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slaughter the sacrificial buffalo on the next Dasahra festival. The
brothers, on being informed of the order, were in great trepidation,
but the goddess Devi appeared to them in a dream and said that all
would be well. When the time came they severed the head of the
buffalo with one stroke of their wooden swords. The Raja was
delighted at their marvellous performance, and asked them to name
their reward. They asked for as much land as would be enclosed
between the lines over which they could walk in one day. This
request was granted, the Raja thinking they would only get a small
plot. The distances walked by them, however, enclosed the present
Sakti State, which their descendants have since held. The swords are
preserved in the family and worshipped at the Dasahra. The last
chief. Raja Ranjit Singh, was deprived of his powers in 1875 for gross
oppression and attempts to support false representations by means of
forged documents, and the management of the State was assumed by
the British (Government. In 1892 Rup Narayan Singh, the eldest son
of the ex-Raja, was installed as chief of Sakti, on his engaging that he
would be guided in all matters of administration by the advice of


a Dlwan appointed by Government. This restriction was subsequently
removed, but was reimposed in 1902. The relations of the State with
Government are in charge of a Political Agent, under the supervision
of the Commissioner, ChhattTsgarh Division. The population in 1901
was 22,301, having decreased by i.: per cent, during the preceding
decade. The number of inhabited villages is 122, and the density of
population 162 persons per square mile. Gonds and Kawars are the
most numerous castes, and the whole population speak the ChhattTs-
garhi dialect of Hindi.

The yellow rice land of ChhattTsgarh extends over most of the State.
No regular agricultural statistics have been prepared since 1893, in
which year the last settlement of revenue was made. It 1904 it was
estimated that 73 square miles, or 53 per cent, of the total area, were
cultivated. Of this, 50 square miles were under rice, the other crops
being kodon and urad. It is believed that there has been little
alteration in the cropping since 1893. The State contains 258 irriga-
tion tanks. The forests lie in the sal belt, and sal {Shorea robiista) is
the principal timber tree, but there is also a little teak. Timber and
other forest produce are exported, and tasar silk cocoons are gathered
for the local demand.

The revenue in 1904 was Rs. 38,000, of which Rs. 21,000 was
derived from land, Rs. 6,900 from forests, and Rs. 4,000 from excise.
The State has been cadastrally surveyed, and in 1893 a summary settle-
ment was made on a rough valuation of the village lands. The villages
are generally let to thekaddrs or farmers, and many of these have been
secured against ejectment. The expenditure in 1904 was Rs. 31,000,
the principal items being general administration (Rs. it, 000), expenses
of the ruling family (Rs. 8,600), and repayment of loans (Rs. 1,200).
The Government tribute is Rs. 1,300, and is liable to revision. The
chief also owns ten villages in Bilaspur District in ordinary proprietary
right. The State has not sought the assistance of the Engineer of
the ChhattTsgarh States division, and manages its own public works.
It supports four vernacular schools, with 280 pupils, at an annual
expenditure of Rs. 400, and a dispensary at SaktI.

Salar Jang Estate. — An estate comprising six taluks situated in
various Districts of the Hyderabad State. It consists of 333 villages,
and has an area of 1,486 square miles, with a population (1901) of
180,150. The taluks are Kosgi in Gulbarga, Ajanta in Aurangabad,
Koppal and Yelbarga in Raichur, Dundgal in Medak, and Raigir in
Nalgonda. The total revenue is 8-2 lakhs.

The present representative of the family is Nawab Salar Jang, grand-
son of the late Sir Salar Jang, G.C.S.I., the great minister of the
Nizam V The family claim descent from Shaikh Owais of Karan, who
' Met)ioirs of Sir Salar Jang, by Syed Hossain Bilgiami (1883).


lived in the time of the Prophet ; Shaikh Owais the second, his tenth
descendant, came to India during the reign of AU Adil Shah (1656-72),
and settled in Bijapur, where his son, Shaikh Muhammad All, married
the daughter of Mulla Ahmad Nawayet\ the minister of the Bijapur
kingdom, by whom he had two sons who rose to high rank. Mulla
Ahmad having joined the imperial service about 1665, his successor
ill-treated the two brothers, who eventually left Bijapur during the reign
of Sikandar Adil Shah and entered the service of Aurangzeb. One
of these, Shaikh Muhammad Bakar by name, was appointed Diwan of
Thal-kokan, and after retiring from active work settled in Aurangabad,
where he died in 17 15. His son. Shaikh Muhammad Taki, served
under Aurangzeb, Bahadur Shah, and Farrukh Siyar. Asaf Jah, the
viceroy of the Deccan, appointed him commander of the garrisons of
all his forts. Shams-ud-din Muhammad Haidar, son of Muhammad
Taki, continued in the service of Asaf Jah, and was promoted by his
successors. Under Salabat Jang his command was raised to 7,000 foot
and 7,000 horse, and he received the title of Munir-ul-mulk, with the
appointment of head steward. He was subsequently made Dlwan of
the Deccan Sil/>a/is, and finally retired to Aurangabad, of which city he
was governor.

He left two sons, the elder of whom, Safdar Khan Ghayur Jang, was
appointed Dlwan of the Deccan SFibahs in 1782, with the title of Ashja-
ul-mulk. The third son of Ghayur Jang, from whom the present
members of the family are directly descended, was All Zaman, Munir-
ul-mulk n. After his death his eldest son became the third Munir-ul-
mulk, and was married successively to two daughters of Mir Alam
(Saiyid Abul Kasim). Mir Alam, who was thus the maternal great-
grandfather of Sir Salar Jang, belonged to the Nuria Saiyids of Shustar
in Persia. His father, Saiyid Razzak, came to India when quite young,
and settled at Hyderabad, where Nizam All Khan bestowed jdglrs
upon him. Mir Alam acted as vakil between the British envoy and
the Hyderabad minister in 1784. Two years later he went to Calcutta
as the Nizam's representative, and in 1791 he was sent to Lord
Cornwallis to discuss the peace proposals between Tipu Sultan and the
allies. He commanded the Nizam's troops in the campaign of 1799
against Tipu, and in 1804 was made minister after the death of Azam-
ul-Umara. After his death in 1808, he was succeeded as minister by
his son-in-law, Munir-ul-mulk III.

Sir Salar Jang, the grandson of Munir-ul-mulk III, succeeded his
uncle Siraj-ul-mulk of Hyderabad in 1853. For thirty years the story of
his life is the history of the Hyderabad State, to the article on which
reference should be made. For his eminent services he was made

' Vide History of Nmvayets, by Xawfib Aziz Jang, published at Hyderabad. 1313
Fasli (1904}.


G.C.S.I., and during a vibit to England in 1876 lie received the D.C.L;
degree at Oxford, and the freedom of the City of London. In 1S84
the Nizam appointed the elder son of Sir Salar Jang as minister, who,
however, resigned in 1887, and died two years later, leaving an infant
son, Nawab Yusuf All Khan Bahadur Salar Jang, who is now the only
direct representative of this distinguished family.

Sale. — South-western township of Myingyan District, Upper Burma,
lying along the Irrawaddy, between 20° 32' and 20° 56' N. and 94° 43'
and 95° 2' E., with an area of 498 square miles. The soil is poor ;
near the river late sesamum is the chief crop, while on the less fertile
lands farther from the stream the staple is early sesamum, followed by
millet, beans, or hi. The population was 45,394 in 1891, and 33,993
in 1901, distributed in 157 villages. Sale (population, 2,514), a village
on the bank of the Irrawaddy, and a port of call for river steamers,
is the head-quarters. In 1903-4 the area cultivated was 113 square
miles, and the land revenue and thathameda amounted to Rs. 46,000.

Salem District. — An inland District in the south of the Madras
Presidency, lying between 11° \' and 12° 54' N. and 77° 29' and 79°
2' E., with an area of 7,530 square miles. It is bounded on the north
by Mysore and North Arcot ; on the east by North and South Arcot
and Trichinopoly ; on the south by Trichinopoly and Coimbatore ; and
on the west by Coimbatore and the State of Mysore.

Salem is made up of three distinct tracts of country, which were

formerly known as the Balaghat, the Baramahal, and the Talaghat.

The Balaghat, consisting of the Hosur taluk, is

situated on the Mysore table-land and is the most ^^ ,.

•' aspects.

elevated portion of the District, the greater part of it
being 3,000 feet above sea-level. The Baramahal is the next step in
descent, and its extensive plain comprises the Krishnagiri, Dharmapuri,
Tiruppattur, and Uttangarai taluks. Of these, Krishnagiri slopes from
2,000 down to 1,300 feet, which is the general level of the other three.
An almost unbroken chain of hills, traversing the District a little south
of its centre from east-south-east to west-north-west, separates this tract
from the Talaghat. The latter, comprising the Salem, Atur, Namakkal,
and Tiruchengodu taluks, is, as its name imports, below the Eastern
Ghats, and descends from a maximum of about 1,200 feet in the Salem
taluk to the level of the plains of the Carnatic on the east and south.
The southern Talaghat is marked by three most striking masses of
rock, all alike more or less bare of vegetation : namely, the walled and
battlemented height of Namakkal, the crescent-topped hill-fortress of
Tiruchengodu, and the great, square, white mass of Sankaridrug.
From it, over a saddle on the north-western base of the Kollaimalais,
an unsuspected ghat., guarded by a huge statue of Hanuman, descends
into the gardens of Namagiripet and Rasipur. Emerging from this
VOL. XXL c c


valley, which i^ ^hul in by the Bodaiiuilais, one reaches the higher
plateau of the northern Talaghat, studded from end to end with
numerous isolated hills. Particularly striking are the serrated ridge
of the Kanjamalai outlined sharply against the south-western sky,
and the peaks of the Godumalai which rise boldly on the east towards
the Atur valley. Much mineral wealth lies hidden in these hills ; their
iron is exceedingly rich, and valuable beds of white magnesite, which
local tradition declares to be the bones of the legendary bird Jatayu,
crop out among the hills on either side of the railway before it enters
Salem city.

The great mountain screen above referred to, which stretches across
the District with the Shevarovs as its centre, is pierced by four passes
giving access from the Talaghat to the Baramahal. The easternmost
of these is the Kottapatti pass, leading to the village of the same name
at the head of a lovely valley stretching away to the historic ghat of
Changama (Chengam), through which flows the trade from the north
into the ancient mart of Tiruvannamalai. This Kottapatti pass
separates the Tenandamalai from the range of the Kalrayans. On
either side of the Shevaroys is a ghat leading to the two great land-
marks of the Baramahal country. The trunk road over the eastern,
or Manjavadi ghat, passes to the left of the Chitteri hills and wnnds
round Harur towards the sacred heights of TTrthamalai (3,500 feet).
On the west, the railway, toiling up the Morurpatti ghat, kee[)s the
Vattalamalai to the left and runs past the sharp peak of Mukkanur
(4,000 feet). The westernmost, or Toppur pass, leads to the rolling
downs of Dharmapuri.

On the north-east of the Baramahal the Javadis hang like a curtain.
From the breezy top of Kambugudi (3,840 feet) there is a fine view
of the fertile Alangayam valley, of which Munro wrote, ' There is
nothing to be compared to it in England, nor, what )Ou will think
higher praise, in Scotland.' A rifle-shot carries across from the Javadis
to the Yelagiri, which is more healthy, and deserves to be more
popular, than the other minor hill ranges. An extensive view of the
whole Baramahal country is obtained from this hill. On the right
gleam the white minarets of Vaniyambadi, above the dark groves of
coco-nut that stretch away on both sides of the Palar. To the left
the great red plain heaves into billows, and its many rocky hills seem
to surge against the mountain guard of the Balaghat, from which the
country rises tier over tier to the Mysore plateau.

The Melagiris, the chief hill range of the Balaghat, attain a height
of over 4,500 feet at their southern extremity. Sandal-wood and
valuable timber abound here, as well as in the Denkanikota jungles.
The rolling uplands of the Balaghat or Hosur taluk are admirably
adapted for pasture ; and abundant forage is available at the Ca\alr}


Remount Depot at Maltagiri, which, with its paddocks and hedgerows
and the green lanes between, recalls the familiar features of an English

The river systems of Salem are four in number. The chief stream
in the District is the Cauverv, which flows along its western and
southern boundaries, separating it from Coimbatore, and is joined by
the Sanatkumaranadi, the Sarabhanganadi, the Tirumanimuttar, the
Karuvattar, and the Aiyar rivers. The second system may be called
the Vellar system : to it belong the Vasishtanadi and the Swetanadi,
which drain two parallel valleys running east and west in the Atur fdluk,
the former carrying off the drainage of the Kalrayans and the latter that
of the KoUaimalais and Pachaimalais. The third system is that of
the PoNNAiVAR, which flows through the Balaghat and Baramahal to
the east coast. The last and smallest system is that of the Palar,
which traverses the northern corner of Tiruppattur.

Geologically, Salem is covered with gneisses and crystalline schists
belonging to the older and younger Archaeans of Southern India. The
quartz-magnesite schists of the Kanjamalai, Tirthamalai, KoUaimalais,
and the Javadis, beds of great thickness with an average of 40 per cent,
richness in iron, are included in the latter class ; and the former is
represented by the lower platform of mixed gneisses, chiefly micaceous
and hornblendic, partially laid bare in the plains round Salem cit}'.
The more massive plutonic Archaeans associated with the mixed
gneisses comprise the charnockite series of granulites, well developed
in the rugged masses of the Shevaroys and elsewhere, on the eastern
borders of which occurs a line of exposures of corundum : the biotite
gneissose granite of the Baramahal, which builds the sharp cones and
drugs of that country ; and the mottled gneiss of Uttangarai. The
only rocks of later age than these Archaeans are a scattered set of
younger intrusives of considerable interest, including an enormous
number of rock types. Among them are the dunites, the magne-
site of the Chalk Hills, and some acid pegmatites containing good

Varying so considerably in altitude and in rainfall, the District
naturally contains a wide range of flora. On the lowest levels are the
usual Coromandel plants, while at Yercaud on the Shevaroys English
fruits, flowers, and vegetables flourish wonderfully, and the wild flora is
almost that of zones of heavy rainfall.

The District is not rich in large game. Tigers and bears are met
with in the hills adjoining the Cauvery in the Hosur and Dharmapuri
taluks, and an elephant occasionally wanders across from the Coimba-
tore side. Bears and leopards have been almost exterminated on the
Shevaroys, and deer are now unknown there. The Malaiyalis on all
the hill ranges have enormously reduced the quantity of small game ;

c c 2


but the jungles in the i)lains still abound with hares, partridges, quail,
and spur-fowl.

In Hosur, which is on the Mysore table-land, the climate is as
pleasant as that of Bangalore, while in the lower Talaghat section the
heat is as oppressive as in the adjoining District of Trichinopoly. The
mean temperature of Salem city is 82°. The Shevaroys from their
elevation naturally boast the coolest climate in the District, the thermo-
meter rarely rising above 75° in the hottest months. The other hill
ranges approach the Shevaroys in this respect, but they are not free
from the drawback of malaria.

The rainfall is fairly evenly distributed through the plains, except in
the two southernmost taluks of Namakkal and Tiruchengodu, which
get an average of only 30 inches annually as compared with the District
average of 32. 'I'he Shevaroys are quite exceptional, receiving nearly
double as much as the rest of the District.

Floods on a large scale are unknown. In the autunm of 1874 heavy
freshes occurred in the Palar, washing away the railway line in several
places and sweeping away a portion of the town of Vaniyambadi. This
disaster was repeated on a larger scale in November, 1903, when, owing
to the bursting of tanks in Mysore, the river rose even higher than
before and two suburbs of the town were completely ruined.

The District was never an independent political entity. In early
times the north of it was ruled by the Pallavas, while the south was
included in the Kongu kingdom. In the ninth cen-
tury the Chola kings annexed the whole, and subse-
quently it passed under the Hoysala Ballalas. In the fourteenth
century it was conquered by the Hindu kings of Vijayanagar, whose
sway was acknowledged till the beginning of the seventeenth century,
when the District passed under the Naik rulers of Madura. From 1652
parts of it began to fall under the power of the rising Hindu dynasty of
Mysore, till the whole was absorbed by Chikka Deva Raja, the greatest
of them, about 1688-90. In 1761 Haidar Ah usurped the Mysore
throne. In 1767 the English reduced portions of the Baramahal and
carried on, both within and without it, a desultory warfare with Haidar,
in which the latter had the advantage. By the treaty which concluded
the war with Haidar's son Tipu in 1792 the whole District, excepting
the Hosur taluk, fell to the Company. After the fall of Seringapatam
and the death of Tii)u in 1799, Hosur also passed to the English.

The chief objects of anticjuarian interest in the District are the old
fortresses at Krishnagiri, Namakkal, and Sankaridrug.

Excepting Coimbatore, Salem is the most sparsely peopled of the

_ , . southern Districts of the Presidency. The numbers

Population. 1 r ,- ,, , r. \

cii the four enumerations were as follows: (1871)

i»y66,995, (1881) J,599>595. (1891) 1,962,591, and (1901) 2,204,974.



The decrease of 19 per cent, in i88r was clue to the severity of the
great famine of 1876-8 ; but the recovery was rapid during the ten years
ending 1901, the rate of increase being higher than in any District except
Kistna. Salem consists of nine /(links, the head-quarters of which are
at the places from which each is named. Statistics of them according
to the Census of 1901 are appended : —








Atur .


Tiruchengodu .

District total

i t

Number of 1

1 "•


' 1







507 i



5«o \































h^C5 COO Q

uJ= C _.


tween i
and 19


persons a

read a


+ 1S.7


+ 15-2


+ 15-5


+ 9.1


+ 15-4

4,3M 1

+ 12.7


+ 8.9


+ 4-6


+ i6-5


+ 12.4


The chief of the eleven towns in the District are the three munici-
palities of Salem, Tiruppattur, and Vaniyambadi. Of the population
in 1901, 2,116,768, or 96 per cent., were Hindus; 68,497 were Musal-
mans ; and 19,642 Christians. Tamil is the mother tongue of 71 per
cent, of the people, and Telugu is spoken by 19 per cent. In Hosur
Kanarese is the vernacular of a considerable proportion.

As elsewhere, agriculture is the predominant occupation. The largest
castes are all agriculturists, the most numerous being the Pallis
(516,000), Vellalans (396,000), and Paraiyans (185,000). Brahmans
are unusually few, numbering only 15 in every 1,000 of the population,
or less than in any area except the three Agencies in the north of the
Presidency and the Nilgiris. The shepherd Kurumbans (50,000) and
the Kuravans, a wandering people who have a bad reputation for crime,
are more numerous in Salem than in any other District.

Of the total Christian population in 1901, 18,701 were natives of
India. Of the various sects, the Roman Catholics greatly preponderate,
numbering 17,624. The foundation of the Christian Church in the
District was laid in 1630 by the celebrated Robert de Nobili. He
landed in India in 1606, and after founding the well-known mission at
Madura, turned his steps to the north. He passed by Trichinopoly
to Sendamangalam, which was then the capital of a ruler called
Ramachandra Naik, tributary to the king of Madura. This chief
welcomed the missionary and gave him a site on which to build a church;


De Nobili then pushed on to Salem, where after a period of trouble he
succeeded in winning over the ruler there, who was also tributary to
Madura, in 1630. A church was built in the place about this time.
The mission then developed towards the north, and a centre was
established at Koilur in the Dharmapuri td/tik. By the middle of the
eighteenth century the number of converts had reached a large total,
but the suppression of the Jesuits in 1773 checked the advance of
Christianity ; and when Tipii Sultan ascended the throne of Mysore
he ordered the Koilur church to be destroyed and deported half the
Christian population to Mysore, where he sought to convert them
forcibly to Muhammadanism. The work, however, went on in spite
of these difficulties, and at the present day there are Catholic mission-
aries in every part of the District. Of the Protestant missions the
most important is the London Mission, which began work in Salem as
early as 1827.

Agriculturally, the northern and central sections of the District are
generally inferior in soil and situation to the southern or Talaghat
. section. The prevailing soil everywhere is red sand,

which occupies as much as 82 per cent, of the whole
area. This, however, is not the ordinary barren red sand of Trichi-
nopoly and South Arcot, but is of superior quality and as good as red
loam. The first three months of the year are usually rainless, and the
fall in April is not great. The May rainfall, the early showers which
precede the south-west monsoon, is usually copious and marks the
commencement of the cultivation season, which goes on through the
south-west monsoon, on which the District mainly depends, and
the north-east rains. The months during which the largest sowings
are made are July, August, and October ; but over the greater part of
the western taluks a wide area of crop is put in even before June.

A considerable portion of the District is composed of zam'inddri and
itiatn land, which covers 2,052 square miles out of the total area of
7,530. Returns are not available for the zamtnddris, and the area for
which statistics are collected is 5,675 square miles. The table on
the next page gives details for 1903-4, areas being in square miles.

The characteristic food-grains of the District are rdgi {E/eusine
coracatia) and camlni {Pennisetum typhoideum), the former, generally
speaking, being most prominent in the northern and central sections
and the latter in the southern portion. The area under them in 1903-4
was 431 and 516 square miles respectively. Rice is grown largely in
Namakkal and Atur. The former tali/k contains a large area of
plantain and sugar-cane cultivation, and the latter of areca-nut and
coco-nut. Of special crops, the coffee on the Shevaroy Hills is the
most important. It covers an area of 9,000 acres, most of it grown
under European supervision. In Atur 3,000 acres are occupied by



indigo, and in the Hosur faliik mulberry is grown to a small extent for
rearing silkworms.


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