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excussit. quae res l indulgentiam meruit ' 2 pudoris

Svindictae. si quidem tune Decius imperator, quo
praesente fuerat perpetratum, et virtutem et vere-
cundiam Claudii publice praedicavit donatumque
armillis et torquibus a militum congressu facessere
praecepit, ne quid atrocius quam luctamen exigit

1 quae res Hohl ; quaeres P ; quaerens editors. meruit

E, Hohl ; om. in P and by Peter.

1 The statement of the relationship of Constantius to Claudius
as given here differs from that of Eutropius (ix. 22) and Zona-
ras (xii. 26 end), both of whom represent Constantius as the
son of Clauaius' daughter, while the nepos of c. ix. 9 is am-
biguous. On the other hand, the accepted official version,
found in the Panegyrics addressed to Constantino and in the
inscriptions of both the emperor himself and his sons, in which
Constantine appears as Claudius' grandson, presupposes the
theory that Constantius was Claudius' son. This divergence
leads inevitably to the suspicion that the relationship was



Caesar. 1 There were also some sisters, of whom one,
Constantina by name, was married to a tribune of the
Assyrians, but died at an early age. Concerning his
grandparents we know all too little, for varying state-
ments have been handed down by most of the writers.
Now Claudius himself was noted for the gravity of
his character, and noted, too, for his matchless life
and a singular purity ; he was sparing in his use
of wine, but was not averse to food; he was tall
of stature, with flashing eyes and a broad, full face,
and so strong were his fingers that often by a blow of
his fist he would dash out the teeth of a horse or
a mule. He even performed a feat of this kind as
a youth in military service, while taking part in a
wrestling-match between some of the strongest cham-
pions at a spectacle in the Campus Martius held in
honour of Mars. For, becoming angry at one fellow
who grasped at his private parts instead of his belt,
he dashed out all the man's teeth with one blow of
his fist. This action won him favour for thus protect-
ing decency ; for the Emperor Decius, who was present
when this was done, publicly praised his courage and
modesty and presented him with arm-rings and col-
lars, 2 but bade him withdraw from the soldiers' con-


tests for fear he might do some more violent deed
than the wrestling required.

wholly a fabrication, designed, in the interests of the dynasty,
to provide tlie parvenu Constantius with ancestors. This is
strengthened by the fact that, with the exception of Quintillus,
none of the members of Claudius' family named in this chapter
is known to us, and by the wholly incorrect attribution to
Claudius of the names Flavius and Valerius which were those
of Constantius ; see note to c. i. 1.

2 i.e., the usual rewards given to soldiers ; see Maxim., ii. 4 ;
Aur., vii. 7 ; Prob., v. i.



9 Ipsi Claudio liberi nulli fuerunt, Quintillus duos
reliquit, Crispus, ut diximus, filiam.

XIV. Nunc ad iudicia principum veniamus, quae
de 1 illo a diversis edita sunt, et eatenus quidem ut
appareret quandocumque Claudium imperatorem fu-

2 Epistula Valerian! ad Zosimionem, procuratorem Sy-
riae : " Claudium, Illyricianae gentis virum, tribunum
Martiae quintae legioni fortissimae ac devotissimae 2
dedimus, virum devotissimis quibusque ac fortissimis

Sveterum praeferendum. huic salarium de nostro
private aerario dabis annuos frumenti modios tria
milia, hordei sex milia, laridi libras duo milia, vini
veteris sextarios tria milia quingentos, olei boni
sextarios centum qainquaginta, olei secundi sextarios
sescentos, salis modios viginti, cerae pondo centum
quinquaginta, feni, paleae, aceti, holeris, herbarum
quantum satis est, pellium tentoriarum decurias tri-
ginta, mulos annuos sex, equos annuos tres, camelas
annuas decem, mulas annuas novem, argenti in opere
annua pondo quinquaginta, Philippeos nostri vultus
annuos centum quinquaginta et in strenis quadraginta

4septem et trientes centum sexaginta. item in cauco

1 de ora in P. 2 ac deuotissimae 2, Hohl ; om. in P and

by Peter.

1 None of the persons to whom this letter and the following
ones (cc. xv.-xvii.) are addressed is otherwise known. They are
probably as fictitious as the letters themselves.

2 No Legio V. Martia is known, but a Legio IV. Martia is
mentioned as stationed in Arabia in the early fifth century;
see Not. Dig. Or. xxxvii. 22.

3 This name, originally given to the famous gold stater of
Philip II. of Macedonia, was also occasionally applied to the



Claudius himself had no children, but Quintillus
left two sons, and Crispus, as I have said, a daughter.

XIV. Let us now proceed to the opinions that
many emperors expressed about him, and in such
wise, indeed, that it became apparent that he would
some day be emperor.

A letter from Valerian to Zosimio, the procurator
of Syria l : " We have named Claudius, a man of
Illyrian birth, as tribune of our most valiant and loyal
Fifth Legion, the Martian, 2 for he is superior to all
the most loyal and most valiant men of old. By way
of supplies you will give him each year out of our
private treasury three thousand pecks of wheat, six
thousand pecks of barley, two thousand pounds of
bacon, three thousand five hundred pints of well-
aged wine, one hundred and fifty pints of the best
oil, six hundred pints of oil of the second grade,
twenty pecks of salt, one hundred and fifty pounds
of wax, and as much hay and straw, cheap wine, greens
and herbs as shall be sufficient, thirty half-score of
hides for the tents ; also six mules each year, three
horses each year, ten camels each year, nine she-
mules each year, fifty pounds of silverware each year,
one hundred amd fifty Philips, 3 bearing our likeness,
each year, and as a New-year's gift forty-seven Philips
and one hundred and sixty third-Philips. Likewise
in cups and tankards and pots eleven pounds. Also

Koman aureus, but tbe author is probably using it loosely bere,
as also in Firm., xv. 8, tbinking of it as named after Philippus
Arabs; see note to Aur., ix. 7. Coins of a tbird-aureus are
said to have been issued for tbe first time by Sever us Alexander
(Alex., xxxix. 7), but no certain examples eitber of tbese or of
any of Gallienus and Saloninus are in existence ; see Menadier,
Die M'ilnzen . . . bei den S. II. A. p. 30 f.



5et scypho et zema pondo undecim. tunicas russas
militares annuas duas, 1 sagochlamydes annuas duas,
fibulas argenteas inauratas duas, fibulam auream cum
acu Cyprea unam. balteum argenteum inauratum
unum, anulum bigemmem unum uncialem, brachialem
unam unciarum septem, torquem libralem unum,
cassidem inauratam unam, scuta chrysographata duo,

Cloricam unam, quam refundat. lanceas Herculianas
duas, aclides duas, falces duas, falces fenarias quattuor.

7 cocum, quern refundat, unum. mulionem, quern re-
fundat, unum, mulieres speciosas ex captivis duas.

Salbam subsericam unam cum purpura Girbitana, sub-

9armalem unum cum purpura Maura, notarium, quern
refundat, unum, structorem, quern refundat, unum.

10 accubitalium Cypriorum paria duo, interulas puras
duas, fascias viriles duas, 2 togam, quam refundat,

11 unam, latum clavum, quern refundat, unum. vena-
tores, qui obsequantur, duo, carpentarium unum,
curam praetorii unum, aquarium unum, piscatorem

12 unum, dulciarium unum. ligni cotidiani pondo mille,
si est copia, sin minus, quantum fuerit et ubi fuerit ;

I3coctilium cotidiana vatilla quattuor. balneatorem
unum et ad balneas ligna, sin minus, lavetur in publico.

1 duas ins. by Gas. foil, by Hohl ; om. in P and by Peter.
a fascias . . . duas 2, Hohl ; om. in P and by Peter.

1 The adjective Herculianus, if the form is correct, ia
evidently from Herculius, the name assumed by Maximian. It
occurs in the forms Herculia and Herculiani given by him to
legions and other bodies of troops, and the name of the lances
here mentioned seems to have the same derivation ; its presence
in a letter attributed to Valerian is an unfortunate slip on the
part of the author. It is, of course, possible to alter the read-
ing to Herculaneus, but Heracles is almost uniformly repre-


two red military tunics each year, two military cloaks
each year, two silver clasps gilded, one golden clasp
with a Cyprian pin, one sword-belt of silver gilded,
one ring with two gems to weigh an ounce, one arm-
let to weigh seven ounces, one collar to weigh a
pound, one gilded helmet, two shields inlaid with
gold, one cuirass, to be returned. Also two Her-
culian 1 lances, two javelins, two reaping-hooks, and
four reaping-hooks for cutting hay. Also one cook,
to be returned, one muleteer, to be returned, two
beautiful women taken from the captives. One
white part-silk 2 garment ornamented with purple
from Girba, 3 and one under- tunic with Moorish
purple. One secretary, to be returned, and one
server at table, to be returned. Two pairs of Cyprian
couch-covers, two white under-garmenis, a pair of
men's leg-bands, 4 one toga, to be returned, one broad-
striped tunic, to be returned. Two huntsmen to
serve as attendants, one waggon-maker, one head-
quarters-steward, 5 one waterer, one fisherman, one
confectioner. One thousand pounds of fire-wood each
day, if there is an abundant supply, but if not, as
much as there is and wherever it is, and four braziers
of charcoal each day. One bath-man and firewood
for the bath, but if there is none, he shall bathe in
the public bath. All else, which cannot be enume-

sented with a club ; the spear appears as his weapon only in
the Hesiodic Shield and on coins of Erythrae ; see Eoscher,
Lexikon, i. 2137-2188.

2 See note to Heliog., xxvi. 1.

3 Mod Djerba, an island off the coast of southern Tunisia
and the seat of an imperial purple-factory.

4 See note to Alex., xl. 11.

5 More correctly a cur is or domicurius ; see Pauly-Wissowa,
RealencycL, iv. 1773.



14 iam cetera, quae propter minutias suas scribi nequennt,
pro moderatione praestabis, sed ita ut nihil adaeret,
et si alicubi aliquid defuerit, non praestetur nee in

15 nummo exigatur. liaec autem omnia idcirco special-
iter non quasi tribune sed quasi duci detuli, quia vir
talis est ut ei plura etiam deferenda sint."

XV. Item ex epistula eiusdem alia inter cetera ad
Ablavium Murenam praetectum praetorii : " Desine
autem conqueri, quod adhuc Claudius est tribunus nee
exercitus ducis loco 1 accipit, unde etiam senatum et

2populum conqueri iactabas. dux factus est et dux
totius Illyrici. habet in potestatem Thracios, Moesos,

SDalmatas, Pannonios, Dicos exercitus. vir ille sum-
mus nostro quoque iudicio speret consulatum et, si
eius animo commodum est, quando voluerit, accipiat

4 praetorianam praefecturam. sane scias tantum ei
a nobis decretum salarii quantum habet Aegypti
praeiectura, tantum vestium quantum proconsulatui
Africano detulimus, tantum argenti quantum accipit
curator Illyrici metallarius/ tantum ministeriorum
quantum nos ipsi nobis per singulas quasque decer-
nimus eivitates, ut intellegant omnes quae sit nostra
de viro tali sententia."

XVI. Item epistula Decii de eodem Claudio :

" Decius Messallae praesidi Achaiae salutem."

1 duels loco Mominsen, Hohl ; ducem locoP, Z\ ducendos
Cas., Peter. *metallarius Mommsen, Hohl; Metlarins P,


1 The silver mines in eastern Dalmatia were under the
charge of an imperial procurator metallornm Pannoniorum et
Delmaticorum (C./.L., iii. 12721).



rated here because of its insignificance you will supply
in due amount, but in no case shall the equivalent in
money be given, and if there should be a lack of any-
thing in any place, it shall not be supplied, nor shall
the equivalent be exacted in money. All these things
I have allowed him as a special case, as though lie
were not a mere tribune but rather a general, because
to such a man as he an even larger allowance should
be made."

XV. Likewise in another letter of Valerian's,
addressed to Ablavius Murena, the prefect of the
guard, among other statements the following : " Cease
now your complaints that Claudius is still only a
tribune and has not been appointed the leader of our
armies, about which, you were wont to declare, the
senate and people also complain. He has been made
a general, and, in fact, the general in command
of all lllyricum. He has under his rule the armies of
Thrace, Moesia, Dalmatia, Pannonia, and Dacia.
Indeed, this man, eminent in my estimation as well,
may hope for the consulship, and, if it accords with
his wishes, he may receive the prefecture of the guard
whenever he desires. I would have you know, more-
over, that we have allotted to him the same amount
of supplies that the prefect of Egypt receives, the
same amount of clothing that we have allowed to the
proconsulate of Africa, the same amount of silver that
the procurator of the mines in lllyricum l receives,
and the same number of servants that we allot to
ourselves in each and every community ; for I wish
all to know my opinion of such a man."

XVI. Likewise a letter of Decius' concerning this
same Claudius :

" From Decius to Messalla, the governor of Achaea,



inter cetera : " Tribunum vero nostrum Claudium,
optimum iuvenem, fortissimum militem, constantissi-
mum civem, castris, senatui et rei publicae necessarium,
in Thermopylas ire praecipimus mandata eidem cura
Pelopoimensium, scientes neminem melius omiiia
2quae iniungimus esse curaturum. huic ex regione
Dardanica dabis milites ducentos, ex cataphractariis
centum, ex equitibus sexaginta, ex sagittariis Creticis

3 sexaginta, ex tironibus bene armatos mille. nam bene

O *

illi novi creduntur exercitus ; neque enim illo quis-
quam devotior, fortior, gravior invenitur."

XVII. Item epistula Gallieni, cum nuntiatum esset
per frumentarios Claudium irasci. quod ille mollius

2viveret: " Nihil me gravius accepit quam quod no-
taria tua intimasti Claudium, parentem amicumque
nostrum, insinuatis sibi falsis plerisque graviter irasci.

Squaeso igitur, mi Venuste, si mihi fidem exhibes, ut
eum facias a Grato et Herenniano placari, nescientibus
hoc militibus Daciscianis, qui iam saeviunt, ne graviter

4 res erumpant. 1 ipse ad eum dona misi, quae ut
libenter accipiat tu facies. curandum praeterea est,
ne me hoc scire intellegat ac sibi suscensere iudicet

5et pro necessitate ultimum consilium capiat. misi
autem ad eum pateras gemmatas trilibres duas, scyphos
aureos gemmatos trilibres duos, discum corymbiatum

1 res erumpant Salm. foil, by Peter 1 and Lenze; reserum P;
remferant Petschenig, Peter, 2 Hohl.

1 See note to c. xi. 9. The district must have been under the
command of the governor of Moesia, not of Achaea.

2 See note to Alex., Ivi. 5.

3 See note to Hadr., xi. 4. 4 Otherwise unknown.



greetings." Among other orders the following :
" But to our tribune Claudius, an excellent young
man, a most courageous soldier, a most loyal citizen,
necessary alike to the camp, the senate, and the
commonwealth, we are giving instructions to proceed
to Thermopylae, entrusting to his care the Pelopon-
nesians also, lor we know that no one will carry out
more carefully all our injunctions. You will assign
him from the district of Dardania l two hundred foot-
soldiers, one hundred cuirassiers, 2 sixty horsemen,
sixty Cretan archers, and one thousand new recruits,
all well armed. For it is well to entrust new troops
to him, inasmuch as none can be found more loyal,
more valiant, or more earnest than he."

XVII. Likewise a letter of Gallienus', written when
he was informed by his private agents 3 that Claudius
was angered by his loose mode of life : " Nothing has
grieved me more than what you have stated in your
report, namely, that Claudius, my kinsman and friend,
has been made very angry by certain false statements
that have reached his ears. I request you, therefore,
my dear Venustus, if you are faithful to me, to have
him appeased by Gratus and Herennianus, 4 while the
Dacian troops, even now in a state of anger, are still
in ignorance, for I fear there may be some serious
outbreak. I myself am sending him gifts, and you
will see to it that he accepts them willingly. You
will take care, furthermore, that he shall not become
aware that I know all this and so suppose that I am
incensed against him, and, accordingly, out of neces-
sity adopt some desperate plan. I am sending to him,
moreover, two sacrificial saucers studded with gems
three pounds in weight, two golden tankards studded
with gems three pounds in weight, a silver disk-shaped



argenteum librarum viginti, lancem argenteam pampi-
natam librarum triginta, patenam argenteam hede-
raciam librarum viginti et trium, boletar halieuticum
argenteum librarum viginti, urceos duos auro inclusos
argenteos librarum sex et in vasis minoribus argenti
libras viginti quinque, calices Aegyptios operisque

6 diversi decem, chlamydes veri luminis limbatas duas,
vestes diversas sedecim, albam subsericam, para-
gaudem triuncem unam, zanchas de nostris Parthicas
paria tria, singiliones Dalmatenses decem, chlamydem
Dardanicam mantuelem unam, paenulam Illyricianam

7 unam, bardocucullum unum, cucutia villosa duo, oraria
Sarabdena quattuor, aureos Valerianos centum quin-
quaginta, trientes Saloninianos trecentos."

XVIII. Habuit et senatus iudicia, priusquam ad
imperium perveniret,, ingentia. nam cum esset nun-
tiatum ilium cum Marciaiio fortiter contra gentes in

2 Illyrico dimicasse, adclamavit senatus : " Claudi, dux
fortissime, aveas ! virtutibus tuis, devotioni tuae !
Claudio statuam omnes dicamus. Claudium consulem

3 omnes cupimus. qui amat rem publicam sic agit, qui
amat principes sic agit, antiqui milites sic egerunt.
felicem te, Claudi, iudicio prmcipum, felicem te

1 The paragaudes or paragauda (irapayu>8r)s) t also men-
tioned in. Aur., xv. 4; xlvi. 6; Prob., iv. 5, is described by
Lydus (de Magistratibus, i. 17; ii. 4) as a x iT & v Ao7x t)T ^,
a tunic of eastern origin, having sleeves and a purple border
embroidered with designs in gold. The Edict of Justinian
permits its use by men as a special distinction.

2 See Com., viii. 8 and note.
8 See Pert., viii. 3 and note.

4 Near Sidon in Phoenicia and famous for its purple.



platter with an ivy-cluster pattern twenty pounds in
weight, a silver dish with a vine-leaf pattern thirty
pounds in weight, a silver bowl with an ivy-leaf
pattern twenty -three pounds in weight, a silver vessel
for fish twenty pounds in weight, two silver pitchers
embossed with gold six pounds in weight and smaller
vessels of silver amounting to twenty-five pounds in
weight, ten cups of Egyptian and other workmanship,
two cloaks witti purple borders of the tine brilliance,
sixteen garments of various kinds, a white cne of part-
silk, one tunic with bands of embroidery 1 three
ounces in weight, three p.urs of Parthian shoes from
our own supply, ten Dalmatian 2 striped tunics, one
Dardaniaii great-coat, one Illy rian mantle, one hooded-
cloak, s two shaggy hoods, four handkerchiefs from
Sarepta 4 ; also one hundred and fifty aurei with the
likeness of Valerian and three hundred third-aurei
with that of Saloninus." 5

XVIII. He had also the approval of the senate
before he became emperor, and weighty, indeed, it
was. For when the announcement was made that
he, together with Marciunus, had fought valiantly
against the barbarian tribes in Illyricum, the senate
acclaimed him thus 7 : " Claudius, our most valiant
leader, hail ! Hail to your courage, hail to your
loyalty !" Let us all decree a statue to Claudius.
We all desire Claudius as consui. So acts he who
loves the commonwealth, so acts he who loves the
emperors, so acted the soldiers of old. Happy are
you, Claudius, in the approval of princes, happy are
you in your own valour, you our consul, you our

6 See note to c. xiv. 3. 6 See Gall., vi. 1.

7 Of. c. iv. 3.



virtutibus tuis, consulem te, praefectum te ! vivas
Valeri, et ameris a principe ! '

4 Longum est tarn multa quam meruit vir ille per-
scribere ; unum tamen tacere non debeo, quod ilium
et senatus et populus et ante imperium et in imperio
et post imperium sic dilexit ut satis constet neque
Traianum neque Antoninos neque quemquam alium
principem sic amatum.

1 See note to c. i. 1.



prefect ! Long may you live, Valerius, 1 and enjoy
the love of your prince ! '

It would be too long to set forth all the many
honours that this man earned ; one thing, however,
I must not omit, namely, that both the senate and
people held him in such affection both before his
rule and during his rule and after his rule that it is
generally agreed among all that neither Trajan nor
any of the Antonines nor any other emperor was so




I. Hilaribus, quibus omnia festa et fieri debere
scimus et dici, impletis sollemnibus vehiculo suo me
et iudiciali carpento praefectus urbis, vir inlustris ac
praefata reverentia nominandus, lunius Tiberianus ac-

2 cepit. ibi cum animus a causis atque a negotiis pub-
licis solutus ac liber vacaret, sermoiiem multum a
Palatio usque ad Hortos Varianos instituit et in eo

Spraecipue de vita principum. cumque ad Templum
Solis venissemus ab Aureliano principe consecratum,
quod ipse lion iiihilum ex eius origine sanguinem
duceret, quaesivit a me quis vitam eius in litteras ret-

4tulisset. cui cum ego respondissem iieminem a me
Latinorum, Graecorum aliquos lectitatos, dolorem

1 Celebrated in honour of the Magna Mater on 25 March.

2 Junius Tiberianus was consul in 281 and 291. He was
prefect of the city, according to the list of the " Chronographer
of 354," from 18 Feb., 291, to 3 Aug., 292, and again irom
12 Sept., 303, to 4 Jan., 304. Since neither this group of
biographies nor those ascribed to Trebellius Pollio was written
as early as 292, it must be his second prefecture that is meant
here. This, however, did not include the Hilaria, and one is




I. At the festival of the Hilaria 1 when, as we
know, everything that is said and done should be of
a joyous nature when the ceremonies had been
completed, Junius Tiberianus, 2 the prefect of the
city, an illustrious man and one to be named only
with a prefix of deep respect, took me up into his
carriage, that is to say, his official coach. There, his
mind being now at leisure, relaxed and freed from
law-pleas and public business, he engaged in much
conversation all the way from the Palatine Hill to
the Gardens of Varius, 3 his theme being chiefly the
lives of the emperors. And when we had reached
the Temple of the Sun, 4 consecrated by the Emperor
Aurelian, he asked me for he derived his descent in
some degree from him who had written down the
record of the life of that prince. When I replied
that I had read none in Latin, though several in

forced to the conclusion that, unless the feast of Isis on 3 Nov.,
sometimes also referred to as the Hilaria, is meant, the episode
described here is merely a literary device.

8 Otherwise unknown. 4 See c. xxxv. 3 and note.



gemitus sui vir sanctus per haec verba pro fuel it :

5 " Ergo Thersitem, Sinonem ceteraque ilia* prodigia

vetustatis et nos bene scimus et poster! frequenta-

buiit ; divum Aurelianum, clarissimum principem,

severissimum imperatorem, per quern totus Romano

nomini orbis est restitutus, poster! nescient ? deus

Gavertat hanc amentiam. et tamen, si bene novi,

ephemeridas illius viri scriptas habemus, etiam bella

charactere historico digesta, quae velim accipias et

per ordinem scribas, additis quae ad vitam pertinent.

7 quae omnia ex libris liiite s, in quibus ipse cotidiana

sua scribi praeceperat, pro tua sedulitate condisces.

curabo autem ut tibi ex Ulpia Bibliotheca et libri

Slintei proferantur. tu velim Aurelianum ita ut

9 est, quatenus potes, in litteras mittas." parui, mi

Ulpiane, 1 praeceptis, accepi libros Graecos et omnia

mihi necessaria in manum sumpsi, ex quibus ea quae

10 digna erant memoratu in unum libellum contuli. tu

velim meo muneri boni consulas et, si hoc contentus

non meris, lectites Graecos, linteos etiam libros re-

quiras, quos Ulpia tibi Bibliotheca, cum volueris,

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