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perpendicular to any local shearing stress such as the shell, provide shear reinforce-
ment according to the formula and the diagram prepared by W. A. Slater, and a
formula for combining shear and local stresses.

(b) In all o"ther cases provide shear reinforcement to carry the full amount of the shear.

7. Maximum unit bond stress not over 160 lbs. per sq. in.

for steel stresses to 16,000 lbs. and proportionally for other steel stresses.

S. n — Es = 10



1. Maximum unit tensile stress in all reinforcement except as stated

below, not to exceed 16,000 lbs. per sq. in.

(a) In all bulkheads except collision bulkheads 20,000 lbs. per sq. in.

(b) In shell reinforcement exposed to water 12,000 lbs. per sq. in.

(c) Maximum unit tensile stress in top steel of keelsons due to

combined local and hogging or sagging stresses not to exceed. . .20,000 lbs. per sq. in.

♦Formerly A.ssistant Head of the Concrete Ship Department. Emerg-ency Fleet Corporation. With
Mr. Wig-, Mr. Brunnier was in full eharg-e of the Government's concrete ship programme. Mr. Brunnier
recently resigned his post that he mi§rht return to his private practice in San Francisco.


Till-: ARniirixT and exgixekr

Fig. 3 — AtlanUis tied up to jiier after launching.

I- I'.. -I- llnttoni frame steil ot tlie Allantus, liiiilt up as a unit on the ground
and hy means of a cable and rachet pulled togetlier at top to facilitate placing
frame inside the shell steel iirevinusly erected.


The concrete used is made up of one part cement, two-thirds part fine aggre-
gate, one and one-third parts coarse. The maximum sized ag^gregate being- that
which will pass through a half-inch square screen and the cement of a standard
rnake, except that ninety per cent must pass throug-h the two hundred mesh.
The concrete must obtain an average strength of 4,000 pounds per square inch
in twenty-eight days.

A concrete hull of ordinary rock or gravel concrete is of lighter weight than
a wood hull of same D. W. tonnage (contrary to general opinion) and in order
that the concrete ship approach the efficiency of a steel ship, it soon became
apparent that some light weight aggregate making a strong dense concrete must
be developed. By accident while trying to make hollow aggregate, it was found
that certain shales or clays would swell abnormally. On further investigation
it was found that the product could be controlled and uniformly made. This
puffed aggregate only weighing a thousand pounds to the cubic yard and mak-
ing a concrete equal in every way to that of ordinary aggregate. This light
weight concrete weighs one hundred pounds as against one hundred forty-five
pounds per cubic foot of the ordinary.

Steel ships not having been developed on theoretical calculations, but rather
from emphirical standards and experience, and, as reinforced concrete and steel
have such different physical properties, much theoretical analysis was neces-
sary. This necessitated the assumption of many conditions which might cause
stress in a hull at sea. In order to get definite information on stresses an
attempt is being made for the first time in the history of naval architecture
(except for a single test reported by Biles), to establish experimentally a basis
for scientific analysis of hull stresses.

For this the Strainograph, a recording strain gauge, has been developed and
a recording pressure instrument specially adapted for measurement of wave
pressure on the hull of a ship has been perfected These instruments are
operated by small electric motors, synchronized and controlled from a central
switch. The records taken by these instruments give the exact stresses and
pressures at any instant or period of time at all points where they are attached.

A small number of these instruments had been manufactured and were
attached to certain points of the concrete ship "Faith" as she made her maiden
trip to Seattle. At the launching of the "Atlantus" twenty-five Strainographs
and thirteen pressure instruments were attached. Measurements are being
taken on various types of ships and the resulting data will be of undoubted
value to naval architecture and engineering.

The concrete ship department of the Emergency Fleet Corporation prepared
plans for twenty-five hundred ton D. W. ocean-going concrete coal barge, for
four thousand ton D. W. ocean-going concrete oil barge, concrete tug boat, and
a one hundred ton derrick on a five hundred ton D. W. barge ; but to date none
of these have been constructed.

Also, plans were prepared for five hundred ton Erie Canal barge, of which
twenty-one are being built and of which six are in service.

Also, for a three thousand ton D. W. concrete ship, of which one was built
and launched December fourth at Brunswick, Georgia.

Also, for a thirty-five hundred ton D. W. concrete ship, of which one has
been built and will be launched before this goes to press, and two more are
under construction.

Also, for seventy-five hundred ton D. W. concrete oil tanker, of which eight
are under construction and all to be launched in March, or sooner.




Also, for a sevent}'-five hundred ton 1). W. concrete cart^o shi]). oi which
two are to he huilt.

Orif^inally, it was i)lanne(l to build forty-two ocean-j^oin^ concrete shijis
and five yards of four ways each, for the construction of these ships, were nearly
comi)leted at the time the armistice was sij^ned. The construction of these yards
was started in July, 1918. and completed would have cost about one million
dollars each. l*"or the construction of the above fourteen concrete shi])s only
two ways in each yard are beinij' used.

In conclusion, the ])resent status of the concrete ship could not be better
stated than the followiui^ jiortion of Mr. W i.4'"s paper ])resented to the Xovem-
ber (1918) meetiuii;- of the Society of Xaval .\rchitccts and Marine iMi^ineers :



Inside view of 7S00-ton D. W. concrete oil tanker being built by San Francisco Ship Building

Company, Superintendents for the Government, showing framing and forms for outside of

boat. The placing of shell reinforcing steel has just begun.

"1. All analytical investigations so far made demonstrate that the concrete
ship can be designed so as to carry all the strains which come upon a ship just
as safely as a steel ship.

'^2. The tare weight of a concrete hull has been reduced to such an extent
by the development of a light weight aggregate that it has a proportionate
carrying efficiency greater than wood ships and only slightly less than steel

"3. All available experience with concrete ships to the present time does not
demonstrate any structural weakness which might indicate tmsoundness in the
theory of design of concrete ships or probable limited life.

"4. While ships of small size are being built in many places throughout the
world, the large ship (over 3,000 tons) is being developed in the United States.

"5. There is no perceptible difiference in the frictional resistance offered by
a concrete ship as compared with a steel ship.

"6. Our general knowledge of reinforced concrete as compared with steel
structures makes the success of its further adoption for ship construction appear
a certainty, but actua;l experience is lacking and therefore its future cannot be
predicted with absolute certainty."


Industrial Housing as a Solution for Problems of

Social Unrest

Presidont, Hoggson Brothers, Builders, New York.

TIIERE are two jireat movements, almost so closely related as to be one,
either or both of wliich threaten this country. One is economic; the other
social. The first is called retrenchment ; the second Bolshevism.

To the extent that the continued spendinj.^ of money for materials or waging
war is concerned, now that it is won, the move for economy is well directed.
But in carrying' this jjroject to the intended limit we would at the same time be
destroying some of the great social betterments, the possibilities of which tlie
war has brought to us. And by taking away privile^^es, rights, and benefits
which mankind has gained through bloodshed we may, unwittingly perhaps, be
producing an excuse for Bolshevism.

One rarely hears of workmen receiving "a fair day's wage for a fair day's
work," who iiave the means to provide for their families in the way of homes,
clothes, food, education and recreation, leaning to Bolshevism or the doctrine
of excesses which gains its title from that word. A contented workman who
receives even approximately a fair return on his labor strives for bettering the
whole social condition rather than destroying one social structure in order to
set up another.

A man holds his home sacred above all things. Take his home away — or
the rig'ht to create a home — and you will produce wanderers living under con-
ditions not fit for animals ; such conditions we have witnessed in our own
Northwest. The result is new memjbers for the I. W. W. — incipient Bolshevists.

The war provided the greatest impetus to the movement for decent homes
for employees. Under governmental auspices and direction, and with govern-
ment money, plants engaged in war work undertook to create villages designed
along model lines to house their workmen, and so reduce shifting of labor from
place to place and cut down the cost of labor turn-over.

Our housing schemie developed during the war was not j)erfect ; it was
adapted to the occasion. Perhaps many of the newly created villages will soon
be only a memory. But to ignore our housing needs in our future calculations
will be no less than a calamity.

It is said that certain mianufacturers believe labor will soon be so plentiful
that it will occasion no trouble at all to get men for jobs of all sorts at whatever
wages offered, and without the present consideration of housing accommoda-
tions. If this belief represents any considerable or im]x)rtant element of em-
ployers, it means that one of the princi])les for which this war was fought has
not penetrated their consciousness. The consensus of opinion of the delegates
to the convention held at Atlantic City last week — this convention bringing to-
gether the most imi]X)rtant industries of the county — was that labor would be
scarce and not over-])lentiful. excepting temjiorarily in the districts where war
work was being done. This congestion would be relieved almost immediately
by the surplus returning to their vocations in their home localities. lvm]>loyers
who. with selfish thoughts only, expect to thus take advantage of a [xissible
over-supply of lalx^r. are short visioned and harmful to the successful solution
of the future social state.

We must take care of housing our employees ; we provide homes for
them. It is our duty to raise the standard of living. If there are class di.s-
tinctions in this country, the best way to obliterate theni' is to co-operate with
the workers, the great producing class, to assist them in becoming even more


useful to themselves and to the country by evincing an understanding- of their
hopes, desires and aspirations. That will require, first of all, sympathetic
co-operation, and, second, a comprehensive plan of education. The most im-
portant step in the matter of education begins with the home. Improve living
conditions ; make bonnes things of comfort and attraction. The close of the
war has not lessened the importance of housing; it has intensified it. Instead
of dropping our housing plans we should greatly elaborate them. Peace indus-
try requires the oroper housing of workmen as well as did war industry.

At present there is apparently no comprehensive scheme backed by our
government to assist and co-operate with industrial manufacturers and other
agencies to begin new peace-time housing developments. It would seem that
such a scheme is necessary and would require not only governmental aid in
financing but governmental direction and supervision.

In his peace-time plan, Lloyd George of England has included the problem
of housing and has given it a place of initial importance. One of the reasons
for this is that England recognizes and expects to meet the grave employment
situation. Yet Lloyd George is only following out a specific recommendation
adopted in 1916 by the Joint Committee on Labor Problemis After the War,
which calls for the erection of "1,000,000 new dwellings," and states that "the
1,000,000 new dwellings'' should be begun the day after peace is declared, but
should be proceeded with, month by month, strictly in correspondence with the
supply of building trades workmen, so as to leave practically none of them at
any time unemployed.

Some recognized body, and preferably the government, should take imme-
diate action on the problem of industrial housing in this country. The two
urgent reasons are, first, the necessity of raising the standard of living of the
workmen and providing a decent place for them to live in and raise a family ;
second, the necessity of affording employment to the mechanics from the de-
mobilized army and from munitions plants. The solution of this problem will
do more to counteract social unrest and the threat of Bolshevism than anything
else. ^

A Query

Editor The Architect and Engineer: — The recent announcement by the
largest manufacturers of heating, ventilating and steam fitting supplies of a
reduction of twenty-five per cent (25% ) in prices of their full line of goods is
very interesting. It is a long step toward the rejuvenation of the now essential
peace time building industries.

The increase in prices of manufactured articles caused by the war averaged
between forty and sixty per cent. At the same time the war also resulted in
greatly increased capacities for manufacture. Presuming that these enlarged
plants are to be maintained at capacity, prices will have to come down in order
to create a greater demand than now exists or is likely to occur under present

Many manufacturers had on hand and still have on hand goods produced
before the war essential to ordinary or normal building operations. Demand
for a great part of these goods Avas destroyed by the rulings of the war board
as to non-essential building operations, but at the same time the manufacturers
raised the prices of them along with the war-time essentials. These goods
were produced at pre-war costs. Why not reduce them to pre-war prices as
nearly as possible? Why not an immediate convention of manufacturers and
labor leaders with a view to an agreement to a reasonable reduction in all
prices and thus rehabilitate at an early date one of the greatest industries in the
countrv — ■buildinsT? Clarence R. \\'ard. Architect.

84 'I'll I" .\iaiiii"i:L"r axd icxcjixkI'.k

By Building Now, The Property Owner Will Help
Create Era of Prosperity

BrilJ)l.\(i. — construction work. — has, almost over-ni,^lit. lca])Cfl from a
non-essential classification to the greatest of all activities, in the initial
order of the War industries IJoard lifting- the han on ])rohil)ited husinesses
and industries, construction work was first on the list of releases, and within a
week all restrictions on private or puhlic construction were removed.

That really was not surjirisini;'. Every student of the ])rohlems of recon-
struction has predicted in his calculations that huildin^- would be the sujjreme
activity of early peace times.

Every indication points to these predictions comini^- true. There is serious
economic need for new buildini^'s, mainly because the buildino" industry has
been depressed for years. There is an acute paucity of almost every kind of
structure, ran4;in<>- from^ small houses for workmen, increased peace-time fac-
tory and plant extensions, to banks, large hotels and office-buildings. Soon there
will be an unprecedented rush of building. Architects will be given commis-
sions that will flood their offices, — so long parched and dry, — and orders for
plans will be numbered in the order of their receipt and taken care of in their
respective turns. The manufacturers of building material will be utterlv unable
to fill the avalanche of orders, not alone for the construction work to be done
in this country, but for the rebuilding of France and 1 Belgium. Almost every
ship that sails for Europe will carry a full cargo of l^uilding material, sui)])lies
and equipment.

It is idle to talk of awaiting the report of this commission or that commis-
sion to proceed with the work of reconstruction. Only the indolent-minded
individual is content to sit back and wait for some body of men to do his think-
ing for him. The problem of reconstruction is an individual problem.

The man who has been intending to erect a new building or alter or remodel
an existing structure, but who has deferred his work either because of the ban
on construction or for certain other reasons, has exceptional opportunity for
doing something definite in the matter now.

Many of the best authorities argue that the prices on building materials are
not likely to make any decided change in the near future, — perhaps not for
some years. On the other hand, it is ])ossi'ble, considering the high rentals
prevailing, that a building erected now, at present prices of material and labor,
will produce a greater return to the owner than a building erected two years

I'Vom many ])oints of view, economic as well as social, it seems propitious
to have ])lans for building made now, so that every individual will at this time
put into actual practice a bit of work that is going to be a step towards the great
work to be done. Such action will hel]) to stabilize industry in this period im-
mediately preceding and which will follow the formal declaration of peace.

Let us build, — let us create, — let us stage the great drama of the city streets
on every corner where a new building should rise on a vacant lot. Let us begin
now our ])lans for reconstruction ; our ]>lans to ])rovide eniiployment for the
returning warrior -uid for the loyal warriors who remained behind and helped
make possible the great success of his brother in arms across the seas.

Eight Story Office Building

Mr. Xorman Coulter, architect in the Maskey 1)uil(ling, San hVancisco, is
preparing plans for an eight-story reinforced concrete office building to be
erected in the business center of San hVancisco at an estimated cost of $250,000.


The Architect of the Future

By S. N. CROWEN, A. I. A.*

THE architect occupies a unique position in that he is expected to represent
a combination of art and business.

The education of an architect is usually along such lines that one is
entirely separate and distinct from the other, and obviously many essentials are

We meet many architects who are not capable of successfully handling the
business problems that frequently confront one in the profession. The artistic
temperamient of many architects is too well known to need discussion.

Good business demands that every possible effort be made to please the
client in order that he may express his satisfaction to others and in this way
indirectly secure for the architect additional clients. Under the past code of
ethics an architect could not advertise well executed commissions so essential
to the securing of a successful practice.

The supreme business factor today is the government. Through its power
it controls practically all of the industrial activity of the country. The largest
government building programme in its history is estimated to date to be one
billion dollars since entering the war. Army warehouses, built or under con-
struction in the United States, represent a total cost of $218,000,000, mostly
permanent structures of steel and brick. In Chicago there are under way
permanent warehouses constructed by the government representing approxi-
mately an expenditure of $7,250,000.

The architectural profession, as a profession, has not been employed in
planning, designing and construction work, notwithstanding the fact that prom-
inent members of the profession, as well as the American Institute of Archi-
tects, have from patriotic motives offered their services. The lack of confidence
in the architect, evidenced by the failure of those in control, to entrust himi with
this huge building programme, was and is due largely to the business men of
the country who were called upon by the Government to serve in this emer-
gency, and their judgment was that contractors and construction engineers
should be utilized and architects relegated to subordinate positions instead of
being trusted as executives.

For more than a decade the attitude of the Government, as well as large
business interests, towards the profession was well known as antagonistic, and
yet the profession as a whole did not take any steps to meet these conditions.

No architect will contend that as an individual, he can, by his own efforts,
plan, design and successfully construct large enterprises in the shortest pos-
sible time without maintaining an organization of experts versed in every
branch of construction, and most important of all, having a strong adminis-
trative organization. With such an organization he can design and handle large
building problems much more satisfactorily than anyone belonging to any other
profession or business.

America's industrial greatness is due largely to the genius of the executives
of our large corporations, who have maintained organizations capable of re-
sponding to the needs of the times.

After searching out the fundamentals in our professional and business life,
and after making a thorough study of the economics of the situation, I sub-
mit the following:

The architect of the future must be a big executive, capable of surrounding
himself with a corporate body of men who will assume business as well as

♦From the Monthly Bulletin of the Illinois Society of Architects.


professional responsil)ilities. and render to the owner a complete financial trans-
action, fnrnishinij the i)rofessi(jnal talent in architectnre which embodies all
branches of enj^ineerin^-, ])lannin,<^ and constrnction. He mnst be financially
responsii)le to the owner. Snch an organization will be able to ])roduce results
which are satisfi^ctory to the client and ])rofitable to the architect.

The June issue of the bulletin of the Illinois Society of Architects states
tiiat accordin<^ to jniblished rejiorts of the Internal Revenue C)ffice in Wash-
ington, only 120 architects in the entire United States scheduled incomes in
excess of $3,000 for the year 1916. which year was still a normal buildinj^- year.

The usual remuneration for architectural services under present conditions
is entirely inadequate to make it i)ossible for an architect to maintain the
proper org-anization.

The first thing our (iovernment looked for in its construction ])r(jgramme
was speed, the demand of the hour, and ability to bring an organization into
being over night ; to produce a completed structure in the shortest possible

The large contracting organizations and the construction engineers were on
the job with the necessary organization, while the architect leisurely looked on.
The responsibility for this exclusion rests with the architect, as he has been a
creature of professional ethics and not res]X)nsive to business conditions. Some
of our most capa'ble and noted structural engineers have corporate organizations
with ofiices in various parts of the country and are doing work running into
millions of dollars, and in addition are rendering personal services without
remuneration to the Government, in various w^ays.

Many architects create a false impression by throwing the business responsi-
bilitv upon the owner and contractor, hence he is considered only essential from
the public viewpoint where monumental architecture is contemplated.

It hath been said, "Necessity opens the eyes to the advantage of fresh
principles." and as I see it, it is tlie duty of architects to keep abreast of the
times by at once organizing themselves to meet altered conditions and thus
become the real leaders of the building industry, and whenever they do this
they will undoubtedly receive government recognition as being essential, in-
.stead of as at present, a non-essential profession in the winning of the war.

Online LibraryGreensboro CollegeThe Architect & engineer of California and the Pacific Coast (Volume v.56-57 (Jan.-June 1919)) → online text (page 6 of 83)