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1 So Mommsen ; parrumipiane P ; parui Tiberiani Peter.

1 The reviler of Agamemnon in Iliad, ii. 212 f.

2 He persuaded the Trojans to bring into their city the
Wooden Horse ; see Aeneid, ii. 67 f.

3 Probably, like the whole incident, fictitious. They seem
to have been suggested by the Libri Lintei, containing lists of
magistrates, cited by the annalists C. Licinius Macer and
Q. Aelius Tubero, of the first century B.C. (see Livy, iv. 7, 1 2 ;
23, 2), but regarded by many modern scholars as apocryphal.

4 In the Forum of Trajan ; see note to Hadr., vii. 6. It is



Greek, that revered man poured forth in the follow-
ing words the sorrow that his groan implied : " And
so Thersites J and Sinon 2 and other such monsters of
antiquity are well known to us and will be spoken of
by our descendants ; but shall the Deified Aurelian,
that most famous of princes, that most firm of rulers,
who restored the whole world to the sway of Rome,
be unknown to posterity ? God prevent such mad-
ness ! And yet, if I am not mistaken, we possess
the written journal of that great man and also his
wars recorded in detail in the manner of a history,
and these I should like you to procure and set forth
in order, adding thereto all that pertains to his life.
All these things you may learn in your zeal for
research from the linen books, 3 for he gave instruc-
tions that in these all that he did each day should
be written down. I will arrange, moreover, that the
Ulpian Library 4 shall provide you with the linen
books themselves. It would be my wish that you
write a work on Aurelian, representing him, to the
best of your ability, just as he really was." I have
carried out these instructions, my dear Ulpianus, 5
I have procured the Greek books and laid my hand*
on all that I needed, and from these sources I have
gathered together into one little book all that was
worthy of mention. You I should wish to think
kindly of my work, and, if you are not content there-
with, to study the Greeks and even to demand the
linen books themselves, which the Ulpian Library will
furnish you whenever you desire.

a favourite source for the erudition displayed by this biographer ;
see Tac., viii. 1 ; Prob., ii. 1 ; Car., xi. 3.

8 Only a tentative restoration of the text and wholly un-
known (cf. note to Prob., i. 3).



II. Et quoniam sermo nobis de Trebellio Pollione,
qui a duobus Philippis usque ad divum Claudium et
eius fratrem Quintillum imperatores tarn claros quam
obscures memoriae prodidit, in eodem vehiculo fuit
adserente Tiberiano quod Pollio multa incuriose,
multa breviter prodidisset, me contra dicente neminem
scriptorum, quantum ad historiam pertinet, non aliquid
esse mentitum, prodente quin etiam in quo Livius, in
quo Sallustius, in quo Cornelius Tacitus, in quo denique
Trogus manifestis testibus convincerentur, pedibus in
sententiam transitum faciens ac manum porrigens

2iocando praeterea, 1 "Scribe," inquit, " ut libet. se-
curus quod veils dices, habiturus mendaciorum comites,
quos historicae eloquentiae miramur auctores."

III. Ac lie multa et frivola prooemiis odiosus in-
texam, divus Aurelianus ortus, ut plures loquuntur,
Sirmii familia obscuriore, ut nonnulli, Dacia Ripensi.

2 ego autem legisse me memini auctorem qui eum
Moesia genii um praedicaret. et evenit quidem ut de
eorum virorum genital! solo nesciatur qui humiliore
loco et ipsi plerumque solum genitale confingunt, ut

8 dent posteritati de locorum splendore fulgorem. nee
tamen magnorum principum in rebus 2 summa sciendi

l praeterea P, Lessing, Hohl; propterea Gas., Peter. 2 in
rebus Peter; uiribus P, E.

a See note to Val., i. 1.

2 Pompeius Trogus, of the time of Augustus, who wrote
Historiae Philipijicae, extant only in the abridgement by

3 L. Domitius Aurelianus Augustus (270-275).
4 According to Epit., 35, 1, his father was a colonus of a
senator named Aurelius.

3 Mod. Mitrovitz. His actual birthplace is, indeed, unknown,



II. Now, when in the same carriage our talk had
fallen on Trebellius Pollio, who has handed down to
memory all the emperors, both illustrious and obscure,
from the two Philips l to the Deified Claudius and his
brother Quintillus, Tiberianus asserted that much of
Pollio's work was too careless and much was too brief ;
but when I said in reply that there was 110 writer, at
least in the realm of history, who had not made some
false statement, and even pointed out the places in
which Livy and Sallust, Cornelius Tacitus, and, finally,
Trogus 2 could be refuted by manifest proofs, he came
over wholly to my opinion, and, throwing up his
hands, he jestingly sa d besides : " Well then, write
as you will. You will be safe in saying whatever you
wish, since you will have as comrades in falsehood
those authors whom we admire for the style of their

III. So then lest I become tiresome by weaving
too many trifles into my preface the Deified
Aurelian 3 was born of a humble family, 4 at Sirmium 5
according to most writers, but in Dacia Ripensis 6 ac-
cording to some. I remember, moreover, having read
one author who declared that he was born in Moesia ;
and, indeed, it often comes to pass that we are ig-
norant of the birthplaces of those who, born in a
humble position, frequently invent a birthplace for
themselves, that they may give their descendants a
glamour derived from the lustre of the locality. How-
ever, in writing of the deeds of a great emperor, the

but there is no doubt that, like Claudius, Probus, Carus aud
Diocletian, he came of the hardy Illyrian stock which in this
period furnished the greater part of Rome's soldiers. He was
born in 214 or 215.

6 A new province formed by Aurelian himself (see c. xxxix. 7),
and so not unnaturally supposed to be his native place.



est ubi quisque sit genitus, sed qualis in re publica

4fuerit. an Platonem magis commendat quod Athen-

iensis fuerit quam quod unicum sapientiae munus

6inluxerit? aut eo minores invenientur Aristoteles

Stagirites Eleatesque Zenon aut Anacharsis Scytha

quod in minimis nati sint viculis, cum illos ad caelum

omnis philosophiae virtus extulerit ?

IV. Atque, ut ad ordinem redeam, Aurelianus modi-
cis ortus parentibus, a prima aetate ingenio vivacissi-
mus, viribus clarus, nullum umquam diem praetermisit,
quamvis festum, quamvis vacantem, quo non se pilo
et sagittis ceterisque armorum exerceret officiis.
2matrem quidem eius Callicrates Tyrius, Graecorum
longe doctissimus scriptor, sacerdotem templi Soils
sui l in vico eo in quo habitabant parentes fuisse dicit ;

3 habuisse quin etiam non nihilum divinationis, adeo ut
aliquando marito suo iurgans ingesserit, cum eius et
stultitiam increparet et vilitatem, "En imperatoris
patrem." ex quo constat illam mulierem scisse fatalia.

4 idem dicit auspicia imperil Aureliano haec fuisse :
primum pueri eius pelvem serpentem plerumque cinx-
isse neque umquam occidi potuisse, postremo ipsam
matrem, quae hoc viderat, serpentem quasi familiarem

1 sui Mommaen ; qui P, 2 ; lacuna after parentes assumed
by Peter.

1 A pupil of Parmenides, born in Elea (Velia) in Italy about
485 B.C. and resident in Athens about 450, the inventor of the
argument about Achilles and the tortoise.

2 A Scythian prince who travelled to Greece and was sup-
posed to have lived in Athens in the early sixth century as the
friend of Solon and to have been the author of a series of apho-
risms ; see Diog. Laert., i. 8, 101 f.



chief thing to be known is not in what place he was
born, but how great he was in the State. Do we
value Plato more highly because he was born at
Athens than because he stands out illumined as the
peerless gift of philosophy ? Or do we hold Aristotle
of Stagira or Zeno of Elea 1 or Anacharsis 2 of Scythia
in less esteem because they were born in the tiniest
villages, when the virtue of philosophy has exalted
them all to the skies ?

IV. And so to return to the course of events
Aurelian, born of humble parents and from his earliest
years very quick of mind and famous for his strength,
never let a day go by, even though a feast-day or a
day of leisure, on which he did not practise with the
spear, the bow and arrow, and other exercises in arms.
As to his mother, Callicrates of Tyre, 3 by far the most
learned writer of the Greeks, says that she was a
priestess of the temple of his own Sun-god 4 in the
village in which his parents lived ; she even had the
gift of prophecy to a certain extent, for once, when
she was quarrelling with her husband and reviling him
for his stupidity and low estate, she shouted at him,
" Behold the father of an emperor ! ' From which it
is clear that the woman knew something of fate. The
same writer says also that there were the following
omens of the rule of Aurelian : First of all, when he
was a child, a serpent wound itself many times around
his wash-basin, and no one was able to kill it ; finally,
his mother, who had seen the occurrence, refused to
have the serpent killed, saying that it was a member

3 Otherwise unknown and probably fictitious.

4 An allusion to the cult of the Sun founded by him at Rome ;
see c. xxxv. 3 and note. This fact is probably the origin of the
story that his mother was a priestess of the deity.



Soccidere noluisse. his accedit quod ex palliolo pur-
pureo, quod Soli sui temporis imperator obtulerat,
sacerdos mulier crepimdia filio fecisse perhibetur.

6 addit etiam illud, quod vinctum fasciola Aurelianum
aquila innoxie de cunis levaverit et in aram posuerit,

7quae iuxta sacellum forte sine ignibus erat. idem
auctor est vitulum matri eius natum mirae magnitu-
dinis, candidum sed purpurantibus maculis, ita ut hab-
V. eret in latere uno "ave" et 1 in alio coronam. multa
superflua in eodem legisse me 2 memini; quippe qui
adseveret etiam rosas in eiusdem mulieris chorte nato
Aureliano exisse purpureas, odoris rosei, floris aurei.

2fuerunt et postea multa omina iarn militanti futuri, ut

3 res monstravit, imperil, nam ingrediente eo Antio-
chiam in vehiculo, quod prae vulnere tune equo sedere
non posset, ita pallium purpureum, quod in honore eius

4 pansum fuerat, decidit, ut umeros eius tegeret. et cum
in equum transire vellet, quia invidiosum tune erat
vehiculis in civitate uti, equus est ei imperatoris adpli-
citus, cui per festinationem insedit. sed ubi comperit,

5 semet ad suum transtulit. data est ei praeterea, cum
legatus ad Persas isset, patera, qualis solet imperatori
dari a rege Persarum, in qua iiisculptus erat Sol eo
habitu quo colebatur ab eo templo in quo mater eius

1 " aue " et in alio Hohl ; auetrinalio P 1 ; " aue imperator"
Peter a . 2 me ins. by Lessing, v. Winterfeld, Hohl ; om. in P
and by Peter.

J Pliny (Nat. Hist., xxix. 72) tells of snakes kept as pets in
Rome. The snake was, in fact, regarded as the symbol of the
genius of the owner of a house, and is often found at Pompeii
painted on the wall of the shrine of the household-gods along
with the figures of the Lares and Penates.

2 For a similar " omen" see Cl. Alb., v. 9.

:! It had been forbidden by M. Aurelius ; see Marc., xxiii. 8.



of the household. 1 Furthermore, it is said, the priest-
ess made swaddling-clothes for her son from a purple
cloak,^ which the emperor of the time had dedicated
to the Sun-god. This, too, is related, that Aurelian,
while wrapped in his swaddling-clothes, was lifted out
of his cradle by an eagle, but without suffering harm,
and was laid on an altar in a neighbouring shrine
which happened to have no fire upon it. The same
writer asserts that on his mother's land a calf was born
of marvellous size, white but with purple spots, which
formed on one side the word "hail," en the other
side a crown. V. I remember also reading in this
same author much that has no importance ; he even
asserts that when Aurelian was born there sprang up
in this same woman's courtyard roses of a purple
colour, having the fragrance of the rose but a golden
centre. Later, when he was in military service, there
were also many omens predicting, as events showed,
his future rule. For instance, when he entered
Antioch in a carriage, for the reason that because of
a wound he could not ride his horse, a purple cloak,
which had been spread out in his honour, fell down
on him in such a way as to cover his shoulders. Then,
when he desired to change to a horse, because at that
time the use of a carriage in a city was attended with
odium, 3 a horse belonging to the emperor was led up
to him, and in his haste he mounted it. But when he
discovered to whom it belonged, he changed to one
of his own. Furthermore, when he had gone as
envoy to the Persians, he was presented with a sacri-
ficial saucer, of the kind that the king of the Persians
is wont to present to the emperor, on which was en-
graved the Sun-god in the same attire in which he
was worshipped in the very temple where the mother



6 fuerat sacerdos. donatus eidem etiam elephantus prae-
cipuus, quern ille imperatori obtulit, solusque omnium
privatus Aurelianus elephant! dominus fuit.

VI. Sed ut haec et talia omittamus, fuit decorus ac
gratia viriliter speciosus, statura procerior, nervis vali-
dissimis, vini et cibi paulo cupidior, libidinis rarae,
severitatis inmensae, disciplinae singularis, gladii ex-

2serendi cupidus. nam cum essent in exercitu duo
Aureliani tribuni, hie et alius, qui cum Valeriano cap-
tus est, huic signum exercitus adposuerat " manu ad
ferrum," ut si forte quaereretur quis Aurelianus aliquid
vel fecisset vel gessisset, suggereretur " Aurelianus
manu ad ferrum " atque cognosceretur.

3 Privati huius multa exstant egregia facinora. nam
erumpentes Sarmatas in Illyrico cum trecentis prae-

4sidiariis solus adtrivit. refert Theoclius, Caesarea-
norum temporum scriptor, Aurelianum manu sua bello
Sarmatico una die quadragiiita et octo interfecisse,
plurimis autem et diversis diebus ultra nongentos
quinquaginta, adeo ut etiam ballistia pueri et salta-
tiunculas in 1 Aurelianum tales componerent, 2 quibus
diebus festis militariter saltitarent :

5 " Mille mille mille decollavimus.
unus homo mille decollavimus.
mille bibat 3 quisquis 4 mille occidit.
tantum vini nemo habet quantum fudit sanguinis."

1 in cm. in P. 2 componerent 27, editors ; om. in P.

8 bibat Biicheler, Hohl ; uiuat P, 27, Peter. 4 quisquis

Basore ; qiLi P, 27, Peter.

1 In Juvenal, xii. 106-107, elephants are designated as Caesaris
armentum, nulli servire paratum \ private.

2 Similarly, a centurion in the army of the Danube in A.D.
14 had the nickname of " Cedo alteram " (" Give-me-another ") ;
see Tacitus, Annals, i. 23, 4.

:l Otherwise unknown.



of Aurelian had been a priestess. He was also pre-
sented with an elephant of unusual size, which he then
gave to the emperor, and Aurelian was the only com-
moner of them all who ever owned an elephant. 1

VI. But, to omit these and similar details, he was
a comely man, good to look upon because of his manly
grace, rather tall in stature, and very strong in his
muscles ; he was a little too fond of wine and food,
but indulged his passions rarely ; he exercised the
greatest severity and a discipline that had no equal,
being extremely ready to draw his sword. And, in
iact, since there were in the army two tribunes, both
named Aurelian, this man and another, who later was
captured with Valerian, the soldiers gave him the nick-
name of " Sword-in-hand," 2 so that, if anyone chanced
to ask which Aurelian had done anything or performed
any exploit, the reply would be made "Aurelian
Sword-in-hand," and so he would be identified.

Many of the remarkable deeds which he did as a
commoner are still well known : For instance, he and
three hundred men of his garrison alone destroyed
the Sarmatians when they burst into Illyricum.
Theoclius, 3 who wrote of the reigns of the Caesars,
relates that in the war against the Sarmatians Aurelian
with his own hand slew forty-eight men in a single
day and that in the course of several days he slew
over nine hundred and fifty, so that the boys even
composed in his honour the following jingles and
dance-ditties, to which they would dance on holidays
in soldier fashion :

" Thousand, thousand, thousand we've beheaded now.
One alone, a thousand we've beheaded now.
He shall drink a thousand who a thousand slew.
So much wine is owned by no one as the blood which
he has shed."



6haec video esse perfrivola, sed quia supra scriptus

auctor ita eadem ut sunt Latina suis scriptis inseruit,

VII. tacenda esse non credidi. idem apud Mogontiacum

tribunus legionis sextae Gallicanae Francos inruentes,

cum vagarentur per totam Galliam, sic adflixit ut

trecentos ex his captos septingentis interemptis sub

2 corona vendiderit. unde iterum de eo facta est

cantilena ;

" Mille Sarmatas, mille Francos semel et semel

mille Persas quaerimus."

8 Hie autem, ut supra diximus, 1 militibus ita timori
fuit ut sub eo, posteaquam semel cum ingenti severi-
tate castrensia peccata correxit, nemo peccaverit.

4 solus denique omnium militem, qui adulterium cum
hospitis uxore commiserat, ita punivit ut duarum
arborum capita inflecteret, ad pedes militis deligaret
easdemque subito dimitteret, ut scissus ille utrimque
penderet. quae res ingentem timorem omnibus

5 Huius epistula militaris est ad vicarium suum data
huius modi : " Si vis tribunus esse, immo si vis vivere,
manus militum contine. nemo pullum alienum rapiat,
ovem nemo contingat. uvam nullus auferat, segetem
nemo deterat, oleum, salem, lignum nemo exigat,
annona sua conteiitus sit. de praeda hostis, non de

1 diximus om. in P.

1 Presumably during the German invasions of 254-258. No
Legio VI Gallicana is known.

2 The same punishment, but for a different offence, was used
by Alexander the Great; see Plutarch, Alex., 13, 3.



I perceive, indeed, that these verses are very trivial,
but since the author mentioned before has included
them in his writings, in Latin just as they are here,
I have thought they ought not to be omitted. VII.
Likewise, when at Mainz as tribune of the Sixth
Legion, the Gallican, 1 he completely crushed the
Franks, who had burst into Gaul and were roving
about through the whole country, killing seven
hundred of them and capturing three hundred, whom
he then sold as slaves. And so a song was again
composed about him :

" Franks, Sarmatians by the thousand, once and once

again we've slain.
Now we seek a thousand Persians."

He was, moreover, so feared by the soldiers, as I
have said before, that, after he had once punished
offences in the camp with the utmost severity, no one
offended again. In fact, he alone among all com-
manders inflicted the following punishment on a soldier
who had committed adultery with the wife of the man
at whose house he was lodged : bending down the
tops of two trees, he fastened them to the soldier's
feet and then let them fly upward so suddenly that
the man hung there torn in two 2 a penalty which
inspired great terror in all.

There is a letter of his, truly that of a soldier, written
to his deputy, as follows : " If you wish to be tribune,
or rather, if you wish to remain alive, restrain the
hands of your soldiers. None shall steal another's
fowl or touch his sheep. None shall carry off grapes,
or thresh out grain, or exact oil, salt, or firewood, and
each shall be content with his own allowance. Let



elacrimis provincialium victum 1 habeant. arma tersa
sint, ferramenta samiata, calciamenta fortia. vestis
nova vestem veterem excludat. stipendium in balteo,

7non in popina habeat. torquem, brachialem, anulura
adponat. equum et sagmarium suum defricet,
capitum animalis non vendat, mulum centuriatura

8 communiter curent. alter alteri quasi miles, 2 nemo
quasi servus obsequatur, a medicis gratis curentur,
haruspicibus nihil dent, in hospitiis caste se agant, qui
litem fecerit vapulet."

VIII. Inveni nuper in Ulpia Bibliotheca inter
linteos libros epistulam divi Valeriani de Aureliano
principe scriptam, quam ad verbum, ut decebat,

2 " Valerianus Augustus Antonino Gallo consuli.
culpas me familiaribus litteris, quod Postumo filium
meum Gallienum magis quam Aureliano commiserim,
cum utique severiori et puer credendus fuerit et exer-
citus. ne tu 3 id diutius iudicabis, si bene scieris

8 quantae sit Aurelianus severitatis ; nimius est, multus
est, gravis est et ad nostra iam non facit tempora.

4 testor autem omnes me etiam timuisse, ne quid etiam
erga filium meum severius, si quid ille fecisset, cum
ut est natura pronus ad ludicra levius cogitaret."

1 uictum ins. by Novak ; om. in P and by Hohl ; habeant
replaced by uiuant by Peter. 2 miles Obrecht, Peter 1 ;

in P. 3 ne tu P, 27, def. by Baehrena and Hohl ; tiec tamen

1 See Claud., xiii. 8 and note. 2 See c. i. 7 and notes.

8 No consul of this name is known.

4 This is certainly an error, probably due to confusion with
the fact that Gallienus entrusted his son Valerian to the care
of Silvanus ; see notes to Tyr. Trig., iii. 1.



them get their living from the booty taken from the
enemy and not from the tears of the provincials.
Their arms shah 1 be kept burnished, their implements
bright, and their boots stout. Let old uniforms be
replaced by new. Let them keep their pay in their
belts and not spend it in public-houses. Let them
wear their collars, arm-rings, 1 and finger-rings. Let
each man curry his own horse and baggage -animal,
let no one sell the fodder allowed him for his beast,
and let them take care in common of the mule be-
longing to the century. Let one yield obedience to
another as a soldier and no one as a slave, let them
be attended by the physicians without charge, let
them give no fees to soothsayers, let them conduct
themselves in their lodgings with propriety, and let
anyone who begins a brawl be thrashed."

VIII. I have recently found among the linen books
in the Ulpian Library 2 a letter, written by the
Deified Valerian concerning the Emperor Aurelian,
which I have inserted word for word, as seemed
right :

" From Valerian Augustus to Antoninus Gallus,*
the consul. You find fault with me in a personal
letter for confiding my son Gallienus 4 to Postumus
rather than to Aurelian, on the ground, of course,
that both the boy and the army should be entrusted
to the sterner man. Of a truth you will continue
to hold this opinion when once you have learned
how stern Aurelian is ; for he is too stem, much
too stern, he is harsh and his actions are not suited
to those of our time. Moreover, I call all to wit-
ness that I have even feared that he will act too
sternly toward my son also, in case he does aught in
behaving with too great frivolity for he is naturally



Shaec epistula indicat quantae fuerit severitatis, ut
ilium Valerianus etiam timuisse se dicat.

IX. Eiusdem Valeriani alia est epistula, quae laudes
illius continet. quam ego ex scriniis praefecturae
urbanae protuli. nam illi Romam venienti salaria sui
ordinis sunt decreta. exemplum epistulae :

2 "Valerianus Augustus Ceionio Albino praefecto
urbi. vellemus quidem singulis quibusque devotis-
simis rei publicae viris multo maiora deferre compendia
quam eorum dignitas postulat, maxime ubi honorem
vita commendat debet enim quid praeter dignitatem
pretium esse meritorum, sed tacit rigor publicus ut
accipere de provinciarum inlationibus ultra ordinis

8 sui gradum nemo plus possit. Aurelianum, fortis-
simum virum, ad inspicienda et ordinanda castra
omnia destinavimus, cui tan turn a nobis atque ab
omni re publica communi totius exercitus confessione
debetur, ut digna illo vix aliqua vel nimis magna sint

4 munera. quid enim in illo non clarum ? quid noil
Corviiiis et Scipionibus conferendum ? ille liberator
Illyrici, ille Galliarum restitutor, ille dux magni

6 totius exempli, et tamen nihil praeter ea possum

6 addere tanto viro ad muneris gratiam ; non l patitur
sobrie et bene gerenda res publica. quare Sinceritas

1 non ins. by Peter ; om. in P.

1 Perhaps M. Numrni us Ceionius Annius Albinus of C.I.L.,
vi. 314 b, who may be identical with the Nummius Albinus
who was prefect of the city in 256 ; but see note to Cl. Alb.,

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