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The Scriptores HistoriaeAugustae, or Historia
Augusta, is a collection of biographies of
Roman emperors, heirs, and claimants
from Hadrian to Numerianus (AD 117
2 84). The work, which is modelled on Sue-
tonius, purports to be written by six dif-
ferent authors and quotes documents and
public records extensively. Since we pos-
sess no continuous account of the emper-
ors of the second and third centuries, the
Historia Augusta has naturally attracted
keen attention. In the last century it has
also generated the grayest suspicions.
Present opinion holds that the whole is the
work of a single author ( who lived in the
time of Theodosius) and contains much
that is plagiarism and even downright
forgerv.

O J

The Loeb Classical Library edition of the
Historia Augusta is in three volumes.






August
99023
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Public Library. Music scores, orchestral
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All materials must be returned by the last
date stamped on the card. Fines are
charged for overdue items. Forri



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB
EDITED BY

G. P. GOOLD

PREVIOUS EDITORS
T. E. PAGE E. CAPPS

W. H. D. ROUSE L. A. POST
E. H. WARMINGTON



HISTORIA AUGUSTA
III

LCL 263



THE SCRIPTORES
HISTORIAE
AUGUSTAE

VOLUME III

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY

DAVID MAGIE




HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS
LONDON, ENGLAND



First published 1932
Reprinted 1954, 1961, 1968, 1982, 1998

LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY is a registered trademark
of the President and Fellows of Harvard College



ISBN 0-674-99290-3



Printed in Great Britain by St Edmundsbury Press Ltd,

Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, on acid-free paper.
Bound by Hunter 6- Foulis Ltd, Edinburgh, Scotland.



CONTENTS



BIBLIOGRAPHY vii

EDITORIAL NOTE xi

THE TWO VALERIANS 2

THE TWO GALLIENI 16

THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 64

THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 152

THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 192

TACITUS 294

PROBUS 334

FIRMUS, SATURNINUS, PROCULUS, BONOSUS 386

CARUS, CARINUS, NUMERIAN 416

INDEX OF NAMES 453



BIBLIOGRAPHY
(1919-1967)

Scriptores Historiae Augustae I, II, ed. E. Hohl, rev. W.
Seyfarth and C. Samberger, Leipzig, Teubner, 1965
(1st ed. 1927).



Alfoldi, A. Das Problem des " verweiblichten " Kaisers Galli-

enus; Zeitschrift filr Numismatik, xxxviii. (1928), 156-

203.
Bassett, H. J. Macrmus and Diadumenianus ; Menasha,

Wisconsin, 1920.
Baynes, N. H. The Date of the Composition of the Historia

Augusta; Classical Review, xxxviii. (1924), 165-169.

The Historia Augusta : its Date and Purpose ; Oxford,

1926.

Birt, T. Zu Marius Maximus (S.H.A. Geta 2, 1) ; Philologus,
Ixxvi. (1920), 362-366.

Zu den S.H.A. ; Phiiologus, Ixxxiii. (1927), 177-178.

Dessau, H. Die Samaritaner bei den S.H.A. ; in Janus :

Arbeiten zur alien und Byzantinischen Geschichte

(Vienna, 1921), 124-128.
Fisher, W. H. The Augustan Vita Aureliani ; Journal of .Rowan

Studies, xix. (1929), 125-149.
Geffcken, J. Religionsgeschichtliches in der Historia Augusta ;

Hermes, Iv. (1920), 279-295.
Hadas, M. Rabbinic Parallels to S.H.A. ; Classical Philology,

xxiv. (1929), 258-262.
Harrer, G. A. The Chronology ot the Revolt of Pescennius

Niger; Journal of Roman Studies, x. (1920), 155-168.
Henderson, B. W. The Life and Principate of the Emperor

Hadrian, A.D. 76-138; London, 1923.

vii



BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hohl, E. Ueber den Ursprung der Historia Augusta : Hermes,
Iv. (1920), 296-310.

Bericht iiber die Literatur zu den S.H.A. fur die Jahre

1916-1923; Jahresberichte uber die Fortschritte der
klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, cc. (1924), 167-210.

Grundsatzlich.es zur Textgestaltung der S.H.A. ; Philo-

logisclie Wochenschrift, xlviii. (1928), 1115-1118.
Homo, L. La grande Grise de 1'an 238 ap. J.C. et le Problems
de 1'Histoire Auguste ; Revue Historique, cxxxi. (1919),
209-264; cxxxii. (1919), 1-38.

Les Documents de 1'Histoire Auguste et leur Valeur

historique; Revue Historique, cli. (1926), 161-198: olii.

(1926). 1-31.
Jarde 1 , A. Etudes critiques sur la Vie et le Eegne de Severe

Alexandre; Paris, 1926.
Jorga, N. Le Probleme de 1'Abandon de la Dacie par I'Empereur

Au re" lien ; Revue Historique du Sud-Est European, i.

(1924), 37-58.
Klotz, A. Beitrage zur Textgeschichte und Textritik der

S.H.A.; Rheinisches Museum, Ixxviii. (1929), 268-314,

432.
Mattingly, H., and Sydenham, E. A. The Roman imperial

Coinage, Vol. v., Part 1 (Valerian to the Interregnum),

by P. H. Webb ; London, 1927.
Milne, J. G. Aemilianus the " Tyrant " ; Journal of Egyptian

Archaeology, x. (1924), 80-82.
Orth, E. Zu den S.H.A; Philologische Wochenschrift, xlix.

(1929). 1470-1471.

Von Orpheus bis Grillius (on Tac., 10, 3) ; Philologische

Wochenschrift, 1. (1930), 395-400.
Pasoli, A. L'Uso di Erodiano nella ' Vita Maximini " ; Milan,

1927.
Sulla Composizione die due Brani parallel! degli " S.H.A,"

(Max. 13, 5 19 e Oord., 7, 216) in Annali del R. Liceo-

Gimnasio Ugo Foscolo di Pavia del Anno 1927-1928',

Voghera, 1929.
Ferret, L. L'Histoire de I'Empereur G6ta ; Revue des Etudes

Historiques, xci. (1925), 119-130.
Pichlmayr, F. Zu den S.H.A.; Philologus, bocx. (1925),

345-350.
Beuss, W. Der historische Wert der Garacallavita in den

S.H.A.; Elio, Beiheft 24 (1931).

viii



BIBLIOGRAPHY

Rohde, J. Die Marcomanenkriege Marc Aurels; Halle,

1924.
Rosenberg, A. Ein Document zur Beichsreform des Kaisers

Gallienus; Hermts, Iv. (1920), 319-321.
Rostovtseff, M. La Crise sociale et politique de L'Empire

Boinain au III Siecle ap. J.C. ; Jfus& Beige, xxvii.

(1923), 233-242.
Schmiedler, B. Adam von Bremen und die S.H.A. ; Historische

Vitrtelialirsclir.it, 1920. 3381.

Die S.H.A. and dor Heilige Hieronymus. Ein Beitrag

zur Entstehungszeit der falschen Kaiserviten; Plu.o-
logisclie WocJi<*nschr:ft, xlvii. (1927), 955-960.

Sohnabel, P. Die Chronologic Aurelians; Klio, xx. (1925-6),

863-368.
Sohwendemann, J. Der historische Wert der Vita Marci bei

den S.H.A. ; Heidelberg, 1923.
Sedgwick, H. D. Marcus Aurelius; Oxford, 1921.
Sjogren, H. Kleine textkritische Beitra^e (Hadr. 13, 3 ; A^ex.

13, 6) ; Eranos, xix. (1923), 163-172.
Stein, A. Zur Chronologie der Bomischen Kaiser von Decius

bis Diocletian; Arclriv fiir Papifrusftjrschutig, vii. (1923),

30-51; viii. (1926), 11-18.

Zeitbestimmuncjen von Gallienus bis Aureliau ; K'.io, xxi.

(1926-7), 78-82.

Obsen-ations on the Chronology of the Roman Emperors

in the Second Half of the Third Century ; Jcmmal of
Egyptian Archaeology, xiv. (192S), 16-19.
Thomell, G. Ad diversos Scriptores Couiectanea et Intoi-pret-
atoria; in Strenaphilologica Upsalien$:s ^Upsala. 1922),
383-392.

Ad S.H.A. et Araniianmn Marcellinum Adnotatioues;

Leipzig, 1927.

Tidner, E. De Particulis copulativis apud S.H.A. Quaestiones

selectao ; Upsala, 1922.
In S.H.A. Adnot-atiunculae ; in Strma philotogica Up-

saliensis (Upsala, 1922), 149-162.
Townsend, P. W. The Chronology of the Year 28S A.P. ; Yal*

Classical Studies, i. (192S), 231-238.
Van Sickle, C. E. A hypothetical Chronology for the Year of

the Gordians ; Classical Philology, xxii. (1927), 416-417.

The Legal Status of Clodius Albinua in the Years 193-196 ;

Classical Philology, xxiii. (192S), 128-127.

iz



BIBLIOGRAPHY

Van Sickle, C. E. Some further Observations on the Chro-
nology of the Year 238 A.D. ; Classical Philology, xxiv.
(1929), 284-289.

Vorbrodt, T. Kaiser Gallienus (253-268) ; Halle, 1923.

Westermann, W. L. The Papyri and the Chronology of the
Reign of the Emperor Probus ; Aegyptus, i. (1920),
297-301



The various contributions made to the study of the Scriptores
Historiae Augustae, especially since 1945, are recorded annually
in Marouzeau, UAnnte Philologique

For the date etc., and some partial editions, see especially :
H. Stern. Date et Destinataire de 1'Histoire Auguste, Paris,

1953.
Bonner. Historia Augusta Colloquium, 1964-65. Antiquitas,

Reihe 4, 3.
P. White. The Authorship of the Historia Augusta.

Journal of Roman Studies, Ivii. (1967), 115 ff.
A. Momigliano. An Unsolved Problem of Historical Forgery,

Journal of the Warburg and Gourtauld Institutes, xvii.

(1954), 22 ff.

J. Schwarz, in B.F.S. xl. (1961-2), 169 ff.
T. Zawadzki, in Studii Clasice, v. (1963), 249 ff.
E. Manni. Trebellio Pollione. Le vite di Valeriano e di

Gallieno. Text, introd. notes, etc. Palermo. 1952.
E. Hohl. Maximini Duo. lulius Capitolinus (edition),

Berlin, 1949.

For other special aspects :

W. Hartke. Geschichte und Politik im spatantiken Rom.

Klio, Beiheft xlv, 1940.
A. Reintjes. Untersucliungen zu den Beamten bei den

Scriptores Hist. Aug., Bonn, 1961.
A. Cameron. Literary Allusions in the Historia Augusta,

Hermes, xcii. (1964), 313 ff.
Atti del Colloquio patavino sulla Historia Augusta. Publl.

ist. di Storia Antica. Padua, Rome, 1964.
A. Bellezza. Hist. Aug. I. Le Edizioni, Genoa, 1959.



EDITORIAL NOTE (1991)

SCHOLARLY research pursued since the first publication of
this work in 1922 now requires modification of some of the
editor's views. Most authorities today are persuaded that
die ostensible multiple authorship of these lives is a wilful
deception, that one person is responsible for the collection
and the insertion into it of documents which are sheer
fabrications, and that the date of this activity is about
A.D. 395.

To the bibliography above the following important
works (die first two with extensive bibliographies) may
now be added:

SYME, SIR RONALD: Ammianus and the Historia Augusta,

Oxford, 1968.
SYME, SIR RONALD: Emperors and Biography: Studies in

the Historia Augusta, Oxford, 1971.
BARNES, T. D.: Sources of the Historia Augusta, Bruxelles

1978.
SYME, SIR RONALD: Historia Augusta Papers, Oxford

1983.

G. P. G.



XI



SCRIPTORES
HISTORIAE AUGUSTAE



THE TWO VALERIANS

inferioribus 1 nihil dico. Mithradates Ponticus totam
Asiam tenuit ; certe victus est, certe Asia Roman-
6orum est. si meum consilium requiris, utere oc-
casione pacis et Valerianum suis redde. ego gratulor
felicitati tuae, si taraen ilia uti tu scias."

II. Velenus rex Cadusiorum sic scripsit : " Remissa
mihi auxilia integra et incolumia gratanter accepi.
at captum Valerianum principem principum non satis
gratulor, magis gratuler, si redderetur. Romani enim

2graviores tune sunt, quando vincuntur. age igitur ut
prudentem decet, nee fortuna te inflammet, quae
multos decepit. Valerianus et filium imperatorem
habet et nepotem Caesarem, et quid ad omnem
orbem ilium Romanum, qui contra te totus insurget ?

3 redde igitur Valerianum et fac cum Romanis pacem,
nobis etiam ob gentes Ponticas profuturam."

III. Artavasdes rex Armeniorum talem ad Saporem
epistulam misit : " In partem gloriae venio, sed

2vereor ne non tarn viceris quam bella severis. Valeri-
anum et filius repetit et nepos et duces Romani et
omnis Gallia et omnis Africa et omnis Hispania et
omnis Italia et omnes gentes quae sunt in Illyrico
atque in oriente et in Ponto, quae cum Romanis

1 inferioribus Obrecht, Peter ; interioribus P, S.



1 A Median people, living on the S.W. coast of the Caspian
Sea, also called Gaeli.

3 i.e., Gallienus.

3 There were three Armenian kings of this name during the
second and first centuries before Christ and the first century
after Christ, but none in the third century. If the author is
not merely using a well-known name to give verisimilitude to
the letter, as seems most likely, he may have in mind
Artavasdes the Mamiconaean, regent for the young Tiridates
IIT. during tho period whioh followed the death of his father,



THE TWO VALERIANS I. 6 III. 2

them now. Examples more remote and perhaps less
important I will not cite. Mithradates of Pontus
held all of Asia ; it is a fact that he was vanquished
and Asia now belongs to the Romans. If you ask my
advice, make use of the opportunity for peace and give
back Valerian to his people. I do indeed congratulate
you on your good fortune, but only if you know how
to use it aright."

II. Velenus, King of the Cadusii, 1 wrote as follows :
" I have received with gratitude my forces returned
to me safe and sound. Yet I cannot wholly con-
gratulate you that Valerian, prince of princes, is
captured ; I should congratulate you more, were he
given back to his people. For the Romans are never
more dangerous than when they are defeated. Act,
therefore, as becomes a prudent man, and do not
let Fortune, which has tricked many, kindle your
pride. Valerian has an emperor for a son 2 and a
Caesar for a grandson, and what of the whole Roman
world, which, to a man, will rise up against you?
Give back Valerian, therefore, and make peace with
the Romans, a peace which will benefit us as well
because of the tribes of Pontus."

III. Artavasdes, 3 King of the Armenians, sent the
following letter to Sapor : " I have, indeed, a share
in your glory, but I fear that you have not so much
conquered as sown the seeds of war. For Valerian
is being sought back by his son, his grandson, and
the generals of Rome, by all Gaul, all Africa, all
Spain, all Italy, and by all the nations of Ilyricum,
the East, and Pontus, which are leagued with the

Chosroes I., about 250, as is supposed by P. Asdourian, Polit.
Beaif-hnnge-n ew. Armenien u. Rom., p. 127 f.



THE TWO VALERIANS

3 consentiunt aut Romanorum sunt. unum ergo senem
cepisti sed l omnes gentes orbis terrarum infestissimas
tibi fecisti, fortassis et nobis, qui auxilia misimus, qui
vicini sumus, qui semper vobis inter vos pugnantibus
laboramus."

IV. Bactriani et Hiberi et Albani et Tauroscythae
Saporis litteras non receperunt sed ad Romanes
duces scripserunt auxilia pollicentes ad Valerianum
de captivitate liberandum.

2 Sed Valeriano apud Persas consenescente Odae-
nathus Palmyrenus collecto exercitu rem Romanam

8 prope in pristinum statum reddidit. cepit regis
thesauros, cepit etiam, quas thesauris cariores habent

4reges Parthici, concubinas. quare magis reformidans
Romanos duces Sapor timore Ballistae atque Odae-
nathi in regnum suum ocius se recepit. atque hie
interim finis belli fuit Persici.

V. Haec sunt digna cognitu de Valeriano, cuius per
annos sexaginta vita laudabilis in earn conscenderat
gloriam ut post omnes honores et magistratus in-
signiter gestos imperator fieret, non, ut solet, tumul-
tuario populi concursu, non militum strepitu, sed iure
meritorum et quasi ex totius orbis una sententia.

2 denique si data esset omnibus potestas promendi
arbitrii quern imperatorem vellent, alter non esset
electus.

3 Et ut scias quanta vis in Valeriano meritorum

1 cepisti sed Petschenig, Hohl ; cepistis et P.



1 From Trans-Caucasia. 2 See note to Hadr., xxi. 18.

8 In S. Russia, north of the Crimea.

4 See Tyr. Trig., xv. 5 See Tyr. Trig., xviii.



THE TWO VALERIANS III. 3 V. 3

Romans or subject to them. So, then, you have
captured one old man but have made all the nations
of the world your bitterest foes, and ours too, perhaps,
for we have sent you aid, we are your neighbours,
and we always suffer when you fight with each
other."

IV. The Bactrians, the Hiberians, 1 the Albanians, 2
and the Tauroscythians 3 refused to receive Sapor's
letters and wrote to the Roman commanders,
promising aid for the liberation of Valerian from
his captivity.

Meanwhile, however, while Valerian was growing
old in Persia, Odaenathus the Palmyrene 4 gathered
together an army and restored the Roman power
almost to its pristine condition. He captured the
king's treasures and he captured, too, what the
Parthian monarchs hold dearer than treasures,
namely his concubines. For this reason Sapor was
now in greater dread of the Roman generals, and
out of fear of Ballista 5 and Odaenathus he withdrew
more speedily to his kingdom. And this, for the
time being, was the end of the war with the Persians.

V. This is all that is worthy of being known about
Valerian, whose life, praiseworthy for sixty years long,
finally rose to such glory, that after holding all
honours and offices with great distinction he was
chosen emperor, not, as often happens, in a riotous
assemblage of the people or by the shouting of
soldiers, but solely by right of his services, and, as it
were, by the single voice of the entire world. In
short, if all had been given the power of expressing
their choice as to whom they desired as emperor,
none other would have been chosen.

Now in order that you may know what power lay



THE TWO VALERIANS

fuerit 1 publicorum, ponara senatus consulta, quibus
animadvertant omnes quid de illo semper amplissi-
mus ordo iudicaverit.

4 Duobus Deciis consulibus sexto kal. Novenibrium
die, cum ob imperatorias litteras in Aede Castorum
senatus haberetur, ireturque per sententias singu-
lorum, ,cui deberet censura deferri (nam id Decii
posuerant in senatus amplissimi potestate), ubi
primum praetor edixit : " Quid vobis videtur, patres
conscripti, de censore deligendo ? '" atque eum, qui
erat princeps tune senatus, sententiam rogasset
absente Valeriano (nam ille in procinctu cum Decio
tune agebat), omnes una voce dixerunt interrupto
more dicendae sententiae : " Valeriani vita censura

5 est. ille de omnibus iudicet, qui est omnibus melior.
ille de senatu iudicet, qui nullum habet crimen.
ille de vita nostra sententiam ferat, cui nihil potest

Cobici. Valerianus a prima pueritia fuit censor.
Valerianus in tota vita sua fuit censor, prudens
senator, modestus senator, gravis senator, amicus
bonorum, inimicus tyrannorum, hostis criminum,

7 hostis vitiorum. hunc censorem omnes accipimus,
hunc imitari omnes volumus. primus genere, nobilis

1 fuerit Z, Peter, Hohl ; fuit P.



1 The spuriousness of this " seuatus consultum " is sufficiently
shown by the fact that Decius died in the summer of 251.
For other such " senatus consulta " see Maxim., xvi. ;
Oord., xi. ; Tyr. Trig., xxi. 3-4 ; Claud., iv. ; Aur., xix. ; xli. ;
Tac., iii. ; Prob., xi. 5-9.

2 See note to Maxim., xvi. 1.

3 The attempt to revive the censorship, as described here, is
as fictitious as the " senatus consultum " itself, and is merely
a part of the biographer's tendency to magnify the importance
of the senate. It is true, however, that Derius in 250 conferred

8



THE TWO VALERIANS V. 4-7

in the public services of Valerian, I will cite the
decrees of the senate, 1 which will make it clear to all
what judgement concerning him was always expressed
by that most illustrious body.

In the consulship of the two Decii, on the sixth 27 Oct., 251
day before the Kalends of November, when, pursuant
to an imperial mandate, the senate convened in the
Temple of Castor and Pollux, 2 and each senator was
asked his opinion as to the man to whom the censor-
ship 3 should be offered (for this the Decii had left in
the power of the most high senate), when the praetor
had first announced the question, " What is your
desire, Conscript Fathers, with regard to choosing
a censor ? ' ' and then asked the opinion of him who
was then the chief of the senate 4 in the absence of
Valerian (for at that time he was in military service
with Decius), then all, breaking through the usual
mode of giving the vote, cried out with one voice : *
" Valerian's life is a censorship. Let him judge all,
who is better than all. Let him judge the senate,
who is free from guilt. Let him pronounce sentence
on our lives, against whom no reproach can be brought.
From early childhood Valerian has been a censor.
All his life long Valerian has been a censor. A wise
senator, a modest senator, a respected senator. The
friend of the good, the enemy of tyrants, the foe of
crimes, the foe of vices. He it is whom we all accept
as censor, whom we all desire to imitate. Foremost



on Valerian some important position 77 TU>V irpay/j-drcav
according to Zonaras, xii. 20.

4 Valerian is said to have held this office as early as 238 ;
see Gord., ix. 7.

5 On such acclamations in the senate see- note to Alex., vi. 1.
They are also found in Claud., iv. 3-4 ; xviii. 2-3 ; Toe., iv.
1-4 ; v. 1-2 ; vii. 1 ; Prob. t xi. 6-9 ; xii. 8.



THE TWO VALERIANS

sanguine, emendatus vita, doctrina clams, moribus

Ssingularis, exemplum 1 antiquitatis." quae cum
esseiit saepius dicta, addiderunt, "omnes/' atque ita
discessum est.

VI. Hoc senatus consultum ubi Decius accepit,
omnes aulicos convocavit, ipsum etiam Valerianum
praecepit 2 rogari, atque in conventu summorum

2virorum recitato senatus coiisulto, " Felicem te," in-
quit, " Valerianum, totius senatus sententia, immo
animis atque pectoribus 3 totius orbis humani. suscipe
ceiisuram, quam tibi detulit Romana res publica, quam
solus mereris, iudicaturus de moribus omnium, iudica-

3 turus de moribus nostris. tu aestimabis qui manere
in Curia debeant, tu equestrem ordinem in antiquum
statum rediges, tu censibus modum pones, tu vecti-
galia firmabis divides statues, tu 4 res publicas recen-

4sebis; tibi legum scribendarum auctoritas dabitur, tibi

5 de ordinibus militum iudicandum est ; tu arma respicies ;

6 tu de nostro Palatio, tu de iudicibus, tu de praefectis
eminentissimis iudicabis ; excepto denique praefecto
urbis Romae, exceptis consulibus ordinariis et sac-
rorum rege ac maxima virgine Vestalium (si tamen
incorrupta permanebit) de omnibus sententias feres,
laborabunt autem etiam illi, ut tibi placeant, de quibus

7non potes iudicare." haec Decius. sed Valeriano
sententia huiusmodi fuit : " Ne, quaeso, sanctissime
imperator, ad hanc me necessitatem alliges, ut ego

1 exemplo P, Hohl. 2 praecepit E\ praecipit P, Peter.

8 pectoribus 2 ; peccatoribus P. 4 statues tu Hohl ; statues

2 ; statu P ; tu Peter.



1 Sec note to Carac., iv. 8.
10



THE TWO VALERIANS V. 8 VI. 7

in family, noble in blood, free from stain in his life,
famed for his learning, matchless in character, a sample
of the olden times." When all this had been said
repeatedly, they added, " All with one accord," and
so they departed.

VI. When this decree of the senate was brought
to Decius, he called all his courtiers together and
gave orders that Valerian, too, should be summoned.
Then, having read the decree before this assemblage
of the foremost men, he said : " Happy are you, Vale-
rian, in this vote of the entire senate, or rather in the
thoughts and the hearts of the whole world of men.
Receive the censorship, which the Roman common-
wealth has offered you and which you alone deserve,
you who are now about to pass judgement on the
character of all men, on the character of ourselves as
well. You shall decide who are worthy to remain in
the Senate-house, you shall restore the equestrian
order to its old-time condition, you shall determine the
amount of our property, you shall safeguard, apportion
and order our revenues, you shall conduct the census
'n our communities ; to you shall be given the power
to write our laws, you shall judge concerning the
rank of our soldiers, and you shall have a care for
their arms ; you shall pass judgement on our Palace,
our judges and our most eminent prefects ; in short,
except for the prefect of the city of Rome, except
for the regular consuls, 1 the king of the sacrifices,
and the senior Vestal Virgin (as long, that is, as she
remains unpolluted), you shall pronounce sentence on
all. Even those on whom you may not pass judge-
ment will strive to win your approval." Thus Decius ;
but Valerian's reply was as follows : " Do not, I pray
you, most venerated Emperor, fasten upon me the

11



THE TWO VALERIANS

iudicem de populo, de militibus, de senatu, de omni

Spenitus orbe iudicibus et tribunis ac ducibus. haec

sunt propter l quae Augustum nomen tenetis ; apud

vos censura desedit, non potest hoc implere privatus.

9veniam igitur eius honoris peto, cui vita impar est,

impar est confidentia, cui tempora sic repugnant, ut

censuram hominum natura non quaerat."

VII. Poteram multa alia et senatus consulta et
iudicia principum de 2 Valeriano proferre, nisi et vobis
pleraque nota essent, et puderet altius virum extollere,
qui fatali quadam necessitate superatus est. nunc
ad Valerianum minorem revertar.

VIII. Valeria n us i uni or, aliaquam Gallienus



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