Great Britain.

Laws concerning the election of members of Parliament : with the determinations of the House of Commons thereon, and all their incidents : continued down to the present time : the whole digested under proper titles : also an appendix of precedents, with a table of the principal matters online

. (page 20 of 24)
Online LibraryGreat BritainLaws concerning the election of members of Parliament : with the determinations of the House of Commons thereon, and all their incidents : continued down to the present time : the whole digested under proper titles : also an appendix of precedents, with a table of the principal matters → online text (page 20 of 24)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


having proper Houfes of their own within the City
of Wefiminfter^ have not Right to give Voices in
the Election of Citizens to ferve in Parliament for
the faid City.

2. MartiSy 1 5 die Decembris, 1741.

The Houfe proceeded to the Hearing of the
Matter of the Petition of the feveral BurgefTes and
Inhabitants of the City and Liberty of Wefiminfter y
whofe Names are thereunto fubfcribed in behalf of
themfelves, and feveral other Burgefies and Inha-
bitants of the faid City and Liberty, complaining
of an undue Election and Return for the faid City,

And the Counfel were called in,

And the Counfel were directed to withdraw.

The Counfel were again called in,

And the faid Petition was read.

And the laft Determination of the Houfe con-
cerning the Right of electing Citizens to ferve in
Parliament for the faid City, made the fifteenth Day
of November ^ One thoufand fix hundred and eighty,
(when the Houfe refolved, that the King's menial
Servants, not having proper Houfes of their own
within the City of ' Wejlminjler, have not a Right to
give Voices in the Election of Citizens to ferve in
Parliament for the faid City) was alfo read.

3. Martisy



( 28 5 )

3. Mortis, 22 die Becembris, 1741.

Refolved, That Mr. John Lever, High Bailiff of
the City oiWejlminfter, at the laft Election of Citi-
zens to ferve in Parliament for the faid City, acted
at the faid Election in an illegal and arbitrary Man-
ner, in prejudice of the Rights of the Electors of
the faid City, and in manifeft Violation of the
Freedom of Eleftions.

Ordered, That the faid Mr. John Lever be for
his faid Offence taken into the Cuftody of the Ser-
jeant at Arms attending this Houfe.

Refolved, That it appears to this Houfe, that a
Body of armed Soldiers, headed by Officers, did
on Friday the eighth Day of May, laft, come in a
military Manner, and take PofTeffion of the Church-
yard of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, near the Place
where the Poll (for the Election of Citizens to ferve
in this prefent Parliament for the City of Wejtmin-
Jler) was taken, before the faid Election was
ended.

Refolved, That the prefence of a regular Body of
armed Soldiers, at an Election of Members to
ferve in Parliament, is an high Infringement of the
Liberties of the Subject, a manifeft Violation of
the Freedom of Elections, and an open Defiance of
the Laws and Conftitution of this Kingdom.

Ordered, That Nathaniel Blackerby, Efq; do at-
tend this Houfe upon Friday the twenty- fecond
Day of January next.

Ordered, That George Howard, Efq-, do attend
this Houfe upon Friday the faid twenty -fecond Day
of January.

Ordered, That Thomas Lediard, Efq; do attend
this Houfe upon Friday the faid twenty -fecond Day
of January.

4. Veneris,



( 286 )

4. Veneris, 22 die Januarii, 1741.

Major General Foliott (attending according to
order) was called in and examined, and produced a
Letter received by him on the eighth Day of May
laft, figned with the Names of Nathaniel Blacker -by ',
George Howard, and T. Lediard, and alfo another
Letter, received by him the fame Day, figned
with the fame Names, and the Names of Three
other Perfons.

And then he withdrew.

And feveral WitnefTes having been examined,
in order to prove the Hand- writing of Nathaniel
Blackerby, George Howard, and Thomas Lediard,
Efqrs;

And being withdrawn,

The faid firft mentioned Letter was read.

Then the faid Nathaniel Blackerby, George How*
ard, and Thomas Lediard, Efqrs-, (attending ac-
cording to order) were called in, and having feve-
rally confeffed that they figned the faid Letter, and
having exprefled their concern for their Offence
therein -,

They withdrew, and the feveral Refolutions of
the Houfe of the twenty -fecond Day of December
laft, in relation to the Body of armed Soldiers,
headed by Officers, coming on the faid eighth
Day of May laft, in a Military Manner, and tak-
ing PofTeflion of the Church-yard of St. Paul,
Covent Garden, near the Place where the Poll (for
the Election of Citizens to ferve in this prefent Par-
liament for the City of JVeftminJler) was taken, be-
fore the faid Election was ended, being read,

Ordered, That the faid Nathaniel Blackerby,
George Howard and Thomas Lediard, having been
called in, and at- the Bar of this Houfe confefled,
that they did fend for, and caufe to come on Friday

the



( 28; )
the eighth Day of May laft, a Body of armed Sol-
diers, headed by Officers in a Military Manner,
who did take Poffeflion of the Church-yard of St.
Paul, Covent Garden* near the Place where the Poll
(for the Election of Citizens to ferve in this prefent
Parliament for the City of Weftminjler) was taken,
before the faid Election was ended, and the faid
Nathaniel Blackerby, George Howard, and Thomas
Lediard, having acknowledged their Offence there-
in, do attend this Houfe to-morrow Morning, in
order to be brought to the Bar thereof, to be re-
primanded on their Knees by Mr. Speaker for the
faid Offence.

5. Sabbati, 23 die Januarii, 1741.

Nathaniel Blacker by, George Howard, and Tho-
mas Lediard, Efqrs; attending according to Order,
were brought to the Bar, and upon their Knees re-
primanded by Mr. Speaker, as the Houfe had di-
rected, and were ordered to be difcharged, paying
their Fees.

Refolved, That the Thanks of this Houfe be
given to Mr. Speaker, for the Speech by him made
upon reprimanding the faid Nathaniel Blackerby,
George Howard, and Thomas Lediard, and that he
be defired to print the fame.

22 diejanuarii, 1749.

6. Notice being taken, that no Return had yet
been made for the Writ, for electing of a Citizen
to ferve in this prefent Parliament for the City of
Weftminjler, in the Room of the Right Honourable
Grenville Levefon Gower, Efq«, commonly called
Lord Vifcount Trentham, (who, fince his Election
for the faid City, had accepted the Office of one of
the Commiffioners for executing the Office of Lord
High Admiral of Great Britain) although the faid

Writ



( 288 )

Writ was ordered upon the fixteenth Day of No-
vember laft, to be made out.

The Order made upon the fixteenth Day of No-
vember laft, for Mr. Speaker to iffue his Warrant to
the Clerk of the Crown for making out the faid
Writ, was read.

Ordered^ That the Clerk of the Crown do attend
this Houfe to-morrow Morning, to give an ac-
count of the iffuing of the faid Writ.

Ordered^ That Mr. John Crawfure, Purfuivant
or Mefienger extraordinary attending the Great
Seal, do attend this Houfe to-morrow Morning,
to give an account of the fending of the faid Writ
to the Sheriff of the County of Middle/ex.

Ordered^ That the Under-fherifF of the County
of Middle/ex, do attend this Houfe to-morrow
Morning, to give an account of the iffuing of a
Precept to the High Bailiff of the City oiWeft-
tninjier, in purfuance of the faid Writ.

Ordered, That the High Bailiff of the City of
Weftminjlerf&o attend this Houfe to-morrow Morn-
ing, to give an Account of the Execution of the
faid Precept.

23 die Fehruariiy 1749.

7. The Deputy-clerk of the Crown (attending
according to Order) gave the Houfe an Account
of the iifuing of the Writ for the electing of a
Citizen to ferve in Parliament for the City oiWejl-
minfter, in the Room of the Right Honourable
Grenville Levefon Gower, Efqj commonly called
Lord Vifcount Trentham, (who, fince his Election
for the iaid City, had accepted the Office of one of
the Commiffioners for executing the Office of Lord
High Admiral of Great Britain) which Writ was
directed upon the fixteenth Day of November laft,
to be made out.

* Mr.



I 2 *9 )

Mr. John Crawford, Purfuivant, or^Meffengef

. Extraordinary attending the Great Seal^ attending

according to order, was called in, and at the Bar

examined, touching the fending of the faid Writ to

the Sheriff of Middle/ex,

And then withdrew.

The Under- fheriff of the County of Middlefex
attending according to order, was called in, and at
the Bar examined, touching the iffuing of a Pre-
cept in purfuance of the faid Writ.

And then he withdrew.

The High Bailiff of the City of Weftminfter at-
tending according to order^ was called, and being
examined at the Bar, acquainted the Houfe that he
is now in the Execution of the faid Precept, that
he had all along endeavoured to avoid all unnecef-
fary Delay therein ; and that, if fome Delay has
happened in the Scrutiny of the Poll (taken at the
Election) which he is now proceeding upon, it has
been fuch only as he did not think, he had furHcient
Power to prevent or remove.

And then he withdrew.

He was again called in,

And Mr. Speaker (by Direction of the Houfe)
recommended fome Particulars of his Duty to him,
and acquainted him, that if he met with any Thing
to obftruct him therein, which he could not pre-
vent, he mould apply to the Houfe upon it, and
might be affured of the Support of the Houfe in
the Difcharge of his Duty ; and that the Houfe ex-
pected he would take care in general to expedite
the Election as much as poffible. -

Upon which he expreffed his great readinefs to
conform himfelf to the Direction of the Houfe,
and faid, that he would ufe his beft Endeavours to
expedite the Election, and hoped to perform his
Duty in general, to the Satisfaction of the Houfe.

And then he withdrew.

U 20 die.



( 200 )

2o die Januarii, 1750-

£. A Petition of the feveral BurgefTes and Inha<*
bitants of the City and Liberty of IVejlminJter*
whofe Names are thereunto fublcribed, on behalf
of themfelves, and feveral other BurgefTes and In-
habitants of the laid City and Liberty, was pre-
fented to the Houfe, and read, complaining of an
undue Election and Return for the laid City of
JVeJiminJler.

Ordered, That the Matter of the faid Petition be
heard at the Bar of this Houfe upon to-morrow
Sevennight, the fifth Day of February next.

A Petition of Sir George Vandeput, Baronet, was
alfo prefented to the Houfe, and read, complaining
of an undue Election and Return foF the City of
Wejlminjier.

Ordered, That the Matter of this Petition be
heard at the Bar of this Houfe, at the fame Time
that the Matter of the Petition of the feveral Bur-
gefTes and Inhabitants of the City and Liberty of
of Wejiminjier, whofe Names are thereunto fub-
fcribed on behalf of themfelves, and feveral other
BurgefTes and Inhabitants of the faid City and Li-
berty, is appointed to be heard.

The Houfe was moved, That the Journal of the
Houfe of the twenty-fecond and twenty-third of
February laft, containing the Entry of the Proceed-
ings of the Houfe in relation to the Execution of the
"Writ which was ordered to be ifTued upon the fix-
teenth Day of November, One thoufand feven hun-
dred and forty-nine, for the electing of a Citizen to
ierve in this prefent Parliament, for the City of
Wefiminjier, in the Room of the Right Honour-
able Granville Levefon Cower, Efq-, commonly
called Lord Vifcount Trentham, might be read ;

And the fame being read accordingly,

Ordered^



( 201 )

brJeredi That Peter Leigh, Efq; High-bailiff of
the City of Weftminfter, do attend this Houfe im-
mediately, in order to give the Houfe an Account
of what he did in purfuance of the Directions given,
to him by this Houfe upon the twenty-third Day
of February laft, in relation to the Execution of the
Precept, iffued to him in purfuance of the faid
Writ.

Peter Leigh, Efq; High Bailiff of the City of
Wejiminfier, attending (according to order) was
called in, and examined in relation to what he did
in purfuance of the faid Directions.

And having, in the Courfe of his Examination,
alledged, that thfe faid Election was protracted by
an affected Delay,

He was directed to withdraw.

Refohed, That the High-bailiff of the City of
Weftminfier, be again called in, and afked, by whom
it was, that the faid Election was protracted, and
by what Means.

The High-bailiff of the City of ' Weftntinfier, was
again called in, and being afked, by whom it wa9
that the faid Election was protracted, and by what
Means.

He named Mr. Crowle.

And having, in the Courfe of his further Exa*
mination, complained of ill Treatment offered to
him by feveral Perfons upon account of his Beha-
viour in relation to the faid Election and Return.

He was again directed to withdraw.

He was again called in, and being required to name
the Perfons from whom he received the ill Treat-
ment of which he had complained.

He named Mr. Alexander Murray , and Mr*
i Gibfott.

And then he again withdrew.

Ordered, That Richard CrowU, Efq-, do attend
this Houfe upon Thurfday Morning next.

U 2 Ordered



( *9* )

Ordered^ That the honourable Alexander Murray,-
Efq-, do attend this Houfe upon Thurfday Morning
next.

Ordered, That— — Gib fin, Upholder in Covent-
Garden, do attend this Houfe upon Iburfday Morn-
ing next.

Ordered, That the High- bailiff of the City of
Wefiminfier, do attend this Houfe upon Thurfday
Morning next, to make good his Charge againlt
the faid feveral Perfons by him named in the Com-
plaint, which he has this Day made to the Houfe,
in regard to the Obftruction he met with in the
Execution of his Office.

3 1 die Januarii, 1 750.-

9. The feveral Orders of the Day for the At-
tendance of Richard CrowIe 9 Efq* the honourable

Alexander Murray, Efq; Gibfon, Upholder in

Covent Garden, and the High-bailiff of the City of
Wefiminfier, being read.

The High-bailiff of the City of Wefiminfier was
called in, and acquainted, that he might now pro-
ceed to make good his Charge againft the feveral
Perfons by him named, to the Houfe on Monday
M.

And Richard Crowle, Efq-, one of the faid Per-
fons, was called in.

And the High- bailiff proceeded to ftate his
Charge againfl the faid Mr. Crowle -,

And Mr. Crowle was heard to the faid Charge.

And the High-bailiff having been heard to
what had been alledged by Mr. Crowle, they were
both directed to withdraw.

Refohed, That the High-bailiff of the City
Wefiminfier, be again called in, and directed to
produce his Evidence upon his Charge againfl
Richard Crowle, Efqi

The



( 2 93 )

The High- bailiff and Mr. Crowk were again
called in.

And the High-bailiff examined feveral Wit-
neffes in fupport of the faid Charge.

And Mr. Crowk was heard, and examined a
Witnefs in anfwer to the faid Charge.

And the High-bailiff was heard by way of
Reply ;

And then they were directed to withdraw.

Refohed, That it appears to this Houfe that
Richard Crowle, Efq-, during the late Scrutiny of the
Poll, for the City of Wejiminjler, after he had full
Notice of the Orders of this Houfe given to the
High-bailiff of the faid City to expedite the faid
Scrutiny, did wilfully and defignedly protract the
fame ; and when he was reminded of the faid Or-
ders by the High-bailiff, did publicly avow and
declare he had done fo, and did utter difrefpect-
ful Words in Contempt of the Authority of this
Houfe.

Ordered, That the faid Mr. Crowle be now
brought to the Bar of this Houfe, and be upon his
knees reprimanded by Mr. Speaker, and difcharg-
cd, paying his Fees.

Ordered, That the further Confideration of the
Charge made by the High-bailiff of the City of
fttjlminfter, be adjourned till to-morrow Morning.

i die Februarii y 1750.

10. The Houfe (according to Order) refumed
the adjourned Confideration of the Charge made to
the Houfe upon Monday lafl: by the High-bailiff of
thp City of IVeftminfter.

And the High-bailiff was called in, and directed
to proceed to make good the reft of his Charge ;

And then he was directed to withdraw.

He was again called in

U 3 A: id



( 294 )

And the honourable Alexander Murray, Efq-,
One of the Ferfons named in the faid Charge, was
alfo called in.

And the High- bailiff proceeded to ftate his
Charge againft the faid Mr. Murray.

And Mr. Murray having been heard to the faid
Charge, and having denied the fame, and defiring
to make his Defence thereto by Counfel.

They were both directed to withdraw.

The Houfe was moved, that Part of an Ac!
made in the twentieth Year of his prefent Majefty's
Reign, intitled, An Aft for allowing Perfons im-
peached of High Treafon, whereby any Corruption of
Blood may be made, or for mifprifion of fuch Treafon,
to make their full Defence by Counfel, might be
read ;

And the fame was read accordingly.

Mr. Murray was again called in ;

And being afked, whether his Counfel were
ready to proceed, he acquainted the Houfe that he
had fent for them ; that he was ready himfelf, but
did not know, whether they would be ready to
proceed this Day,

And then he was again directed to withdraw.

Ordered, That Mr. Murray be admitted to be
heard at the Bar of this Houfe by his Counfel,
upon the Matter of the Charge made againft him
by the High-bailiff of the City oiWeftminfler.

Ordered, Tha; the High- bailiff of the City of
Weftminfter, be admitted to be heard by Counfel,
in fupj^prt of the Charge, if he thinks fit.

Ordered, That the faid Mr. Murray be taken into
the Cuftqdy of the Serjeant at Arms attending this
Houfe ; and that when he fhall be in fuch Cuf-
tody, the Serjeant at Arms attending this Houfe
do tajte fuch Bail for the faid Mr. Murray, as fhail
^c approved by Mr. Speaker, for the faid Mr. Mur-



( *95 )
ray's Attendances upon this Houfe, from Time to
Time, as often as he (hall be required thereunto.

Ordered, That the further Confideration of that
Part of the faid Charge, which relates to the faid
Mr. Murray, be adjourned till Wednefday Morning
next.

Ordered, That the Charge made by the High-
bailiffof the City of Weflminfter, againft the faid
Mr. Murray, be by him put into Writing, and
delivered to the Clerk of this Houfe; and that a
Copy of the faid Charge be delivered to the faid
Mr. Murray.

The High-bailiff was again called in.

And John Gibfon, another of the Perfons named
in the Charge made to the Houfe upon Monday
laft, by the faid High- bailiff, was alfo called in.

The High- bailiff proceeded to ftate his Charge
againft the faid Mr. Gibfon.

And Mr. Gibfon having been heard to the faid
Charge, and having denied the fame ;

The High-bailiff examined feveral Witnefles in
fupport of the former pan of the faid Charge.

And having called another Witnefs,

The High-bailiff; Mr. Gibfon, and the faid Wit-
nefs were directed to withdraw.

The High-bailiff and Mr. Gibfon were agai«
called in.

And the High -bailiff having acquainted the
Houfe, that he had called the faid Witnefs in fup-
port of the latter Part of his faid Charge.

The High-bailiff and Mr. Gibfon were again di-
rected to withdraw.

They were again called in.,

And the High- bailiff was directed to confine
^imfclf to the former Part of the faid Charge.

And he having acquainted the faid Houfe, that
he had gone through his Evidence in fupport of
jfrat Part of the faid Charge.

U 4 Mr.



( 296)

Mr. Gibfon was heard, and examined feveral Wit-
neffes in Anfwer to the faid Charge.

And having referred to a Member of the Houfe,
as having been prefent at the Time mentioned iri
the Charge.

The faid Member did in his Place inform the
Houfe of what he knew concerning the Matter of
the faid Charge.

And Mr. Gibfon having gone through his Evi-
dence, referring to a Member of the Houfe, as
having been prefent at the Time mentioned in the
Charge.

The faid Member did in his Place inform the
Houfe of what he knew concerning the Matter of
the faid Charge.

And then the High-bailiff and Mr. Gibfon were
directed to withdraw.

And feveral Members did in their Places inform
the Houfe of what they knew concerning the Matter
of the faid Charge.

The Houfe was moved, that the Entry of the
former Part of the faid Charge by the High-
bailiff againfl the faid Mr. Gibfon, might be read j
And the fame was read accordingly.
Refohed, That it appears to this Houfe, that
the faid Mr. John Gibfon is guilty of an high
Contempt of the Authority and Privileges of this
Houfe, by reflecting on the Proceedings of this
Houfe, and of the Legiflature.

Ordered, That the faid John Gibfon be, for his
faid Offence, committed Prifoner to his Majefty's
Gaol of Newgate, and that Mr. Speaker do iffue
his Warrant accordingly.

4 die Februarii, 1750,

it. Mr. Speaker acquainted the Houfe, that the

Serjeant at Arms attending this Houfe, had in-

s formed



( «97 )

Formed him, that, in purfuance of the Order of
this Houfe of Friday laft, he had taken into his
Cuftody the Right Honourable Alexander Murray,
Efq-, and when in his Cuftody had taken Bail for
the faid Mr. Murray's attendance upon this Houfe,
from time to time, as often as he mould be required
thereunto ; and that the faid Mr. Murray was now
upon fuch Bail. ■

Mr. Speaker further acquainted the Houfe, that
the faid Bail was fuch as had been approved of by
him, as the faid Order directed.

Ordered, That the faid Mr. Murray do attend
this Houfe upon Wednefday Morning next.

Ordered, That the Order made upon Monday the
twenty-eighth of [January laft, for hearing to-mor-
row Morning, at the Bar of this Houfe, the Matter
of the Petition of the feveral Burgeffes and Inha-
bitants of the City and Liberty of IVeJiminJier,
whofe Names are thereunto fubfcribed on behalf of
themfelves, and feveral other Burgeffes and Inha-
bitants of the faid City and Liberty, complaining
of an undue Election and Return .for the City of
IVeJiminJier, be now read ;

And the fame being read accordingly.
Ordered, That the faid Order be difcharged.
Ordered, That the Order made upon Monday,
the twenty-eighth of January laft, for hearing at
the Bar of this Houfe, the Matter of the Petition
of Sir George Vandeput, Bart, complaining of an
undue Election and Return for the City of Wejl-
minjicr , at the fame Time, the Matter of the Peti-
tion of the feveral Burgeffes and Inhabitants of the
City and Liberty of IVeJiminJier, whofe Names are
thereunto fubfcribed, on behalf of themfelves, and
feveral other Burgeffes and Inhabitants of the faid
City and Liberty, was appointed to be heard, be
riow read •,

And the fame being read accordingly.

Ordered*



(»9»)

Or/bred, That the faid Order be difcharged.

Ordered, That the Matters of the faid Petition*
be heard at the Bar of this Houfe, upon Tkurfday
Morning next.

6 die Februariiy 1750.

12. The other Order of the Day being read,

The Houfe refumed the adjourned Lonfidera-
tion of that Part of the Charge made to the Houfe
by the High- bailiff of the City of JVeJiminfier y
vhich relates to the Honourable Alexander Murray,
Efq;

And the High-bailiff and the Counfel for Mr.
Murray were called in ;

And the Charge of the High-bailiff againft the
iaid Mr. Murray was read.

The High- bailiff examined one Witnefs in fup-
port of the faid Charge.

And then the High-bailiff, the Counfel, and the
faid Witnefs were directed to withdraw.

The High-bailiff and the Counfel were again
called in.

And the High-bailiff examined feveral other
L Witneffes in fupport of the faid Charge.

And having gone through his Evidence ;

The Counfel for Mr. Murray were heard, and
examined feveral Witnefies in anfwer to the faid
Charge.

And the High-bailiff was heard by Way of Re-
ply ;

And the faid Mr. Murray was heard at the Bar ;

And then the High- bailiff, Mr. Murray, and the
Counfel, were directed to withdraw.

Refohed, That it appears to this Houfe, that the
honourable Alexander Murray, Efq; on the fif-
teenth Day of May laft, being the Day of Return
# a Jvdember to lerve in Parliament for the City

Of



( a 99 )

of Wefiminfter, attended by a Mob, did, before
the Return was made, come to the Houfe of Mr.
Baldwin, the Deputy High-bailiff of the faid City,
and then and there declared, in a menacing and in-
fulting Manner, that he and a thoufand more had
fworn, that the High-bailiff mould make his Re-
turn in the Middle of CoveM-Garden, and not in the
Portico ; that he was a Fool he had not ordered
the Iron Rails before the Portico to be cut down
the Night before; that he had advifed with Coun-
fe\, that if he had done it, and had not taken the
Rails away, it would have been only a Trefpafs j
and that for One hundred or One hundred and fifty
Pounds, they might have been made good again ;
arid that had it not been to humour lbme faint-
hearted Fellows, it 'would have been done, or
Words to that Effect ; and that the faid Alexander
Murray, immediately after the Return was made,
appeared in Covent -Garden Church-yard, while the
returning Officer was in the Veftry, near the Place
where the Return was made, at the Head of a Mob,
who appeared to be on the Part of Sir George Van-
deput, and did then utter Words exciting and in-
flaming the faid Multitude, to affault and murder


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 23 24

Online LibraryGreat BritainLaws concerning the election of members of Parliament : with the determinations of the House of Commons thereon, and all their incidents : continued down to the present time : the whole digested under proper titles : also an appendix of precedents, with a table of the principal matters → online text (page 20 of 24)