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geiida ad populum, qua indicat de numero bar-
barorum, quae tails est :

2 "Senatui populoque Romano Claudius priiiceps."
(hanc autem ipse dictasse perhibetur, ego verba

Smagistri memoriae non require.) " Patres conscripti,
mirantes 1 audite quod verum est. trecenta viginti
milia barbarorum in Romanum solum armati venerunt.
haec si vicero, vos vicem reddite meritis ; si non vicero,

4scitote me post Gallienum velle pugnare. fatigata
est tota res publica. pugnamus post Valerianum, post
Ingenuum, post Regalianum, post Lollianum, post
Postumum, post Celsum, post mille alios, qui con-

Stemptu mali 2 principis a re publica defecerunt. non
scuta, non spathae, non pila iam supersunt. Gallias
et Hispanias, vires rei publicae, Tetricus tenet, et
omnes sagittarios, quod pudet dicere, Zenobia possi-
det. quidquid fecerimus satis grande est."

6 Hos igitur Claudius ingenita ilia virtute superavit,
hos brevi tempore adtrivit, de bis vix aliquos ad

1 mirantes Obreoht, Peter; militantes P. ' 2 mali v.

Wintorfeld ; olio P; Gallieni Egnatius, foil, by Peter arid

1 According to Herodotus, vii. 60 and 87, Xerxes brought
across the Hellespont 1,700,000 foot and 80,000 horse; these
figures are ceita ; nly greatly exaggerated.

-See Pesc. Nig., vii. 4 and note.



twenty thousand armed men ! What Xerxes, 1 pray,
had so many ? What tale has ever imagined, what
poet ever conceived such a number ? There were
three hundred and twenty thousand armed men !
Add to these their slaves, add also their families,
their waggon -trains, too, consider the streams they
drank dry and the forests they burned, and, finally,
the labour of the earth itself which carried such a
swollen mass of barbarians !

VII. There is still in existence a letter of his, sent
to the senate to be read before the people, in which
he tells the number of the barbarians. It is as follows :
" From the Emperor Claudius to the senate and people
of Rome." (This letter, it is said, he dictated himself,
and I will not demand the version of the secretary of
memoranda. 2 ) " Conscript Fathers, you will hear with
wonder what is only the truth. Three hundred and
twenty thousand barbarians have come in arms into
Roman territory. If I defeat them, do you requite
my services; if I fail to defeat them, reflect that I
am striving to fight after Gallienus' reign. The whole
commonwealth is exhausted. We are fighting now
after Valerian, after Ingenuus, after Regalianus, after
Lollianus, after Postumus, after Celsus, and after a
thousand others, who, in their contempt for an evil
prince, revolted against the commonwealth. No
shields, no swords, no spears are left to us now. The
provinces of Gaul and Spain, the sources of strength
for the state, are held by Tetricus, and all the bow-
men I blush to say it Zenobia now possesses. Any-
thing we accomplish will be achievement enough."

These barbarians, then, Claudius overcame by his
own inborn valour and crushed in a brief space of
time, suffering scarcely any to return to their native



patrium solum redire permisit. rogo, quantum pre-
tium est clipeus in Curia tantae victoriae ? quantum

7 una aurea statua ? dicit Ennius de Scipione : " Quan-
tam statuam faciet populus Romanus, quantam colum-

8 nam, quae res tuas gestas loquatur ? " possumus dicere
Flavium Claudium, unicum in terris principem, non
columnis, non statuis sed famae viribus adiuvari.

VIII. Habuerunt praeterea duo milia navium, du-
plicem scilicet numerum quam ilium quo tota pariter
Graecia omnisque Thessalia urbes Asiae quondam ex-
pugnare conata est. sed illud poeticus stilus fingit,

2 hoc vera continet historia. Claudio igitur scriptores
adulamur, qui duo milia navium barbararum et tre-
centa viginti milia armatorum delevit, oppressit, ad-
trivit, qui carraginem tantam, quantam numerus hie
armatorum sibimet aptare potuit et parare, nunc in-
cendi fecit, nunc cum omnibus familiis Romano ser-

Svitio deputavit. ut docetur eiusdem epistula, quam
ad lunium Brocchum scripsit Illyricum tuentem :

4 " Claudius Broccho. delevimus trecenta viginti

5 milia Gothorum, duo milia navium mersimus. tecta
sunt flumina scutis, spathis et lanceolis omnia litora
operiuntur. campi ossibus latent tecti, nullum iter

epurum est, ingens carrago deserta est. tantum muli-

erum cepimus ut binas et ternas mulieres victor sibi

IX. miles possit adiungere. et utinam Gallienum non esset

passa res publica ! utinam sescentos tyrannos non

1 See c. iii. 3.

2 Evidently from Ennius' Scipio, a poem eulogizing the elder
Africanus. These two lines are unmetrical and are plainly an
inexact quotation.

3 See note to c. i. 1.

4 The thousand ships of the Greeks in the war against Troy.
But see note to c. vi. 1.

8 See c. iii. 1 and note. "Otherwise unknown.


soil. What reward for such a victory, I ask you, is a
shield x in the Senate-house ? What reward is one
golden statue ? Of Scipio Ennius wrote 2 : " What
manner of statue, what manner of column shall the
Roman people make, to tell of your deeds ? ' : We
can say with truth that Flavius 3 Claudius, an emperor
without peer upon earth, is raised to eminence not by
any columns or statues but by the power of fame.

VIII. They had, furthermore, two thousand ships,
twice as many, that is, as the number with which all
Greece and all Thessaly together once sought to
conquer the cities of Asia. 4 This number, however,
was devised by the pen of a poet, while ours is found
in truthful history. And so do we writers flatter
Claudius ! 5 the man by whom two thousand barbarian
ships and three hundred and twenty thousand armed
men were crushed, destroyed and blotted out, and by
whom a waggon-train, as great as this host of armed
men could fit out and make ready, was in part con-
signed to the flames and in part delivered over, along
with the families of all, to Roman servitude. This is
shown by the following letter of his, written to Junius
Brocchus, 6 then in command of Illyricum :

" From Claudius to Brocchus. We have destroyed
three hundred and twenty thousand Goths, we have
sunk two thousand ships. The rivers are covered
over with their shields, all the banks are buried under
their swords and their spears. The fields are hidden
beneath their bones, no road is clear, their mighty
waggon-train has been abandoned. We have cap-
tured so many women that the victorious soldiers can
take for themselves two or three apiece. IX. And
would that the commonwealth had not had to endure
Gallienus ! Would that it had not had to bear six



pertulisset ! salvis militibus, quos varia proelia sustu-
lerunt, salvis legionibus quas Gallienus male victor

2 occidit, quantum esset additum rei publicae ! si qui-
dem nunc membra l naufragii publici colligit nostra
diligentia ad Romanae rei publicae salutem." 2

Pugnatum est enim apud Moesos, et multa proalia

4fuerunt apud Marcianopolim. multi naufragio perie-
runt, plerique capti reges, captae diversarum gentium
nobiles feminae, impletae barbaris servis Scythicisque 3
cultoribus Romanae provinciae. factus limitis 4 bar-

5 bari colonus e Gotho. nee ulla fuit regio quae Gothum

6 servum triumphali quodam servitio non haberet. quid
bourn barbarorum nostri videre maiores ? quid ovium ?
quid equarum, quas fama nobilitat, Celticarum ? hoc
totum ad Claudii gloriam pertinet. Claudius et secu-
ritate rem publicam et opulentiae nimietate donavit.

7pugnatum praeterea est apud Byzantios, ipsis qui

8 superfuerant 5 Byzantinis fortiter facientibus. pugna-
tum apud Thessalonicenses, quos Claudio absente ob-

9 sederant barbari. pugnatum in diversis regionibus, et
ubique auspiciis CLiudianis victi sunt Gothi, prorsus
ut iam tune Constantio Caesari nepoti future videretur
Claudius securam parare rem publicam.

1 membra Damste, Thomell ; uerba P, 27, Peter; reliqua
Gas., Hohl. '* salutem in=. by Hohl ; om. in P ; lacuna

assumed by Peter, c. ix. 1-2 incl. in letter of Claudius by
Thornell and Hohl; letter ended in c. viii. 6 by Peter.

s Scythicisqiie Gloss foil, by Peter and Hohl; senibusque
P, 27. 4 limit is Peter ; miles P, 27. s superfuerant 27,

Peter ; su}>erius f iterant P.

1 An allusion to Gallienus' victories over the Goths and
Aureolus ; see Gall., xiii. 6 and xiv. 1 and notes.

2 The capital of the province of Moesia, now Preslav near
Devna in eastern Bulgaria, founded by Trajan and named for



hundred pretenders! Had but those soldiers been
saved who fell in divers battles, those legions saved
which Gallienus destroyed, disastrously victorious, 1
how much strength would the state have gained !
Now, indeed, my diligence has but gathered together
for the preservation of the Roman commonwealth the
scattered remains of the shipwrecked state."

For there was fighting in Moesia and there were
many battles near Marcianopolis. 2 Many perished
by shipwreck, many kings were captured, noble
women of divers tribes taken prisoner, and the Roman
provinces filled with barbarian slaves and Scythian
husbandmen. 3 The Goth was made the tiller of the
barbarian frontier, nor was there a single district which
did not have Gothic slaves in triumphant servitude.
How many cattle taxen from the barbarians did our
forefathers see ? How many sheep ? How many
Celtic mares, which fame has rendered renowned ?
All these redound to the glory of Claudius. For
Claudius gave the state both security and an abun-
dance of riches. There was fighting, besides, at
Byzantium, 4 for those Byzantines who survived acted
with courage. There was fighting at Thessalonica,
to which the barbarians had laid siege while Claudius
was far away. There was fighting in divers places,
and in all of them, under the auspices of Claudius, the
Goths were defeated, so that even then he seemed
to be making the commonwealth safe in days to come
for his nephew Constantius Caesar. 5

his sister Marciana. It was unsuccessfully attacked by the
Goths on their southward march.

3 Underlying the rhetoric is the fact, related in Zosimus i.
46, that many of the Goths who survived the battle were settled
as farmers in Roman territory.

4 See note to c. vi. 1. 5 See note to c. xiii. 2.



X. Et bene venit in mentera, expriraenda est sors
quae Claudio data esse perhibetur Comagenis, ut in-
tellegant omnes genus Claudii ad felicitatem rei

2 publicae divinitus constitutum. nam cum consuleret
factus imperator quamdiu imperaturus esset, sors
tails emersit :

3 " Tu, qui nunc patrias gubernas oras
et mundum regis, arbiter deorum,
tu vinces l veteres tuis novellis ;
regnabunt etenim tui 2 minores

et reges facient suos minores."

4 item cum in Appennino de se consuleret, responsum
huius modi accepit :

"Tertia dum Latio regnantem viderit aestas."

5 item cum de posteris suis :

" His ego nee metas rerum nee tempora ponam."

6 item cum de fratre Quintillo, quern consortem habere
volebat imperii, responsum est :

" Ostendeiit terris hunc tantum fata."

7 quae idcirco posui ut sit omnibus clarum Constantium,
divini generis virum, sanctissimum Caesarem, et
Augustae ipsum familiae esse et Augustos multos de
se daturum, salvis Diocletiano et Maximiano Augustis
et eius fratre Galerio.

1 tu uinces Salm. ; in P, 27. a tui om. in P.

1 Mod. Tulln on the Danube, about 20 m. N.W. of Vienna.
2 Cf. Alex., iv. 6 and note and Firm., iii. 4.
s Aeneid, i. 265. 4 Aeneid, i. 278. s See c. xii.

tAetteid, vi. 669 ; quoted also in Ael. t iv. 1 and Gard., xx. 5.



X. It has fortunately come into my mind, and so
I must relate the oracle given to Claudius in Coma-
gena, 1 so it is said, in order that all may know that
the family of Claudius was divinely appointed to bring
happiness to the state. For when he inquired, after
being made emperor, how long he was destined to
rule, there came forth the following oracle 2 :

" Thou, who dost now direct thy fathers' empire,
Who dost govern the world, the gods' vicegerent,
Shalt surpass men of old in thy descendants ;
For those children of thine shall rule as monarchs,
And make their children into monarchs also."

Similarly, when once in the Apennines he asked about
his future, he received the following reply :

"Three times only shall summer behold him a ruler

in Latium 3 ."

Likewise, when he asked about his descendants :

" Neither a goal nor a limit of time will I set for their

power 4 ."

Likewise, when he asked about his brother Quiiitillus, 5
whom he was planning to make his associate in the
imperial power, the reply was :

" Him shall Fate but display to the earth. 6 '

These oracles I have included, in order that it may be
clear to all that Constantius, scion of a family divinely
appointed, our most venerated Caesar, himself springs
from a house of Augusti and will give us, likewise,
many Augusti of his own with all safety to the
Augusti Diocletian and Maximian and his brother



XI. Sed dum haec a divo Claudio aguntur, Palmy-
reni ducibus Saba et Timagene contra Aegyptios
bellum suniunt atque ab his Aegyptia pervicacia et
2indefessa pugnandi continuatione vincuntur. dux
tamen Aegyptiorum Probatus Timagenis insidiis
interemptus est. Aegyptii vero omnes se Romano
imperatori dederunt in absentis Claudii verba iurantes.

3 Antiochiano l et Orfito consulibus auspicia Claudiana
favor divinus adiuvit. nam cum se Haemimontum
multitude barbararum gentium, quae superfueraiit,
contulisset, illic ita fame ac pestilentia laboravit ut

4 iam Claudius dedignaretur et vincere. denique finitum
est asperrimum bellum, terroresque Romani nominis
sunt depulsi.

5 Vera dici fides cogit, simul ut sciant ii qui adulatores
nos aestimari cupiunt, id quod historia dici postulat

6nos 2 non tacere : eo tempore, quo parta est plena
victoria, plerique milites Claudii secundis rebus elati,
quae "sapientium quoque animos fatigant," ita in
praedam versi sunt ut non cogitarent a paucissimis se

1 Atticiano P, Peter. 2 nos ins. by Hohl ; om. in P and

by Peter.

1 According to the better account in Zosimus i. 44, Septimius
Zabdas (Saba), tbe general of Zenobia (see also Anr. t xxv. 3),
aided by the Egyptian Timagenes conquered Egypt and left
a garrison in it. Probatus (or Probus), Claudius' admiral, aided
by some of the Egyptians, drove out the Palmyrenes, but he was
later caught in a trap by Timagenes and his army was destroyed.
He committed suicide after being captured, and Egypt remained
in the possession of the Palmyrenes. The statement in 2 that
Egypt submitted to Claudius seems to be the usual fabrication
for the purpose of eulogy.

2 In this name the biographer is anticipating, for Haemi-
montum was the name of one of the six provinces into which



XI. While these things were being done by the
Deified Claudius, the Palmyrenes, under the generals
Saba and Timagenes, made war against the Egyptians, 1
who defeated them with true Egyptian pertinacity
and unwearied continuance in fighting. Probatus,
nevertheless, the leader of the Egyptians, was killed
by a trick of Timagenes'. All the Egyptians, how-
ever, submitted to the Roman emperor, swearing
allegiance to Claudius although he was absent.

In the consulship of Antiochianus and Orfitus the 270
favour of heaven furthered Claudius' success. For
a great multitude, the survivors of the barbarian tribes,
who had gathered in Haemimontum, 2 were so stricken
with famine and pestilence that Claudius now scorned
to conquer them further. And so at length that most
cruel of wars was brought to an end, and the Roman
nation was freed from its terrors. 3

Now good faith forces me to speak the truth, and
also the desire of showing to those who wish me to
appear as a flatterer 4 that I am not concealing what
history demands should be told : namely, that at the
time when the victory was won in full, a number of
Claudius' soldiers, puffed up with success which
" weakens the minds of even the wise " 5 turned to
plundering ; for they did not reflect that, while busied

Diocletian divided the diocese of Thrace. Zosimus (i. 45) gives
the scene more correctly as Mt. Haemus, i.e., the Balkan Range.

3 The victory was commemorated by Claudius' assumption of
the cognomen Gothicus, which appears in an inscription and on
the coins issued after his death with the legend Divo Clandio
Gothico (Matt.-Syd., v. p. 234, nos. 263-265) ; it was also com-
memorated by an issue of coins with the legend Victoriaa
Gothicae ; see ibid., pp. 232-233, nos. 251-252.

4 See note to c. iii. 1.

5 A quotation from Sallust, Catilina, xi. 7.



posse fugari, 1 dum occupati animo atque corporibus

7 avertendis praedis 2 inserviunt. denique in ipsa
victoria prope duo milia railitum a paucis barbaris et

8 iis qui fugerant interempta sunt. sed ubi hoc com-
perit Claudius, omnes qui rebelles animos extulerant
conducto exercitu rapit atque in vincula Romam etiam
mittit ludo publico deputandos. ita id, quod vel
fortuna vel miles egerat, virtute boni principis
antiquatum est. nee sola de hoste victoria, sed etiam

9 vindicta praesumpta est. in quo bello, quoad 3 gestum
est, equitum Dalmatarum ingens exstitit virtus, quod
originem ex ea provincia Claudius videbatur ostendere,
quamvis alii Darclanum et ab Ilo Troianorum rege 4
atque ab ipso Dardano sanguinem dicerent trahere.

XII. Fuerunt per ea tempora et apud Cretam
Scythae et Cyprum vastare temptarunt, sed ubique
morbo aeque 5 exercitu laborante superati sunt.

2 Finito sane bello Gothico gravissimus morbus
increbruit, tune cum etiam Claudius adfectus morbo
mortalis reliquit et familiare virtutibus suis petiit

3caelum. quo ad deos atque ad sidera demigrante


1 fugari Petschenig, Hohl ; fatigari P, Peter. *praesidiis
P. 8 quoad Petschenig, Ellis ; quod P ; quod foil, by lacuna
Peter. 4 rege ins. by Salm. ; om. in P. B aeque

Bitschofsky ; atque P ; atque <fame> Salm., Peter.

1 He is referred to as an Illyrian in c. xiv. 2, and he may well
have been a native of the district of Dardania, hi southern Jugo-
slavia, extending northwards from Uskiib. An easy confusion
between this region and the Asiatic Dardanus near Troy, com-
bined with a desire to give the emperor royal ancestry, led to
the story of his descent from the Trojan kings.

2 Zosimus (i. 46) records that the Goths with their fleet in-



in mind and in body, they gave themselves up to
seizing their prey, a very few could put them to flight.
And so, at the very moment of victory, about two
thousand soldiers were slain by a few barbarians, who
had already been routed. When Claudius learned this,
however, he assembled his army and seized all those
who had shown a rebellious spirit, and he even sent
them to Rome in chains to be used in the public
spectacles. So, whatever damage either fortune or
the soldiers had caused was made good through the
courage of the excellent prince, and not only was
victory won from the enemy, but revenge was taken
as well. In this war, throughout its whole length,
the valour of the Dalmatian horsemen stood out as
especially great, because it was thought that Claudius
claimed that province as his original home x ; others,
however, declared that he was a Dardanian and derived
his descent from Ilus, a king of the Trojans and, in
fact, even from Dardanus himself.

XII. During this same period the Scythians at-
tempted to plunder in Crete and Cyprus as well, but
everywhere their armies were likewise stricken with
pestilence and so were defeated. 2

Now when the war with the Goths was finished,
there spread abroad a most grievous pestilence, and
then Claudius himself was stricken by the disease,
and, leaving mankind, he departed to heaven, an
abode befitting his virtues. 3 He, then, moved away

vaded Crete and Rhodes but did no harm worthy of mention ;
he says nothing about this division suffering from pestilence.

3 He died early in 270 at Sirmium (mod. Mitrovitz on the
lower Save), according to Zonaras xii. 26. The tendency to
exalt him caused the fabrication of a romantic story which re-
presented his death as a voluntary sacrifice ; see Aur. Victor,
Goes., 34, 3-5 ; Epit., 34, 3.



Quiiitillus frater eiusdera, vir sanctus et sui fratris, ut
vere dixerim, frater, delatum sibi omnium iudicio
suscepit imperium, non hereditarium sed merito
virtutum, qui factus esset imperator, etiamsi frater
4Claudii principis non fuisset. sub hoc barbari qui
superfuerant Anchialum vastare conati sunt, Nicopolim
etiam obtinere. sed illi provincialium virtute obtriti

5 sunt. Quintillus autem ob brevitatem temporis nihil
dignum imperio gerere potuit, nam septima decima
die, quod se graven et serium c.mtra milites ostenderat
ac verum principem pollicebatur, eo genere, quo

6 Galba, quo Pertinax interemptus est. et Dexippus
quidem Quintillum l non dicit occisum, sed tantum
mortuum. nee tamen addit morbo, ut dubium sentire

XIII. Quoniam res bellicas diximus, de Claudii
genere et familia saltern pauca dicenda sunt, ne ea

2 quae scienda sunt praeterisse videamur : Claudius,
Quintillus et Crispus fratres fuerunt. Crispi filia 2
Claudia ; ex ea et Eutropio, nobilissimo gentis Dar-

3 danae viro, Constantius Caesar est genitus. fuerunt

1 Quintillum Salm., Peter ; Claudium P, Hohl. * filia

2 ; familia P.

*M. Aurelius Quintillus Augustus, according to his coins;
see Matt.-Syd., v. p. 238 f.

2 Mod. Anchiali on the Gulf of Burgas on the western shore
of the Black Sea.

3 Mod. Stari Nikub in southern Bulgaria.

4 The length of Quintillus' reign is also given as 17 days in
Eutropius ix. 12 and Zonaras xii. 26, but as 77 days by the
" Chronographer of 354 " and as a few months by Zosimus
(i. 47). As the coins bearing his name are very numerous, we
must suppose a longer reign than 17 days ; on the other hand,
as, according to a papyrus dated 25 May, 270, Aurelian was



to the gods and the stars, and his brother Quintillus, 1
a righteous man and the brother indeed, as I might
truly say, of his brother, assumed the imperial power,
which was offered him by the judgement of all, not
as an inherited possession, but because his virtues de-
served it ; for all would have made him emperor, even
if he had not been the brother of the Claudius their
prince. In his time those barbarians who still sur-
vived endeavoured to lay waste Anchialus 2 and even
to seize Nicopolis, 3 but they were crushed by the
valour of the provincials. Quintillus, however, could
do naught that was worthy of the imperial power
because his rule was so short, for on the seventeenth
day of his reign 4 he was killed, as Galba 5 had been
and Pertinax 6 also, because he had shown himself
stern and unbending toward the soldiers and promised
to be a prince in very truth. Dexippus, 7 to be sure,
does not say that Quintillus was killed, but merely
that he died. He does not, however, relate that he
died of an illness, and so he seems to feel doubt.

XIII. Since we have now described his achieve-
ments in war, we must tell a few things, at least, con-
cerning the kindred and the family of Claudius, lest
we seem to omit what all should know : now Claudius,
Quintillus, and Crispus were brothers, and Crispus had
a daughter Claudia ; of her and Eutropius, the noblest
man of the Dardanian folk, was born Constantius

then known in Egypt to be emperor, the period of 77 days is
too long. He may be -supposed to have ruled for six weeks at
the most ; see Stein in Arch. f. Pa/p.-Forsch.,vn. p. 45 f. Ac-
cording to Aur., xxxvii. 6 and Zosimus and Zonaras, he killed
himself by opening his veins.

5 See Tacitus, Hist., i. 18 f .

* See Pert., xi. 7 See note to Alex., xlix. 3.



etiam sorores, quarum una, Constantina nomine,
4nupta tribune Assyriorum, inprimis annis defecit. de
avis nobis parum cognitum ; varia enim plerique

6 Ipse Claudius insignis morum gravitate, insignis
vita singulari et unica castimonia, vini parcus, ad
cibum promptus, statura procerus, oculis ardentibus,
lato et pleno vultu, digitis usque adeo fortibus, ut
saepe equis et mulis ictu pugni dentes excusserit.

6 fecerat hoc etiam adulescens in militia, cum ludicro
Martiali in Campo luctamen inter fortissimos quosque

7 monstraret. nam iratus ei, qui non balteum sed
genitalia sibi contorserat, omnes dentes uno pugno

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