilla chieftain of Can-
nanore, he made an easy conquest of the whole country, the Rajas
flying into the jungles or taking refuge in the English settlement of
Tellicherry, They, however, took advantage of the war between
Haidar and the English in 1768 to reinstate themselves until 1774,



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