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Government, and made into a separate District of Bhattiana, which was
transferred to the Punjab under the name of Sirsa District after 1857.
See HissAR.

Bhattiprolu. — Village in the Tenali idluk of Guntur District,
Madras, situated in 16° 6' N. and 80° 47'' E., to the north of Repalle.
Population (1901), 3,568. Its interest lies in the Buddhist stupa which
it contains. This was much damaged in the last century by subordi-
nates of the Public Works department, who utilized its marbles for
making a sluice and other constructions, and little of it now remains.
The siupa was 132 feet in diameter, and excavations made in 1892
revealed three caskets containing relics and jewels, which are now in
the Madras Museum. On them are nine inscriptions in the Pali
language, and in characters resembling those of Asoka's inscriptions,
stating that they were made to hold relics of Buddha. The stupa and
these caskets are described in vol. xv of the Reports of the Archaeological
Survey of India.

Bhaun. — Town in the Chakwal tahsll of Jhelum District, Punjab,
situated in 32° 52' N. and 72° 40' E., on the southern extremity of
the Dhanni plain. Population (1901), 5,340. The town possesses
a vernacular middle school, maintained by the District board.

Bhaunagar State {Bhdvfiagar). — State in the Kathiawar Political
Agency, Bombay, lying between 20° and 22° 18'' N. and 71° 15' and



BHAUNAGAR STATE 93

72° 18' E., with an area of 2,860 square miles. It is bounded on

the north by Ranpur, Ahmadabad District, and the Panchal ; on the

east by the Gulf of Cambay and the Dhandhuka tdluka of Ahmadabad ;

on the south by the Arabian Sea ; and on the west by Sorath and

Halar.

The country has a very varied aspect, being in some parts a mere

salt fiat, in others a rich plain of black soil, while portions of the Sihor

range and the hills in the Kundla subdivision lend

a mountainous appearance to other parts. The prin- Pnysical
t aspects,

cipal ranges of hills are those of Sihor, Khokra, Und,

the Babriadhar, and the outlying hills of the Glr on the western border
the highest hill being Mitiala (over 1,000 feet). They are all volcanic,
and consist of trap and basalt, piercing, and in some places elevating,
a course of sandy limestone. In places laterite of good quality for
building and a conglomerate abounding in fossils are found. The
principal rivers are the Shetrunji, Bagad, and Malan, the waters of
which are used for irrigation. The State contains a fine artificial
lake about 5 miles in circumference near the capital, formed by an
embankment across the bed of the Gadechi river. The climate on
the sea-coast is good, but hot and dry inland. The annual rainfall
averages 25 inches.

The Gohel Rajputs, to which tribe the chief of Bhaunagar belongs,
are said to have settled in the country about the year 1260 under
Sajakji, from whose three sons — Ranoji, Saranji, and
Shahji — are descended respectively the chiefs of '^ ^^^'

Bhaunagar, Lathi, and Palitana. The Vala State also is an offshoot
from Bhaunagar. The town of Bhaunagar was founded in 1723 by Bhau-
singhji, grandfather of '\^'akhat Singh, who succeeded to the chiefship
in 1772. Bhausinghji, his son Rawal Akherajji, and his grandson
Wakhat Singh, took pains to improve the trade of their country and to
destroy the pirates who infested the neighbouring seas. An intimate con-
nexion was thus formed between Bhaunagar and the Bombay Government.
In 1759 the British acquired the right to a fourth share in the customs
of the port of Bhaunagar from the SidT of Surat, to whom it had been
granted by Bhausinghji as the price of protection from the Nawab
of Cambay. In 177 1 Rawal Akherajji assisted the Bombay Govern-
ment in reducing Talaja and Mahuva, which were occupied by piratical
Kolis. After the conquest of Talaja, the fort was offered to Akherajji
by the Bombay Government ; but he refused to accept it, and it was in
consequence made over to the Nawab of Cambay. "W^akhat Singh,
however, after his accession, dispossessed the Nawab of the fort, which,
under an engagement arranged by the British Government in 1773,
he was allowed to retain on paying a sum of Rs. 75,000. The boun-
daries of the Bhaunagar State were largely increased by various other



94 BHAUNAGAR STATE

acquisitions made by VVakhat Singh previous to the settlement of
Kathiawar.

When Gujarat and Kathiawar were divided between the Peshwa and
the Gaikwar, the western and larger portion of the Bhaunagar posses-
sions were included in the Gaikwar's share ; while the eastern and
smaller portion, including Bhaunagar itself and the original estates of
the family in Sihor, fell to the Peshwa, and formed part of the districts
of Dhandhuka and Gogha, which the Peshwa ceded to the British
Government under the Treaty of Bassein. At the time of the settle-
ment of Kathiawar, therefore, part of the Bhaunagar possessions had
already become British territory, while part remained under the
Gaikwar. The revenue {Jama) demanded from the British portion
was Rs. 11,650, and that payable to the Gaikwar was fixed at
Rs. 74,500. But as it was expedient to consolidate in the hands of
the British Government the various claims over Bhaunagar, an agree-
ment was made with the Thakur's consent for the transfer of the
Gaikwar's tribute in Bhaunagar to the British Government, which was
accordingly included in the cessions made in 1807 by the Gaikwar for
the support of a contingent force. In 1840 the British abolished the
mint at Bhaunagar, where copper money had been previously coined.
As compensation for this, a sum of Rs. 2,800 a year was granted to the
Thakur. A further sum of Rs. 4,000 was given to him, in considera-
tion of his resigning all claims to a share in the land or sea customs
of Gogha. The Thakur also subscribed the usual engagements,
exempting from duty vessels putting into his port under stress ot
weather.

After the cession of Dhandhuka and Gogha, the chief of Bhaunagar
was tacitly permitted to exercise the same powers as before in the
portion of his land which fell within those districts. But in conse-
quence of a serious abuse of power, the estates were in 1816 placed
under the jurisdiction of the English courts. The Thakur never
ceased to complain of this change ; and eventually, after full investiga-
tion, an agreement was concluded, by which the Thakur's revenue in
his British estates was fixed at Rs. 52,000 in perpetuity. In 1866
certain villages in this portion of the State were removed from the
jurisdiction of the revenue, civil, and criminal courts of the Bombay
Presidency, and transferred to the supervision of the Agent to the
Governor in Kathiawar. In 1873 the Bhaunagar State made an agree-
ment with the British Government for the construction of a telegraph
line between Bhaunagar and Dholera.

The Thakur Sahib of Bhaunagar is entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns,
and was created a K. C.S.I, in 1904. He has received a satiad author-
izing adoption, and the succession follows the rule of primogeniture.

The population of Bhaunagar at the last four enumerations was :



ADMINISTRATION 95

(1872) 428,500, (1881) 400,323, (1891) 467,282, and (1901) 412,664,

showinLT a decrease of 12 per cent, during the last _. , ^.
... , ^ r ^ rr^i Population.

decade owing to the famine of 1899- 1900. The

density of population is 144 persons per square mile. In 1901 Hindus

numbered 350,886; Musalnians, 40,323; and Jains, 20,761. The

State contains 11 towns and 655 villages. The capital is Bhaunagar

Town.

More than one-half of the total area consists of regar or black cotton
soil, the remainder being light and sandy. Of the total cultivable
area of 1,092 square miles, 983i were cultivated in .

1903-4, of which 108 square miles were irrigated.
Water is obtained from wells and rivers. Two experimental planta-
tions, containing 44,000 trees of various kinds, are maintained at
Mahuva and Sihor. The chief products are grain, cotton, and salt ;
and the chief manufactures are oil, copper and brass vessels, and cloth.
The State contains 1 1 cotton-presses, 9 ginning factories, and one
spinning and weaving mill. The quantity of cotton produced is very
considerable, and forms one of the chief sources of wealth of the
State. The exports from its various ports in 1903-4 were returned
at a total value of 130 lakhs ; imports at 91 lakhs. The only impor-
tant forests are the Sihor forests, chiefly of thorny acacias, with a few
tamarind and liiin trees. Horse-breeding is carried on with ten stal-
lions, and mule-breeding with one Italian donkey stallion. At the
veterinary hospital 1,211 animals were treated in 1903-4. Roads have
been constructed from Bhaunagar to Vartej and Gogha, and to Dhasa.
About 120 miles of the Bhavnagar-Gondal Railway runs through the
State, the net earnings since the line was opened being 1 1 lakhs in excess
of capital outlay. The chief has proposed to construct a metre-gauge
line between Ranpur and Dholka via Dhandhuka.

Bhaunagar ranks as a first-class Tributary State in Kathiawar. The

chief exercises powers of life and death over all persons, the trial of

British subjects for capital offences requiring the pre- . , . .

. . r , , , A , Administration.

vious permission 01 the Agent to the Governor ; and

he pays a tribute of i-| lakhs jointly to the British Government, the
Gaikwar, and the Nawab of Junagarh. The income of the State in
1 903-4 was 31 lakhs, excluding the earnings of the Bhavnagar Railway,
which amounted to 8 lakhs. The expenditure was 35 lakhs, of which
more than 4 lakhs represents expenditure on railways. The State does
not levy transit dues. A revenue survey is being carried out in 161 vil-
lages. A State savings bank was established in 1902, which has
a current deposit of more than 2 lakhs, and which lent and recovered
4 lakhs in 1903-4. There are ten municipalities, the largest of which
is Bhaunagar town, with a total income of Rs. 47,000 in 1903-4. The
State maintains a regiment of Imperial Service Lancers, 256 strong,



96 BHAUNAGAR STATE

51 cavalry, and 285 infantry, as well as a police force of 551, of whom
47 are mounted. Including an Arts college attended by 74 students and
a high school, there were in 1903-4 148 educational establishments,
attended by 12,462 pupils, of whom 2,311 were girls. Besides these,
indigenous schools contain 2,166 pupils. The State has founded
57 scholarships of the aggregate monthly value of Rs. 457. The two
hospitals, one of which is for plague patients, and 1 7 dispensaries in
the State, were attended in 1903-4 by 125,898 patients, of whom
1,103 were in-patients. In the same year 7,000 persons were vac-
cinated.

Bhaunagar Town {BhavJiagar). — Town and port in the Gulf of
Cambay, and capital of the State of the same name in Kathiawar,
Bombay, situated in 21° 45' N. and 72° 12' E. Population (1901),
56,442 : namely, 40,677 Hindus, 4,463 Musalmans, 10,681 Jains, 248
Christians, and 373 Parsis. The town was founded in 1723 by Bhau-
singhji, and rapidly rose to influence under a line of princes who
encouraged commerce and suppressed the piratical communities that
infested the Gulf of Cambay. It has a good and safe harbour for
shipping of light draught, and carries on an extensive trade as one
of the principal markets and harbours of export for cotton in Kathia-
war. It possesses a spinning and weaving mill with 14,288 spindles
and 240 looms, and several steam presses. The harbour is difficult
of access, being approached by a winding creek. The total sea-borne
trade in 1903-4 was valued at 221 lakhs : namely, exports 130 lakhs
and imports 91 lakhs. Besides manufactures of several kinds, such
as cloth, sugar-candy, boxes bound in brass and iron, carriages, tur-
bans, &c., there are a Mangalore tile and brick factory, a saw-mill,
an ice factory, and iron foundry. The town is administered by a
municipality, with an income exceeding Rs. 44,000 in 1903-4. The
Gauri Shankar lake, or the Ganga Talao, constructed at a cost of
nearly 6 lakhs, is the chief source of water-supply for the town and
shipping. Besides numerous temples and mosques the town has two
churches, a Christian burial-ground, and a ' tower of silence.' Of the
several public buildings, the Victoria Jubilee water-works, the Percival
market and the Percival fountain, the Peile gardens and the Victoria
Park, the Court of Justice, and the high school are prominent. The
town contains two hospitals, one of which is for plague patients only.

Bhavani River. — A picturesque perennial river of Southern India,
rising in the Attapadi valley in Malabar District, in 11° 14' N. and
76° 32' E., and traversing from west to east for 105 miles the taluks
of Satyamangalam and Bhavani in Coimbatore till it falls into the
Cauvery near Bhavani town. The confluence is considered very holy
and is frequented by pilgrims. Deriving its supplies principally from
the south-west monsoon, the Bhavani receives its first freshes about



BHAVANI TALUK 97

the end of May, is at its highest flood from June to August, and thence-
forward, with occasional floods in the north-east monsoon, gradually
subsides. It is fed by a number of small tributaries from the slopes
of the Nilgiris on the north and the more open country to the south.
The most considerable of these is the Moyar, which drains the northern
side of the Nllgiri plateau, and joins the Bhavani near Kottamangalani.
The Bhavani is crossed by the ghat road and the metre-gauge rack
railway to the Nilgiris at Mettupalaiyam, and by road bridges at Satya-
mangalam and Bhavani. Twice recently it has come down in consider-
able floods: in 1882 great damage was done along its banks, and in
1902 the road bridge at Mettupalaiyam was carried away. Otters are
found in it, and it is famous for its mahseer and other fish. It affords
the best irrigation in Coimbatore District by the Tadampalli, Arakkan
kottai, and Kalingarayan channels, which together water 39,000 acres ;
and it has given its name to a considerable irrigation project which has
been much discussed. This consists in forming a reservoir about
4 miles above Satyamangalam to contain 27,000 million cubic feet
of water. Opinion is divided as to how this water should be used ;
but the project in its present form does not contemplate any extension
of irrigation in Coimbatore District, but provides for the water being
utilized to supplement the Cauvery irrigation in Tanjore during
September and October. The question has arisen whether a reservoir
could not be more advantageously constructed lower down on the Cau-
very itself, and this is still under investigation. The forests which
protect the head-waters of the Bhavani are largely owned by private
individuals ; and unless they are carefully preserved, the effect on the
water-supply for irrigation from the river may in time be very serious.

Bhavani Taluk. — North-eastern taluk of Coimbatore District^
Madras, lying between 11° 23' and 11° 57' N. and 77° 25' and 77°
51' E., with an area of 715 square miles. It is bounded on the east
and south by the Cauvery and Bhavani rivers, which unite at its
south-east corner. In the north and west large portions are covered
by the Bargur hills, and consequently the taluk is poorly supplied
with roads. It lies off" the railway, and has only one considerable
town, Bhavani (population, 8,637), the head-quarters, and 62 villages.
The population rose from 119,869 in 1891 to 145,982 in 1901, showing
an increase of nearly 22 per cent., which is greater than in any other
taluk in the District. The proportion of Christians is above the
District average, being between 2 and 3 per cent, of the total popu-
lation. Muhammadans are much fewer. The number of persons
able to read and write is small as compared with other taluks. The
demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,55,000.
More than half the taluk is covered with forest. Of the cultivable area
about a tenth is usually irrigated and a fourth is unoccupied. Camhu

VOL. VIII. H



98 BHAVANI TALUK

is much more widely grown than any other crop, and cholam and rdgi
are also raised in fair quantities. The rainfall averages 29 inches
annually at Bhavani town, but is less in the west of the taluk. A
hard and valuable iron is smelted in small quantities, and corundum
is worked irregularly at Salangaippalaiyam ; there is also a brisk trade
in cloths and forest produce at Bhavani ; but otherwise there are no
industries worth mentioning. The Bargur cattle, bred in the hills of
the same name, are of medium size, and, though rather intractable,
are attractive in appearance, fast, and strong.

Bhavani Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name
in Coimbatore District, Madras, situated in 11° 27' N. and 77° 40' E.>
9 miles north of Erode, at the confluence of the Bhavani and Cauvery
rivers. Population (1901), 8,637. It was for a short time at the
beginning of last century the head-quarters of the northern portion
of the District, but is now important only as a place of pilgrimage,
its sanctity being due to its position at the junction of the two rivers.
Both of these are crossed here by fine masonry bridges, as the main
road from Madras to Calicut once passed this way. That over the
Cauvery was originally built in 1847, t»ut was washed away almost
at once, and was reconstructed in 1851. The temple of Sangama
Iswara ('the god of the confluence') is well sculptured and is much
revered. The old fort is said to have been built by a local chieftain
who held it under the kings of Madura. The town contains a large
number of Brahmans and other persons attached to the temple, and
is notorious for petty intrigues. Good cotton cloth and carpets are
made here ; the latter took a first prize at the Madras Exhibition in
1883. The place is said to have once been famous for its dyes.

Bhavnagar. — Native State and town in Kathiawar, Bombay. See
Bhaunagar.

Bhavsari {Bhosari, also known as Bhojpur). — Village in the Haveli
tdluka of Poona District, Bombay, situated in 18° 37' N. and 73° 53' E.,
at the first stage on the Nasik road, about 8 miles north of Poona city.
Population (1901), 1,697. The place is remarkable for a number of
large rude stones forming enclosures to the east, south, and west of the
village, and numerous stone slabs bearing roughly carved figures of men
fighting, cattle raids, dead men, and heavenly damsels. As far as they
have been examined, none of these stones, whether found in mounds,
lines, or walls, has any writing. The discovery of pieces of bones in
one of the mounds supports the view that the circles and heaps of
stones and the solitary standing stones are funeral monuments. With-
out inscription or the discovery of further relics it is impo.ssible to fix
the age of these monuments, even within wide limits. There seems no
reason to doubt that they are old, certainly older than the Musalmans,
and probably older than the Silaharas or the Yadavas (850-1310). The



BHERA TAHSIL



99



absence of any signs of a mound, in many cases, and the absence of
relics in several of the momids, suggest that some of these monuments
are cenotaphs raised to people whose bodies were buried or burnt
in some other place. The carved battle-stones show that, till Musal-
man times, Bhavsari continued a favourite place for commemorating
the dead ; and the number of shrines to Satvai, Khandoba, Mhasoba,
Chedoba, Vir, and other spirits, seems to show that the village is still
considered to be haunted by the dead. An inscription on a rough
stone attached to a wide burial-mound in Sopara near Bassein proved
that it was raised about 200 b.c. in honour of a person of the Khond
tribe. Khond is the same as Ghond and apparently as Kol. It sur-
vives as Kod, a surname among Kunbis in Thana and elsewhere, and
Marathas, So far as is known, the name does not occur in the Northern
Deccan. The mention of Khonds on the Sopara stone, and the rever-
ence for the dead which is so marked a characteristic of the Bengal
Kols and the Godavari KolTs, suggest that these rude monuments
belong to the Kol or Kolarian under layer or base of the Deccan
population. Stone monuments like those at Bhavsari have not yet
been made the subject of special search. They are found scattered
over most of the Deccan.

Bhawalpur. — Native State and town in the Punjab. See Baha-
WALPUR State.

Bhawani. — - Tahs'il and town in Hissar District, Punjab. See
Bhiwani.

Bhawanigarh {or Dhodan). — North-western iahsil of the Karm-
garh nizdmat, Patiala State, Punjab, lying between 29*^ 48'' and 30°
24' N. and 75° 57'' and 76° 18' E., with an area of 499 square miles.
The population in 1901 was 140,309, compared with 140,607 in 1891.
It contains one town, Samana (population, 10,209), ^^"^ 213 villages.
The head-quarters are at the village of Bhawanigarh or Dhodan. The
land revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 3 lakhs.

Bhayavadar. — Town in the State of Gondal, Kathiawar, Bombay,
situated in 21° 51' N. and 70° 17' E., about 15 miles north-west of
Dhoraji, a station on the Bhavnagar-Gondal-Junagarh-Porbandar
Railway. Population (1901), 5,918. At the collapse of the Mughal
empire it fell into the hands of the Desais, who about 1753 sold it
to the Jadeja Haloji of Gondal.

Bheels. — Tribe in Western India. See Bhils.

Bhelsa. — Zila and town in Ciwalior State, Central India. See
BhIlsa.

Bhelsarh. — Town in the District of Ballia, United Provinces. See
Bhalsand.

Bhera Tahsil. — Tahsil of Shahpur District, Punjab, lying between
31° 55' and 32° 37' N. and 72° 43" and 73° 23' E., with an area of

H 2



loo BHERA TAHSIL

1,178 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the Jhelum river,
which divides it from Jhelum District, and on the south-east by the
Chenab. The country between the riverain lowlands on either side
lies at a higher level, but the rich soil of the Jhelum valley is in
marked contrast to the light sandy loam of the Chenab. The soil of
the intervening Bar tract is a good strong loam. The population in
1901 was 194,469, compared with 195,585 in 1891. The tahsll con-
tains the towns of Bhera (population, 18,680), the head-quarters, and
MiANi (7,220); and 294 villages. The land revenue and cesses
amounted in 1903-4 to 4-7 lakhs.

Bhera Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name in
Shahpur District, Punjab, situated in 32° 28' N, and 72" 56' E., on
the left bank of the Jhelum, at the terminus of the Bhera branch of
the North-Western Railway. Population (1901), 18,680. The original
city, which lay on the right bank, was identified by Sir Alexander
Cunningham with the capital of Sophytes, contemporary of Alexander
the Great ; but recent authorities have shared the doubts he afterwards
entertained as to the correctness of this theory. Bhera was sacked by
Mahmud of Ghazni, and two centuries later by the armies of Chingiz
Khan. The history of the old town closes in 15 19, when it was held
to ransom by Babar. Its importance is shown by the fact that the
ransom was fixed at 2 lakhs, and tradition avers that shortly afterwards
it was destroyed by the hill tribes. The new town was founded in or
about 1540 round the fine mosque and tomb of a Muhammadan saint.
The mosque has lately been restored. Bhera was the centre of a mahdl
under Akbar, and was plundered and laid waste by Ahmad Shah's
general, Nur-ud-din, in 1757. It was repopulated by the Sikh chief-
tains of the BhangI confederacy, and has greatly improved under British
rule. It is the largest and most prosperous commercial town in this
part of the Province, having a direct export trade to Kabul, the
Derajat, and Sukkur. and importing European goods from Karachi and
Amritsar. Ornamental knives and daggers are made in the town, and
its jade-work and wood-carving are widely known. It has also a long-
established felt industry. The municipality was created in 1867. The
income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 22,400, and
the expenditure Rs. 22,900. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 28,500,
chiefly from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 26,100. The town
possesses an Anglo-vernacular high school, managed by the Educational
department, and an unaided Anglo-Sanskrit high school, besides a
Government dispensary. A vernacular newspaper, the Dost-i-Hind, is
published in the town.

Bheraghat." — Site of the Marble Rocks on the Narbada in Jubbul-
pore District, Central Provinces.

Bhikhi. — Southern tahsil of the Anahadgarh nizdmat, Patiala State,



THE BHIL TRIBES loi

Punjab, lying between 29° 45' and 30° 14'' N. and 75° 15" and
75° 50' E., with an area of 622 square miles. The population in 1901



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