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water communication, which includes the Coxolly Canal and the
Ponnani and Valarpattanam rivers, and comprises in all 587 miles
of navigable river and backwater, connected by 50 miles of canal. The
backwaters are not deep, and the canals are adapted only for small
boats, being mostly from 10 to 12 feet broad and very shallow. All
the traffic, both of goods and passengers, is carried in primitive native
dug-outs.

The sea-borne coasting traffic is mainly carried in native craft called
pattamars. There are 39 ports and sub-ports, but these afford little
protection from bad weather except for the smaller boats that can
enter the mouths of the rivers on which many of them are situated.
Coasting steamers of the British India and Asiatic lines call at the
chief ports frequently, except during the monsoon, and both lines carry
passengers.

Famine in the strict sense is unknown in Malabar, since the south-
west monsoon never fails. But though the District exports grain, it does
not produce enough for its own consumption ; and in
a time of scarcity elsewhere the general rise in the
price of food-stuffs, combined with the increased demand from neigh-
bouring Districts, is liable to cause distress among the poorer classes,
especially in the later months of the monsoon when field labour is not
required and the new harvest is not available. In the great famine of
1876-7 high ])rices were combined with a serious failure of the second
crop, and gratuitous relief had to be given widely. Similar measures
were necessary to a small extent in the monsoon of 1897, when an
average of 6,000 persons were fed daily for five months.

For general administrative purposes the District is grouped into six
subdivisions. Three of these are usually in charge of Covenanted



ADMINISTRATIOX 67

Civilians. They are the I'alghat subdivision, comprising the Pal-

c; HAT and Ponxani taluks; the Malappurani subdivision, comprising

Ernad and Walavanad; and the TelHcherry sub- ., . .
,... r , r^ T- Administration,

division, consisting of the Chirakkat,, Kottayam,

and KurUjMp.kanai) idhiks. The remaining three subdivisions, tlie

WvNAAD, (Jalicut, and Cochin, formed of the taluks of the same names,

are each under a Deputy-Collector recruited in India. 'J"he outlying

I)orls of Anjenc.o and Tangasseri were also included in the charge of

the Deputy-Collector at Cochin till 1906, when they were constituted

into a new unit called the District of Anjengo, under the administrative

control of the Resident in Travancore and Cochin. The Laccadive

Islands fall under the administration of the Calicut divisional officer.

For judicial purposes the District is divided into North and South
Malabar, with District Courts at Calicut and Tellicherry. Subordinate
to the former are three Sub-Judges and twelve District Munsifs ; and
to the latter, eight Munsifs. The District ranks second in the Presi-
dency in the number of the civil suits filed.

Grave crime is now comparatively rare; but since 1836 the public
peace has been periodically disturbed by outbreaks among the Map-
pillas. Starting with the murder of a Hindu landlord, the looting of
a house, or the defiling of a Hindu temple, a small body of these men
will run riot over the country, gathering adherents as they go, until
finally brought to bay, when they invariably sell their lives as dearly as
possible. Experience has proved that Native troops cannot be relied
on to deal with these outbreaks; and since 1851 a detachment of
British infantry has been stationed at Malappurani, the most con-
venient centre of the menaced tract, and in the same year a special
police force was organized for their suppression. In 1852 the Tangal
(high-priest) of Tirurangadi, who was suspected of fomenting the
• disturbances, was banished by Mr. Conolly, the District Magistrate ;
and in the following year a special Act was passed providing for the
treatment of Mappilla fanatics, and for the fining of the villages in
which outbreaks should occur. Two years later Mr. Conolly was
murdered in his veranda by a body of fanatics who had escaped from
the Calicut jail. The Mapi)illa Act was then for the first time put into
force. The most serious outbreaks in recent years have been in 1873
at Kolattur ; in 1885 at Trikkaliir in the Ernad taluk, when twelve
fanatics took up a strong position in a Hindu temple from which they
were only dislodged by the use of dynamite ; in 1894 at Mannarakkat,
when the gang numbered thirty-five and had to be driven from their
position by a howitzer; and in 1896, when nearly a hundred men were
shot down in the Manjeri temple.

Inquiries show that though agrarian grievances, such as eviction by
Hindu landlords, or the refusal of a landowner to grant a site for



68 MALABAR

a mosque, have been the incentives to many of these outbursts, yet in
all the big outbreaks it has been impossible to impute any definite
motive to the majority of those who joined the gang. The one constant
element is a desperate fanaticism : surrender is unknown ; the martyrs
are consecrated before they go out and hymned after death. Other
noticeable features are that the gang mainly consists of men, or boys, of
the lowest class ; while with few exceptions the outbreaks have origi-
nated within a radius of 15 miles round Pandalur, a hill in Rrnad which
was the home of one of the chief Mappilla robbers who disturbed the
early years of British supremacy. It lies amid large tracts of uncleared
jungle, which have long attracted the unsuccessful Mappillas, who are
crowded out of their villages in the west, and who remain for the most
part ignorant and destitute and ready on slight provocation to let their
smouldering fanaticism kindle.

Special efforts have been made for many years to encourage educa-
tion and to open up the country in the fanatical zone ; but the natural
characteristics of the District and its inhabitants make progress- in
either of these directions necessarily slow. Two regiments of Map-
pillas recently raised for the Indian Army have been disbanded.

In Malabar, unlike other Districts of Southern India, the Hindu
rulers appear to have levied no regular land revenue, but to have
contented themselves with customs and tolls and with the occasional
levy of special contributions. The Nayars quickly attained pre-eminence
among the various immigrant tribes, and organized the country on
a military basis, dividing it into ndds, each under its Nayar chief, who
in return for military service granted his vassals fiefs held free of land
revenue and carrying with them various administrative and other
privileges. The chiefs themselves retained domains for their own
support. This organization was probably not disturbed by the Brahman
immigration, though the Brahmans in Malabar, as elsewhere, attained .
great influence and received large grants of land for their own support
and the maintenance of their temples ; and the feudal system seems
to have continued both when the ndds were combined into a kingdom,
and when, on the abdication of the last of the Perumals, the country
was again split up into ncids. As the influence of the Rajas who
succeeded to the Chera kings declined, the process of disintegration
continued, and the fief-holders and Brahman landowners naturally
claimed independent lordship of their lands ; and these formed the
majority of the janiuis (landowners) on whose share of the produce
the Mysore assessment was eventually levied.

Haidar All, on his conquest of the District at the end of the
eighteenth century, proceeded to introduce a regular system of land
revenue. The various nads were, however, settled at different times
and according to no definite system. The principle was to take for



A D^^f^ vs tra tton 69

the government revenue a share in money of ihejnnmrs rewt,ox pat foj?t;
but the share appears to have varied from lo per cent, on some 'wet'
lands in North Malabar to.ioo per cent, on gardens in South Malabar.
The rate of commuting into money the rents paid in kind likewise
Varied in the different 9idds, while in North Malabar the collection was
entrusted to the chiefs of the nads and in South Malabar to Muham-
madan ofticials.

On the cession of the District to the British, the Commissioners
appointed to settle the country adopted the Muhammadan revenue
assessment. During 1792-3 the Zamorin and other Rajas were allowed
to collect the revenue; and in 1794 a system of quinquennial settle-
ment with the Rajas of the nads, based on the Muhammadan accounts
prepared in 1782, was introduced. The zamlnddri system, however,
failed to work ; the Government resumed the collection of the revenue,
and, owing to the continued complaints of inequality, the Collector
appointed in 1801 set himself to revise the whole assessment on regular
principles. On ' wet ' lands one-third of the net produce, after deduct-
ing cultivation expenses, was to go to the cultivator, and the remainder
or pditom was to be divided in the proportion of six-tenths to the
Government and four-tenths to theyV/w;;//. On parainba lands the gross
produce of the trees was to be divided in three equal shares between
the cultivator, i\\ejani?ii, and the Government. These principles were
approved and a proclamation issued accordingly in 1805; but the
settlement was not proceeded with, as it was decided that the existing
assessment was adequate and not unpopular. Subsequently a settle-
ment of garden lands on these lines was taken in hand and introduced
into various fd/i/ks between 1829 and 1840; and in the Kurumbranad
td/uk this settlement was revised in 1853. Otherwise the Muham-
madan settlement of 1776 remained in force till 1900, when the intro-
duction of a new settlement was begun, based on a scientific survey
conducted between 1887 and 1895 and following the principles of the
ryotwdri settlements of the other Districts of the Presidency.

In the new settlement the cultivable land has been divided into
'wet,' 'garden,' and 'dry ' ; and acreage rates, based on the Government
share of the produce claimed in the proclamation of 1805, have been
assigned. The new rates were introduced throughout the District by
the end of 1903-4. The result will be an enhancement of the land
revenue by about 76 per cent., or 13 lakhs, an increase which is to be
attributed to the rise in prices during a period of more than a century
and to the increase in the area brought under permanent assessment,
which amounts to about 50 per cent, above the area shown in the old
accounts. Under the old settlement ' wet ' rates varied from 4 annas
to Rs. 40 per acre, the average being Rs. 3 ; for gardens and ' dry '
land no accurate acreage rates are obtainable. Under the new settle-







MALABAR



ment the 'dry' assessment averages (excluding the Wynaad) R. 0-13-2
per acre (maximum Rs. 2, minimum 4 annas), the ' wet ' assessment
Rs. 3-8-1 1 (maximum Rs. 7-8-0, minimum 12 annas), and the ' garden '
assessment Rs. 2-15-3 (maximum Rs. 7, minimum R. i).

The revenue from land and the total revenue in recent years are
given below, in thousands of rupees : —





1880-1.


i8go-i.


1 900- 1.


1903-4-


Land revenue .
Total revenue .


21,39

35.-88


20,95

38,07


23,94
46,64


29,97

54;55



The landlord's right in the soil is held to vest in the ja?imi. The
word Janmam, literally meaning 'birth,' perhaps carries with it the idea
of hereditary ownershi[). The probable evolution of xhejanmi as land-
lord has been sketched above. As now interpreted by the Courts,
Ja?imam right means the proprietary interest of the landlord in the soil,
and is freely bought and sold ; but the idea of property in land is of
comparatively modern growth. The commonest form of tenure under
the ja?i//n is kd/iam, which word seems to mean literally ' visible pro-
perty,' and to be applied to the sum lent by a tenant to his landlord,
or, originally, to the present brought by a retainer to his chief in return
for i)rotection. As now defined by the Courts, a kdnam implies
a usufructuary mortgage entitling the mortgagee to a twelve years'
occupancy with a right to his improvements, subject to the payment
of an annual rent to the mortgagor. There are various subsidiary
forms, differing according to the interest in the land secured to the
mortgagor. The ordinary forms of simple lease {veruinpdttom) and
mortgage {panayam) are now becoming common.

Outside the five municipalities of Calicut, Cochin, Cannanore,
Palghat, and Tei.licherrv, local affairs are managed by the District
board and the tdhik boards of the five subdivisions of Tellicherry,
Calicut, Malappuram, Palghat, and Wynaad. The expenditure of the
boards in 1903-4 was nearly 4I lakhs, more than half of which was
laid out on roads and buildings. The chief sources of income are the
land cess and toll and ferry collections, yielding nearly 2-67 and 1-59
lakhs respectively. The District possesses none of the Unions conu-non
on the East Coast, few of its villages being built in the close order
which demands expenditure on sanitation.

The District Superintendent of police is assisted by three Assistant
Superintendents, stationed at Palghat, Malappuram, and Tellicherry.
There are 105 police stations in the District and 2 outposts. The force
consists of 24 inspectors, 3 European head constables, 141 head con-
stables, and 1,125 constables. The special force reorganized in 1885
for the suppression of the Mappilla outbreaks, with its head-quarters at



A D MINIS TRA TION 7 r

Ma]ai)puram, consists of one inspector, 4 European head constables,
4 head constables, and 81 constables.

The Central jail is at Cannanore, while 2\ subsidiary jails have
a total accommodation for 527 prisoners.

According to the Census of 1901, Malabar stands fourth among
Madras Districts in the literacy of its population, of whom 10 per cent.
(17-4 males and 3-0 females) are able to read and write. Education
is most advanced in the coast taluks^ and most backward in the Wynaad,
with its many coolies and hillmen, and in Ernad, the most distinctively
Mappilla taluk. The total number of pupils under instruction in
1880-1 was 31,894; in 1890-1, 70,329; in 1900-1, 84,408; and in
1903-4, 91,661, including 19,331 girls. On March 31, 1904, there
were (besides 564 private schools) 1,038 public educational institutions
of all kinds, including 954 primary, 75 secondary, and 6 training and
special schools, and the three Arts colleges at Calicut, Palghat, and
Tellicherry. Of the public institutions, 24 were managed by the
Educational department, 96 by local boards, and 50 by municipalities ;
while 639 were aided from public funds, and 229 were unaided but
conformed to the rules of the department. As usual, the vast majority
of those under instruction are only in primary classes, though Malabar
stands third among Madras Districts in the proportion of pupils under
secondary instruction. Of the male population of school-going age
24 per cent, were under instruction in primary standards in 1903-4,
and of the female population of the same age nearly 7 per cent. Among
Musalmans, the corresponding percentages were 35 and ro respectively.
Few of these have advanced beyond the primary stage, and a large pro-
portion receive instruction only in the Koran. The total number of
female pupils exceeded that of any other District. There were 22
primary schools for Panchama boys, with 908 pupils. The total expen-
diture on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 5,18,000, of which Rs. 2,10,000
was derived from fees. Of the total, 53 per cent, was devoted to
primary education.

The District possesses 14 hospitals and 9 dispensaries, including
a leper hospital at Palliport (Pallipuram), near Cochin, founded by
the Dutch in 1728. They contain in all accommodation for 419 in-
patients. In 1903 the total number of cases treated was 261,000, of
whom 3,100 were in-patients, and 10,000 operations were performed.
The total expenditure amounted to Rs. 78,000, the great part of which
was met from Local and municii)al funds.

Malabar is backward in regard to vaccination. Statistics for 1903-4
show that the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 23 per
1,000, compared with an average for the Presidency of 30. Vaccination
is compulsory only in the municipalities.

[For further information regarding the District, see Malabar^ by



72 MALABAR

W. Logan (1887), and Malabar Laiu and Custom, by H. Wigram and
L. Moore (Madras, 1900).]

Malaisohmat. — Petty State in tlie Khasi Hills, Eastern Bengal and
Assam. The population in 1901 was 491, and the gross revenue in
1903-4 was Rs. 200. The principal products are rice, millet, bay
leaves, areca-nuts, and oranges. There are deposits of lime in the
State, Ijut they are not worked.

Malakand. — A pass which crosses the range north of Peshawar
District, North-West Frontier Province, and leads from Sam Ranizai
into the Swat valley, situated in 34° 34' N. and 71° 57' E. The pass
is traversed by an ancient Buddhist road. Early in the sixteenth
century the Yusufzai Pathans effected their entrance into Swat by the
Malakand, and in 1587 Zain Khan, a general of the emperor Akbar,
built a fort here. In 1895 the pass was taken by the Chitral relief
force, and has since been occupied as a military post, near which is
also the head-quarters of the Dir, Swat, and Chitral Political Agency.
On July 26, 1897, the post was suddenly attacked by a large gathering
of Swatis under a fanatical leader, the Mulla Mastan or ' Mad MuUa.'
Tribesmen from Utman Khel and Upper Swat poured in, raising the
numbers to 12,000 men. Fighting continued until August i, when
the tribes were repulsed. Chakdarra, which also was besieged by the
tribesmen, was relieved the next day.

Malambi (or Malimbi). — A fine conical hill in the north-east of
Coorg, Southern India, situated in 12"^ 40' N. and 75° 58' E., 4,488
feet high, conspicuous in all that part of the country.

Malanggarh {Bdwa Making). — Hill fortress in the Kalyan taluka
of Thana District, Bombay, situated in 19° 7' N. and 73° 13' E.,
10 miles south of Kalyan town. It is known also as the Cathedral
Rock. Like most of the Thana hill forts, Malanggarh rises in a
succession of bare stony slopes, broken by walls of rocks and belts
of level woodland. It is most easily reached from Kalyan across
a rough roadless tract of about 8 miles, ending in a climb of a per-
pendicular height of about 700 feet. Connected with the base of the
hill is a forest-covered table-land, upon which is the tomb of the Bawa
Malang. At the time of Captain Dickinson's survey in 1818, there
were a few dwellings for the garrison here, of which the ruined sites
alone remain. From this table-land the ascent to the lower fort is very
steep, and upwards of 300 feet high. The latter part is by an almost
perpendicular rock-hewn staircase, at the top of which is a strong gate-
way covered by two outstanding towers, enabling even the smallest
garrison to make the place impregnable. From the lower to the upper
fort there is a perpendicular ascent of 200 feet by means of a narrow
flight of rock-hewn steps, on the face of a precipice so steep as to
make the ascent at all times most difficult and dangerous. The upper



MALAVALLI TOWN 73

fort, a space of 200 yards long by about 70 broad, is nothing more
than the top, as it were, of the third hill. It has no fortifications, but
there are traces of an enclosure and of the walls of an old building.
The water-supply is from a range of five cisterns, and a copper pipe
is used to carry water to the lower fort. A yearly fair, held here in
February, is attended by both Hindus and Muhammadans.

Malappuram Subdivision. —Subdivision of Malabar District,
Madras, consisting of the Ernad and Walavanad tdliiks.

Malappuram Town. — Town in the Ernad taluk of Malabar Dis-
trict, Madras, situated in ii*^ 4' N. and 76° 4' E., 31 miles south-east
of Calicut, with which it is connected by a good road. Population
(1901), 9,216. It is notable as the centre for many years of the
Mappilla fanatical outbreaks. A detachment of British troops has
been stationed here since 1873, and a special police force since 1885.
The chief buildings are the churches (Protestant and Roman Catho-
lic), the divisional officer and magistrate's court, the barracks, and the
office of the Assistant Superintendent of police. A weekly market is
held here.

Malavalli Taluk. — Eastern taluk of Mysore District, Mysore State,
lying between 12° 13' and 12° 33' N. and 76° 54' and 77° 20' E., with
an area of 391 square miles. The population in 1901 was 101,779,
compared with 85,910 in 1891. The taluk contains one town, Mala-
valli (population, 7,270), the head-quarters; and 231 villages. The
land revenue demand in 1903-4 was Rs. 97,000. The Cauvery forms
part of the southern boundary, receiving from the north the Shimsha,
into which all the waters of the taluk flow. About the middle of the
southern boundary are situated the Falls of the Cauvery, on either
side of the island of Sivasamudram. The taluk generally is an un-
dulating plain, except in the south-east, where there are a State forest
and several high hills, including Kabbaldurga (3,507 feet). In the
south-west is Kundurbetta (3,129 feet). The soil is rocky and shallow
in the south-east and northwest, generally red mixed with sand else-
where, and improves in the south-west, vvherc there is some black soil.
Mulberry is the chief garden crop. Some land is irrigated by channels.
The Cauvery Power-works at Sivasamudram have recently attracted
population.

Malavalli Town. — FIcad-quarters of the tdhik of the same name
in Mysore District, Mysore, situated in 12*^ 23' N. and 77° 4' E.,
iS miles south of Maddur railway station. Population (1901), 7,270.
In the seventeenth century it was an important place, with a large
fort, now ruinous. Haidar AH gave Malavalli in jdgir to his son
Tipu, who planted a large fruit garden near the tank, now occupied
by paddy-fields. To the west of the town took place the battle in
which Tipu Sultan was defeated by the British in 1799. After the



74 MALAVALLT TOWN

action he had the place destroyed, to prevent its being of any use
to the British. The establishment of the Cauvery Power-works at
Sivasamudram has revived the importance of Malavalli. A small
Faith Mission has a station here. The municipality dates from 1873.
The receipts and expenditure during the ten years ending 1901
averaged Rs. 1,700. In 1903-4 they were Rs. 2,100 and Rs. 1,600.

Malavalli Village. Village in the Shikarpur taluk of Shimoga
District, Mysore, situated in 14° 29' N. and 75° 19' E., 20 miles north-
west of Shikarpur town. Population (1901), 500. It is of interest on
account of the Satakarni inscription found on a pillar, probably of the
second century, the oldest in Mysore next to the edicts of Asoka.
From this it appears that the village was then called Mattapatti.

Malayagiri. — The highest peak in Orissa, Bengal, situated in the
Pal Lahara Tributary State, in 21° 22' N. and 85° 16' E. The hill,
which is 3,895 feet above the sea, is isolated and commands a magnifi-
cent view over the surrounding country. Water is obtainable near the
summit, on which there is space for building sites.

Malcolmpeth. — Sanitarium in Satara District, Bombay. See
Mahabaleshwar.

Malda District {Mdldaha). — District in the Rajshahi Division of
Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 24° 30' and 25° 32' N.
and 87° 46' and 88° 31' E., with an area of 1,899 square miles. It
is bounded on the north-western corner by Purnea District and on
the north-eastern by Dinajpur ; Rajshahi lies to the south-east, while
the Ganges forms a continuous western and south-western boundary
separating it from the Santal Parganas and Murshidabad.

The Mahananda flows through the District from north to south,
dividing it into two nearly equal parts which present very different
characteristtics. AVest of the river the surface is com-
asnects posed of the newer alluvium and is comparatively

low, a great deal of it having been subject to fluvial
action in very recent times ; the Ganges once washed the walls of
Gaur, but it now flows 16 miles farther west. The eastern half of the
District lies in the older alluvium of the Barind, and has a stiff clay
soil and high undulating surface, broken by the deep valleys of the
Tangan and Purnabhaba and their tributary streams ; towards the
south in the Nawabganj t/idna, as in other portions of the District
bordering on the Ganges, the surface declines into the newer alluvium.
The Ganges skirts the District, forming a natural boundary from the
north-west corner to the extreme south. Its flood-waters, as deflected