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iv. 1.

- M. Valerius Corvus (or Corvinus), six times consul between
848 and 299 B.C. and victor over the Volsci and Samnites, and
his descendants, especially M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus,



prone to merry-making." This letter shows how
great was his sternness, so that even Valerian said
that he feared him.

IX. There is another letter by the same Valerian,
sounding his praises, which I have brought out from
the files of the city-prefecture. For when he came
to Rome the allowance usually made to his rank was
assigned to him. A copy of the letter :

" From Valerian Augustus to Ceionius Albinus, 1
the prefect of the city. It had, indeed, been our
wish to bestow on each and every man who has been
loyal to the commonwealth a much larger recompense
than his rank demands, but especially when his
manner of life recommends him for honours for
there should be some other reward for merit than
rank , but the public discipline requires that none
shall receive from the income of the provinces a
greater sum than the grade of his position permits.
Wherefore we have now chosen Aurelian, a very
brave man, to inspect and set in order all our camps,
for, by the general admission of the entire army,
both we ourselves and the whole commonwealth as
well are so in his debt that there are scarcely any
rewards that are worthy of him, or, indeed, too great.
For what quality has he that is not illustrious ? that
cannot be compared with the Corvini 2 and the
Scipios ? He is liberator of Illyricum, saviour of the
provinces of Gaul, and as a general a great and perfect
example. And yet there is nothing but this that I
can bestow on such a man by way of reward for his
services ; for a wise and careful administration of the
commonwealth will not permit it. Wherefore your

famous as a general in the early principate of Augustus and
the patron of Tibullus.



tua, mi parens carissime, supra dicto viro adiciet, 1
quamdiu Romae fuerit, panes militares mundos se-
decim, panes militares castrenses quadraginta, vini
mensalis sextarios quadraginta, porcellum dimidium,
gallinaceos duos, porcinae pondo triginta, bubulae
pondo quadraginta, olei sextarium unum et item
liquaminis sextarium unum, salis sextarium unum,

7 herbarum 2 holerum quantum sat est. sane quoniam
ei aliquid praecipue decernendum est, quamdiu Romae
fuerit, pabula extra ordinem decernes, ipsi autem ad
sumptus aureos Antoninianos diurnos binos, argenteos
Philippeos minutulos quinquagenos, aeris denarios
centum. reliqua per praefectos aerarii praebe-

X. Frivola haec fortassis cuipiam et nimis levia esse

2 videantur, sed curiositas nihil recusat. habuit ergo
multos ducatus, plurimos tribunatus, vicarias 3 ducum
et tribunorum diversis temporibus prope quadraginta,

1 ad.iciet Gruter, Madvig, Peter 2 ; adficiet P, Peter 1 .
2 herbas P. 3 uacarios P.

1 These coins are also mentioned in similar "letters" in
c. xii. 1; Prob., iv. 5 ; Firm., xv. 8. That gold coins of any
of the Antonines were current at the time when these " letters "
were supposed to have been written is very doubtful. The
name Antoninianus is usually applied (though with no other
warrant than these " letters") to the new silver coin that was
issued by Caracalla and the later emperors of the third century,
but there is no reason to suppose that it was ever given to the
aureus. The term Philippeus was familiar, from long-standing
tradition, as a designation for the aureus (see note to Claud.,
xiv. 3), but neither the small silver minutuli (see note to Alex.,



Integrity, my dearest kinsman, will supply the afore-
said man, as long as he shall be in Rome, with sixteen
loaves of soldiers' bread of the finest quality, forty
loaves of soldiers' bread of the quality used in camp,
forty pints of table-wine, the half of a swine, two
fowl, thirty pounds of pork, forty pounds of beef, one
pint of oil and likewise one pint of fish-pickle, one pint
of salt, and greens and vegetables as much as shall be
sufficient. And indeed, since something out of the
ordinary must be allowed him, as long as he shall be
in Rome, you will allow him fodder beyond the usual
amount and for his own expenses, moreover, a daily
grant of two aurei of Antoninus/ fifty silver minutuli
of Philip, and one hundred denarii of bronze. 2 All
else will be furnished by the prefects of the treasury 3 ."
X. These details may perhaps seem to someone to
be paltry and over trivial, but research stops at noth-
ing. He held, then, very many commands as general
and very many as tribune, and acted as deputy for
generals or tribunes on about forty different occasions.

xxii. 8) nor the bronze coins had any possible connection with
Philip of Macedonia, nor is there any reason to suppose that
they took their name from Philippus Arabs, who did not
institute any reform in the coinage. It would seem that the
author, failing to understand the real significance of the term
Philippeus and supposing that it was derived from the name
of the emperor, has applied both it and Antoninianus to all
coins indiscriminately, for the purpose of creating the impres-
sion of greater learning ; see Menadier, p. 27 f. ; p. 47 f.

2 The expression aeris denarios is nonsense, since these
coins were not made of bronze but of base metal washed with

3 The statement that supplies will be furnished to an army
officer by the prefect of the aerarium (the old senatorial treasury)
is sufficient evidence that this letter is a forgery. Equally fio-
titious is this official in c. xii. 1 and c. xx. 8.



usque adeo ut etiam Ulpii Criniti, qui se de Traiani
gen ere referebat, et forth simi re vera viri et Traiani
simillimi, qui pictus est cum eodem Aureliano in
Templo Solis, quern Valerianus Caesaris loco habere
instituerat, vicem sumeret, exercitum duceret, limites
restitueret, praedam militibus daret, Thracias bubus,
equis, mancipiis captivis locupletaret, manubias in
Palatio conlocaret, quingentos servos, duo milia
vaccarum, equas mille, ovium decem milia, caprearum
quindecim in privatam villam Valeriani congereret.

3 tune enim 1 Ulpius Crinitus publice apud Byzantium
sedenti Valeriano in thermis egit gratias, dicens
magnum de se iudicium habitum, quod eidem
vicarium Aurelianum dedisset. quare eum statuit

XI. Interest epistulas nosse de Aureliano scriptas et
ipsam adrogationem. epistula Valeriani ad Aureli-
anum : "Si esset alius, Aureliane iucundissime, qui
Llpii Criniti vicem posset implere, tecum de eius
virtute ac sedulitate conferrem. nunc tu cum alium
non 2 requirere potuissem suscipe bellum a parte

2Nicopolis, ne nobis aegritudo Criniti obsit. fac
quicquid potes. multa non dico. in tua erit potestate

Smilitiae magisterium. habes sagittarios Ituraeos
trecentos, Armenios sescentos, Arabas centum quin-

1 cum P. 2 So Editor ; tecum P ; lacuna assumed by

Peter 2 after tu t cum ; te cum <^non meUoretrT> Hohl.

1 Mentioned also in c. xxxviii. 2-3, but otherwise unknown.
It is probably true that under Valerian Aurelian was engaged
in the defence of Thrace against the Goths, but the episode as
developed in the following chapters, with the account of
Valerian's audience at Constantinople, the adoption of Aurelian
and his appointment to the consulship, all embellished with



Indeed, he even acted as deputy for Ulpius Crinitus, 1
who used to assert that he was of the house of Trajan
he was, in actual fact, a most brave man and very
similar to Trajan , who was painted together with
Aurelian in the Temple of the Sun, and whom
Valerian had planned to appoint to the place of a
Caesar. He also commanded troops, restored the
frontiers, distributed booty among the soldiers, en-
riched the provinces of Thrace with captured cattle,
horses, and slaves, dedicated spoils in the Palace, and
brought together to a private estate of Valerian's five
hundred slaves, two thousand cows, one thousand
mares, ten thousand sheep, and fifteen thousand goats.
At this time, then, Ulpius Crinitus gave thanks formally
to Valerian as he sat in the public baths at Byzantium,
saying that he had done him great honour in giving
him Aurelian as deputy. And for this reason he
determined to adopt Aurelian.

XI. It is of interest to know the letters that were
written concerning; Aurelian and also the account of


his adoption itself. Valerian's letter to Aurelian :
"If there were anyone else, my dearest Aurelian,
who could fill the place of Ulpius Crinitus, I should
be consulting with you in regard to his courage and
industry. But now do you since I could not have
found any other take upon yourself the war around
Nicopolis, 2 in order that the illness of Crinitus may
cause us no damage. Do whatever you can. I will
be brief. The command of the troops will be vested
in you. You will have three hundred Ituraean bow-
men, six hundred Armenians, one hundred and fifty

fabricated "documents," must be considered an invention of
the author's.

2 See Claud., xii. 4 and note.



quaginta, Saracenos ducentos, Mesopotamenos auxili-

4 ares quadringentos ; habes legionem tertiam Felicem
et equites cataphractarios octingentos. tecum erit
Hariomundus, Haldagates, Hildomundus, Chariovis-

5 cus. commeatus a praefectis necessarius in omnibus

6 castris est constitutus. tuum est pro virtutibus tuis
atque sollertia illic hiemalia et aestiva disponere ubi
tibi nihil deerit, quaerere praeterea ubi carrago sit
hostium, et vere scire quanti qualesque sint, ut non
in vanum 1 aut annona consumatur aut tela iaciantur,

7 in quibus res bellica constituta est. ego de te tantum
deo favente spero quantum de Traiano, si viveret,
posset sperare res publica. neque enim minor est,

8 in cuius locum vicemque 2 te legi. consulatum cum
eodem Ulpio Crinito in annum sequentem a die un-
decimo kal. luniarum in locum Gallieni et Valeriani

9 sperare te convenit sumptu publico. levanda est
enim paupertas eorum hominum, qui diu in re publica

10 viventes pauperes sunt, et nullorum magis." his quo-
que litteris indicatur quantus fuerit Aurelianus ; et re
vera, 3 neque enim quisquam aliquando ad summam
rerum pervenit qui non a prima aetate gradibus
virtutis ascenderit.

XII. Litterae de consulatu :

" Valerianus Augustus Aelio Xiphidio praefecto

1 uanmn Madvig, Peter 2 ; uinum P, S. ^uicemque Gas.,
Cornelissen, Hohl ; fidemque P, E, Peter. 3 So P, Z", foil, by
Hohl ; apuero Peter" 2 .

1 Mentioned also in a " speech " of Valerian's in Prob., v. 6,
but otherwise unknown, for none of the five Third Legions of
which we know had the cognomen Felix.

2 See note to Alex., Ivi. 5.

3 Evidently intended to be names of German chieftains in
Roman service.



Arabs, two hundred Saracens, and four hundred
irregulars from Mesopotamia ; you will have the
Third Legion, the Fortunate, 1 and eight hundred
mounted cuirassiers. 2 You will also have with you
Hariomundus, Haldagates, Hildomundus and Chario-
viscus. 3 The prefects have arranged for the needful
supplies in all the camps. Your duty it is, with the
aid of your wisdom and skill, to place your winter
and summer camps where you will lack nothing, and,
furthermore, to ascertain where the enemy's train is,
and to find out exactly how great his forces are and
of what kind, in order that no supplies may be used
in vain or weapons wasted, for on these depends all
success in war. I, for my part, expect as much from
you, if the gods but grant their favour, as the common-
wealth could expect from Trajan, were he still alive.
And indeed, he, in whose place I have made you
deputy, is no less great a man. It is, therefore,
proper that you should expect the consulship, 4 with
this same Ulpius Crinitus as colleague, for the follow-
ing year, beginning on the eleventh day before the
Kalends of June, to fill out the term of Gallienus and
Valerian, and your expenses shall be paid from the
public funds. For we shou'd aid the poverty of those
men and of none more than those who after a long
life in public affairs are nevertheless poor." This
letter also shows how great a man Aurelian was
and truly great, indeed, for no one ever reached the
highest place who did not from his earliest years climb
up by the ladder of noble character.

XII. The letter about the consulship: "From
Valerian Augustus to Aelius Xiphidius, 5 the prefect

4 Aurelian's first consulship was, in fact, in 271.
B Otherwise unknown and probably fictitious.



aerarii. Aureliano, cui consulatum detulimus, ob
paupertatem, qua ille magnus est, ceteris maior,
dabis ad editionem circensium aureos Antoninianos
trecentos, argenteos Philippeos minutulos tria milia,
in aere sestertium quinquagies, tunicas multicias
viriles decem, lineas Aegyptias viginti, mantelia
Cypria paria duo, tapetia Afra decem, stragula Maura

2 decem, porcos centum, oves centum, convivium
autem publicum edi iubebis senatoribus et l equitibus
Romanis, hostias maiores duas, minores quattuor."

3 Et quoniam etiam de adrogatione aliqua me dixeram
positurum quae ad tantum principem pertinerent,

4 quaeso ne odiosior verbosiorve in ea re videar, quam
fidei causa inserendam credidi ex libris Acholii, qui
magister admissionum Valeriani principis fuit, libro
actorum eius nono :

XIII. Cum consedisset Valeriaiius Augustus in
thermis apud Byzantium, praesente exercitu, prae-
sente etiam officio Palatine, adsidentibus Nummio 2
Tusco consule ordinario, Baebio Macro praefecto
praetorii, Quinto Anchario praeside orientis, ad-
sidentibus etiam a parte laeva Avulnio Saturnino
Scythici limitis duce et Murrentio Mauricio ad

l et om in P. 2 Nummio Fasti Cons., Hohl ; Nemmio P ;
Memmio Peter.

1 See c. ix. 7 and note.

2 See Alex., xiv. 6 and note.

3 In the early empire known as ab admissione, a freedman
whose duty it was to admit persons to audiences with the emperor.
Tbe title magister admissionum was held in the Byzantine
period by an official of high degree, but this reference is the
onry evidence for the existence of the office as early as the third
century and it is probably a fabrication.



of the treasury. To Aurelian, whom we have named
for the consulship, because of his poverty in which
he is great and greater than all others you will
supply for the performance of the races in the Circus
three hundred aurei of Antoninus, 1 three thousand
silver minutuli of Philip, five million bronze sesterces,
ten finely-woven tunics of the kind used by men,
twenty tunics of Egyptian linen, two pairs of Cyprian
table-covers, ten African carpets, ten Moorish couch-
covers, one hundred swine, and one hundred sheep.
You will order, moreover, that a banquet shall be
given at the state's expense to the senators and Roman
knights, and that there shall be two sacrificial victims
of major and four of minor size."

And now, inasmuch as I have said in reference to
his adoption that I would include certain things which
concern so great a prince, I ask you not to consider
me too tedious or too wordy in the following statement,
which I have thought I should introduce, for the sake
of accuracy, from the work of Acholius, 2 the master
of admissions 3 under the Emperor Valerian, in the
ninth book of his records :

XIII. When Valerian Augustus had taken his seat
in the public baths at Byzantium, in the presence of
the army and in the presence of the officials of the
Palace, there being seated with him Nummius Tuscus,
the consul-regular, 4 Baebius Macer, 5 prefect of the 258
guard, and Quintus Ancharius, governor of the East,
and seated on his left hand Avulnius Saturninus,
general in command of the Scythian frontier,
Murrentius Mauricius, just appointed to Egypt,

4 See note to Carac., iv. 8.

* Unknown, like all those whose names follow.



Aegyptum destinato et lulio Tryphone orientalis
limitis duce et Maecio Brundisino praefecto annonae
orientis et Ulpio Crinito duce Illyriciani limitis et
Thracici et Fulvio Boio duce Raetici limitis, Valeri-

2 anus Augustus dixit : "Gratias tibi agit, Aureliane,
res publica, quod earn a Gothorum potestate liberasti.
abundamus per te praeda, abundamus gloria et iis

3 omnibus quibus Romana feJUcitas crescit. cape igitur
tibi pro rebus gestis tuis coronas murales quattuor,
coronas vallares quinque, coronas navales duas,
coronas civicas duas, hastas puras decem, vexilla
bicolora quattuor, tunicas russas ducales quattuor,
pallia proconsularia duo, togam praetextam, tunicam
palmatam, togam pictam, subaimalem profundum,

4sellam eburatam. nam te consulem hodie designo,
scripturus ad senatum, ut tibi deputet scipionem,
deputet etiam fasces ; haec enim imperator noil solet
XIV. dare, sed a senatu, quando fit consul, accipere." post
haec Valeriani dicta Aurelianus surrexit atque ad
manus accessit agens gratias militaribus verbis, quae
propria et ipsa adponenda decrevi. Aurelianus dixit:

2 " Et ego, domine Valeriane, imperator Auguste, ideo
cuncta feci, ideo vulnera patienter excepi, ideo et

1 Made of gold with a decoration in the form of a battlement,
presented to the man who first scaled the enemy's wall.

- Ma ie of gold with a decoration in the form of a rampart,
presented for forcing a way into a hostile camp.

3 Made of gold and adorned with the beaks of ships, pre-
sented to the man who first boarded an enemy's ship.

4 See Marc., xii. 8 and note.

6 Frequently presented as a mark of distinction (so also
Profr., v. 1.)

6 See note to Gord., iv. 4.

7 Originally carried by the triumphant general on the day



Julius Trypho, general in command of the frontier
of the East, Maecius Brundisinus, prefect of the
grain-supply for the East, Ulpius Crinitus, general in
command of the Illyrian and Thracian frontier, and
Fulvius Boius, general in command of the Raetian
frontier, Valerian Augustus spoke as follows : " The
commonwealth thanks you, Aurelian, for having set
it free from the power of the Goths. Through your
efforts we are rich in booty, we are rich in glory and
in all that causes the felicity of Rome to increase.
Now, therefore, in return for your great achievements
receive for yourself four mural crowns/ five rampart
crowns, 2 two naval crowns, 3 two civic crowns, 4 ten
spears without points/' four bi-coloured banners, four
red general's tunics, two proconsul's cloaks, a bordered
toga, a tunic embroidered with palms, 6 a gold-em-
broidered toga, a long under-tunic, and an ivory-
chair. For on this day I appoint you consul, and
I will write to the senate that it may vote you the
sceptre of office 7 and vote you also the fasces ; for
these insignia the emperor is not wont to give, but,
on the contrary, to receive from the senate when
he is created consul." XIV. After this speech of
Valerian's Aurelian arose and bending over the
Emperor's hand, he expressed his thanks in words
befitting a soldier, and these I have considered suit-
able and worthy of being quoted here. He spoke as
follows: " As for myself, my lord Valerian, Emperor
and Augustus, it was with this end in view that
I have done all that I did, have suffered wounds with
patience, and have exhausted my horses and my

of his triumph, but from the second century onward, like the
other insignia of office here mentioned, permitted to the consul
on the occasion of his solemn procession to the Capitol.



equos et coniuratos meos lassavi, ut mihi gratias

Sageret res publica et conscientia mea. at tu plus
fecisti. ago ergo x gratias bonitati tuae et accipio
consulatum, quern das. deus faciat, et deus certus,

4ut et senatus de me sic iudicet." agentibus igitur
gratias omnibus circumstantibus Ulpius Crinitus sur-

5 rexit atque hac oratione usus est : " Apud maiores
nostros, Valeriane Auguste, quod et familiae meae
amicum ac proprium fuit, ab optimis quibusque in
filiorum locum fortissimi viri semper electi sunt, ut
vel senescentes familias vel fetus matrimoniis iam

6caducos substitutae fecunditas prolis ornaret. hoc
igitur, quod Cocceius Nerva in Traiano adoptando,
quod Ulpius Traianus in Hadriano, quod Hadrianus
in Antonino et ceteri deinceps proposita suggestione
fecei unt, in adrogando Aureliano, quern mihi vicarium
iudicii tui auctoritate fecisti, censui esse referendum.

7iube igitur ut lege agatur, sitque Aurelianus heres

sacrorum, nominis et bonorum totiusque iuris Ulpio

Crinito iam consulari viro, ipse actutum te iudice con-

XV. sularis." longum est cuncta pertexere. iiam et

actae sunt Crinito a Valeriano gratiae, et acloptio, ut

2 solebat, impleta. memini me in quodam libro Graeco
legisse, quod tacendum esse non credidi, mandatum

1 ego P.


sworn comrades, namely, that I might win the ap-
proval of the commonwealth and of my own con-
science. You, however, have done more. Therefore,
I am grateful for your kindness and I will accept the
consulship which you offer me. May a god. and
a god in whom we can put our trust, now grant that
the senate also shall form a like judgement concerning
me." And so. when all who stood about expressed
their thanks, Ulpius Crin'tus arose and delivered the
following speech : " According to the custom of our
ancestors, Valerian Augustus, a custom which my
own family has held particularly dear. men of the
highest birth have always chosen the most courageous
to be their sons, in order that those families which
either were dying out or had lost their offspring 1 bv

. O i .

marriage might gain lustre from the fertility of a bor-
rowed stock. This custom, then, which was followed
by Xerva in adopt 'ng Trajan, by Trajan in adopting
Hadrian, by Hadrian in adopting Antoninus, and by
the others after them according to the precedent thus
established. I have thought I should now bring back
by adopting Aurelian. whom you, by the authority of
your approval, have given to me as my deputy. Do
vou, therefore. give the order that it may be sanctioned


by law and that Aurelian may become heir to the
sacred duties, the Dame, the goods, and the legal
rights of Ulpius Crinitus. a man of consular

O 1

rank, even as through vour decision he is straight-

way to become a consular. XV. It would be too
long to include every detail in full. For Valerian
expres-ed his gratitude to Crinitus. and the adoption
was carried out in the wonte.l form. I remember
having read in some Greek book what I have thought
I ought not to omit, namely, that ^ alerian commanded


esse Crinito a Valeriano ut Aurelianus adoptaretur,
idcirco praecipue quod pauper esset ; sed hoc in medio
relinquendum puto.

3 Et quoniam superius epistulam posui, qua suraptus
Aureliano ad coiisulatum delatus est, quare posuerim

4rem quasi frivolam eloquendum plitavi : vidimus
proxime consulatum Furii Placidi tanto ambitu in
Circo editum ut non praemia dari aurigis sed patri-
monia viderentur, cum darentur tunicae subsericae,
lineae paragaudae, darentur etiam equi, ingemescenti-

6 bus frugi hominibus. factum est enim ut iam diviti-
arum sit, non hominum consulatus, quia utique si
virtutibus defertur, editorem spoliare non debet.

6perierunt casta ilia tempora et magis ambitione
populari peritura sunt. sed nos, ut solemus, hanc
quoque rem in medio relinquemus. 1

XVI. His igitur tot ac talibus praeiudiciis muiieri-
busque fultus Claudianis temporibus tantus enituit, ut
post eum Quintillo quoque eius fratre interempto solus
teneret imperium Aureolo interfecto, cum quo Galli-

2enus fecerat pacem. hoc loco tanta est diversitas
historicorum, et quidem Graecorum, ut alii dicant
invito Claudio ab Aureliano Aureolum interfectum,

1 relinyuemus von Winterfeld ; relinquimus P, editors.

1 No such consul is known.

2 See note to Claud., xvii. 6.

3 The vita omits any mention of Aurelian's participation in
Gallienus' campaign against Aureolus at Milan (see Zouaras,
xii. 25) and of his share in the conspiracy for the murder of
Gallienus (see Gall., xiv. 1 and note).

4 See Claud., xii. 2-6.

5 There is no reason to suppose that Aurelian had anything



Crinitus to adopt Aurelian, chiefly for the reason that
he was poor ; but this question I think should be left

Now, inasmuch as 1 have previously inserted the letter
in accordance with which Aurelian was furnished with

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