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held Zenobia in chains, dealt with the Persians,
Armenians, and Saracens as the needs of the occasion
demanded. Then were brought in those garments,
encrusted with jewels, which we now see in the
Temple of the Sun, then, too, the Persian dragon-
flags 2 and head-dresses, and a species of purple such
as no nation ever afterward offered or the Roman
world beheld.

XXIX. Concerning this I desire to say at least few
words. For you remember that there was in the
Temple of Jupiter Best and Greatest on the Capitolium
a short woollen cloak of a purple hue, by the side of
which all other purple garments, brought by the
matrons and by Aurelian himself, seemed to fade to
the colour of ashes in comparison with its divine
brilliance. This cloak, brought from the farthest
Indies, the King of the Persians is said to have pre-
sented as a gift to Aurelian, writing as follows :
"Accept a purple robe, such as we ourselves use."
But this was untrue. For later both Aurelian and
Probus and, most recently, Diocletian made most
diligent search for this species of purple, sending out

2 A flag depicting a dragon was used by the Orientals and
by the northern barbarians as shown on the Columns of Trajan
and M. Aurelius. It was later adopted by the Romans also
and carried by a draconarius (c. xxxi. 7).



purpurae nee tamen invenire potuerunt. dicitur enim
sandyx Indica talem purpuram facere, si curetur.

XXX. Sed ut ad incepta redeamus : ingens tamen
strepitus militum fuit omnium Zenobiam ad poenam

2 poscentium. sed Aurelianus indignum aestimans
mulierem interimi occisis plerisque, quibus auctoribus
ilia bellum moverat, paraverat, gesserat, triumpho
mulierem reservavit, ut populi Romani oculis esset

3 ostentui. grave inter eos qui caesi sunt de Longino
philosopho fuisse perhibetur, quo ilia magistro usa
esse ad Graecas litteras dicitur, quern quidem
Aurelianus idcirco dicitur occidisse, quod superbior
ilia epistula ipsius diceretur dictata consilio, quamvis
Syro esset sermone contexta.

4 Pacato igitur oriente in Europam Aurelianus rediit
victor atque illic Carporum copias adflixit et, cum
ilium Carpi cum senatus absentem vocasset, mandasse
ioco 1 fertur : " Superest, patres conscripti, ut me

6 etiam Carpisculum vocetis." carpisclum enim genus

1 ioco Cornelisseu, Hohl ; loco P; e loco Peter.

1 Usually the term given to a mixture of red sulphide of
arsenic and red ochre, but here, apparently, the name of a
plant, as also in Vergil, Buc., iv. 45; see Pliny, Nat. Hist.,
xxxv. 40.

2 This was at Emesa, whither Aurelian withdrew after the
surrender of Palmyra, summoning there for trial both Zenolia
and her counsellors. The latter were accused by the Queen in
an effort to save herself, and many of them were then put to

3 See c. xxxiii-xxxiv.

4 Cassius Longinus, Neo-Platonist philosopher, rhetorician
and philologian. After a long career as a teacher in Athens
he withdrew to the court of Zenobia. Of his many works



their most diligent agents, but even so it could not be
found. But indeed it is said that the Indian sandyx l
yields this kind of purple if properly prepared.

XXX. But to return to my undertaking : despite
all this, there arose a terrible uproar among all the
soldiers, who demanded Zenobia for punishment. 2
Aureiian, however, deeming it improper that a woman
should be put to death, killed many who had advised
her to begin and prepare and wage the war, but the
woman he saved for his triumph, wishing to show her
to the eyes of the Roman people. 3 It was regarded
as a cruel thing that Longinus the philosopher 4 should
have been among those who were killed. He, it is
said, was employed by Zenobia as her teacher in
Greek letters, and Aurelian is said to have slain him
because he was told that that over-proud letter of
hers had been dictated in accord with his counsel,
although, in fact, it was composed in the Syrian

And so, having subdued the East, Aurelian re-
turned as a victor to Europe, 5 and there he defeated
the forces of the Carpi 6 ; and when the senate gave
him in his absence the surname Carpicus, he sent
them this message, it is said, as a jest : " It now only
remains for you, Conscript Fathers, to call me Carpis-
culusalso" for it is well known that carpixclum la

there remain only fragments of his Rhetoric, although the
essay nepi"TvJ/ous, by an unknown author, was long attributed
to him.

5 He seems to have made some sort of a punitive expedition
into Persian territory ; see c. xxxv. 4 ; xli 9. He received
from the senate the title of Persicus Maximus or Parthicus
Maximus and issued coins with the legend Victoria Parthica;
see Matt.-Syd., v. p. 291, no. 240.

6 On the Lower Danube ; see note to Max.-Balb.,-xvi. 3.



calciamenti esse satis notum est. quod cognomen
deforme videbatur, cum et Gothicus et Sarmaticus et
Armeniacus et Parthicus et Adiabenicus iam ille
diceretur. 1

XXXI. Rarum est ut Syri fidem servent, immo
difficile, nam Palmyreni, qui iam victi atque contusi
fuerant, Aureliano rebus Europensibus occupato non

2mediocriter rebellarunt. Sandarionem enim, quern
in praesidio illic Aurelianus posuerat, cum sescentis
sagittariis occiderunt, Achilleo cuidam parenti Zenobiae

jjparantes imperium. verum adeo Aurelianus, ut erat
paratus, e Rhodope revertit atque urbem, quia ita

4 merebatur, evertit. crudelitas denique Aureliani vel,
ut quidam dicunt, severitas eatenus exstitit ut epistula
eius feratur confessioneminmanissimi furorisostentans,
cuius hoc exemplum est :

5 " Aurelianus Augustus Cerronio Basso, non oportet
ulterius progredi militum gladios. iam satis Palmyre-
norum caesum atque concisum est. mulieribus non
pepercimus, infantes occidimus, senes iugulavimus,

6 rusticos interemimus. cui terras, cui urbem deinceps
relinquemus ? parcendum est iis qui remanserunt.
credimus enim tarn paucos tarn multorum suppliciis

1 diceretur 2 ; disceretur P.

1 Of these names, Gothicus, Parthicus and Carpicus, as well
as Germanicus, appear in an inscription of Aurelian's last
year (C./.L., vi. 1112); the others do not seem to have been
borne by him.

2 According to the fuller account in Zosimus, i. 60-61, the
Palmyrenes under the leadership of Apsaios (perhaps the Sep-
timius Apsaios to whom C.I.G., 4487 is dedicated) tried to
persuade Marcellinus, who had been left in charge of the
Euphrates frontier, to take part in a revolt. He put them off



a kind of boot. This surname appeared to him as
ignoble, since he was already called both Gothicus
and Sarmaticus and Armeniacus and Parthicus and
Adiabenicus. 1

XXXI. It is a rare thing, or rather, a difficult
thing, for the Syrians to keep faith. For the Palmy-
renes, who had once been defeated and crushed, now
that Aurelian was busied with matters in Europe,
began a rebellion of no small size. 2 For they killed
Sandario, whom Aurelian had put in command of the
garrison there, and with him six hundred bowmen,
thus getting the rule for a certain Achilleus, a kins-
man of Zenobia's. But Aurelian, indeed, prepared
as he always was, came back from Rhodope and,
because it deserved it, destroyed the city. In fact,
Aurelian's cruelty, or, as some say, his sternness, is
so widely known that they even quote a letter of his,
revealing a confession of most savage fury 3 ; of this
the following is a copy :

" From Aurelian Augustus to Cerronius Bassus. 4
The swords of the soldiers should not proceed further.
Already enough Palmyrenes have been killed and
slaughtered. We have not spared the women, we
have slain the children, we have butchered the old
men, we have destroyed the peasants. To whom, at
this rate, shall we leave the land or the city ? Those
who still remain must be spared. For it is our belief
that the few have been chastened by the punishment

with ambiguous replies and sent word of the plot to Aurelian.
Meanwhile the Palmyrenes invested Antiochus (whom the vita
calls Achilleus) with the royal insignia. This seems to have
been in the early summer of 272.

3 Yet, according to Zosimus, he spared Antiochus' life.

4 Otherwise unknown.



7esse correctos. Templum sane Soils, quod apud
Palmyram aquiliferi legionis tertiae cum vexilliferis
et draconario et cornicinibus atque liticinibus diri-
puerunt, ad earn formam volo, quae fuit, reddi.

8 habes trecentas auri libras de l Zenobiae capsulis,
habes argenti mille octingenta pondo de Palmyre-

9norum bonis, habes gemmas regias. ex his omnibus
fac cohonestari templum ; mihi et dis inmortalibus
gratissimum feceris. ego ad senatum scribam, petens
10 ut mittat pontificem qui dedicet templum." haec
litterae, ut videmus, indicant satiatam esse inmani-
tatem principis duri.

XXXII. Securior denique iterum in Europam rediit
atque illic omnes qui vagabantur hostes nota ilia sua

2virtute contudit. interim res per Thracias Europam-
que omnem Aureliano ingentes agente Firmus quidam
exstitit, qui sibi Aegyptum sine insignibus imperii,

3 quasi ut esset civitas libera, vindicavit. ad quern
continuo Aurelianus revertit, nee illic defuit felicitas
soiita. nam Aegyptum statim recepit atque, ut erat
ferox animi, cogitationem ultus, vehementer irascens,
quod adhuc Tetricus Gallias obtineret, occidentem
petiit atque ipso Tetrico exercitum suum prodeiite,
quod eius scelera ferre non posset, deditas sibi

4legiones 2 obtinuit. princeps igitur totius orbis
Aurelianus pacatis oriente et 3 Gallis atque ubique

1 de ins. by Salm. ; om. in P. 2 regiones P, 2. 3 so Peter ;
orientem P.

1 Still the chief glory of the ruins of Palmyra.

2 See note to c. xxviii. 5.

3 See Firm., iii.-v. According to the more correct version of
Zosimus (i. 61, 1), Aurelian marched directly from Palmyra to

4 See Tijr. Trig., xxiv. 1-2 and notes.



of the many. Now as to the Temple of the Sun x at
Palmyra, which has been pillaged by the eagle-bearers
of the Third Legion, along with the standard-bearers,
the dragon-bearer, 2 and the buglers and trumpeters, I
wish it restored to the condition in which it formerly
was. You have three hundred pounds of gold from
Zenobia's coffers, you have eighteen hundred pounds
of silver from the property of the Palmyrenes, and
you have the royal jewels. Use all these to embellish
the temple ; thus both to me and to the immortal gods
you will do a most pleasing service. I will write to
the senate and request it to send one of the pontiffs
to dedicate the temple." This letter, as we can see,
shows that the savagery of the hard-hearted prince
had been glutted.

XXXII. At length, now more secure, he returned
again to Europe, and there, with his well-known
valour, he crushed all the enemies who were roving
about. Meanwhile, when Aurelian was performing
great deeds in the provinces of Thrace as well as in
all Europe, there rose up a certain Firmus, who laid
claim to Egypt, but without the imperial insignia and
as though he purposed to make it into a free state. 8
Without delay Aurelian turned back against him, and
there also his wonted good-fortune did not abandon
him. For he recovered Egypt at once and took
vengeance on the enterprise violent in temper, as
he always was ; and then, being greatly angered that
Tetricus still held the provinces of Gaul, he departed
to the West and there took over the legions which
were surrendered to him 4 for Tetricus betrayed his
own troops since he could not endure their evil deeds.
And so Aurelian, now ruler over the entire world,
having subdued both the East and the Gauls, and



terrarum victor l Romam iter flexit, ut de Zenobia et
Tetrico, hoc est de oriente et de occidente, triumphum
Romanis oculis exhiberet.

XXXIII. Non absque re est cognoscere qui fuerit

2 Aureliani triumphus. fuit enim speciosissimus. currus
regii tres fuerunt, in his unus Odaenathi, argento,
auro, gemmis operosus atque distiiictus, alter, quern
rex Persarum Aureliano douo dedit, ipse quoque pari
opere fabricatus, tertius, quern sibi Zenobia com-
posuerat, sperans se urbem Romanam cum eo visuram.
quod illam non fefellit ; nam cum eo urbem ingressa

3 est victa et triumphata. fuit alius currus quattuor
cervis iunctus, qui fuisse dicitur regis Gothorum. quo,
ut multi memoriae tradiderunt, Capitolium Aurelianus
invectus est, ut illic caederet cervos, quos cum eodem
curru captos vovisse lovi Optimo Maximo ferebatur.

4 praecesserunt elephanti viginti, ferae mansuetae
Libycae, Palaestinae diversae ducentae, quas statim
Aurelianus privatis donavit, ne fiscum annoiiis gra-
varet ; tigrides quattuor, camelopardali, alces, cetera
talia per ordinem ducta, gladiatorum paria octingenta,

1 So Helm in Hohl's ed. ; terrori uicto P, after which P has
eripe me his, invicte, malis, evidently a repetition from Tyr.
Trig., xxiv. 3.

1 He had, in fact, re-uuited the Roman Empire, divided ever
since 258, when Postumus established his independent power
in Gaul. His successes were commemorated by the official as-
sumption of the title Restitutor Orbis, which appears in in-
scriptions and on coins ; the latter bear also the titles Pacator
Orbis, Restitutor Saeculi, Restitutor Gentis, Restitutor Orien-
tis, Pacator Orientis, Pax Aeterna, Pax Augusti.

a ln 273.

3 According to an account preserved in Zosimus, i. 59,
Zenobia died on the way to Europe either by disease or by her



victor in all lands, turned his march toward Rome,
that he might present to the gaze of the Romans
a triumph over both Zenobia and Tetricus, that is,
over both the East and the West. 1

XXXIII. It is not without advantage to know what
manner of triumph Aurelian had, 2 for it was a most
brilliant spectacle. There were three royal chariots,
of which the first, carefully wrought and adorned with
silver and gold and jewels, had belonged to Odaena-
thus, the second, also wrought with similar care, had
been given to Aurelian by the king of the Persians,
and the third Zenobia had made for herself, hoping
in it to visit the city of Rome. And this hope was
not unfulfilled ; for she did, indeed, enter the city in
it, but vanquished and led in triumph. 3 There was
also another chariot, drawn by four stags and said to
have once belonged to the king of the Goths. 4 In
this so many have handed down to memory
Aurelian rode up to the Capitol, purposing there to
slay the stags, which he had captured along with this
chariot and then vowed, it was said, to Jupiter Best
and Greatest. There advanced, moreover, twenty
elephants, and two hundred tamed beasts of divers
kinds from Libya and Palestine, which Aurelian at
once presented to private citizens, that the privy-
purse might not be burdened with the cost of their
food ; furthermore, there were led along in order four
tigers and also giraffes and elks and other such
animals, also eight hundred pairs of gladiators besides

own hand. All other writers, however, agree with the version
given in the text, and it may be supposed that the account in
Zosirnus was invented for the purpose of likening her to

4 See c. xxii. 2.



praeter captives gentium barbararum. Blemmyes,
Axomitae, Arabes Eudaemones, Indi, Bactriani,
Hiberi, Saraceni, Persae cum suis quique muneribus ;
Gothi, Alani, Roxolani, Sarmatae, Franci, Suebi,
5 Vandali, German!, religatis manibus captivi. prae-
cesserunt 1 inter hos etiam Palmyreni qui superfuerant
XXXIV. principes civitatis et Aegyptii ob rebellionem. ductae
sunt et decem mulieres, quas virili habitu pugnantes
inter Gothos ceperat, cum multae essent interemptae,
quas de Amazon um genere tttulus indicabat praelati

2 sunt tituli gentium nomina continentes. inter haec
fuit Tetricus chlamyde coccea, tunica galbina, bracis
Gallicis ornatus, adiuncto sibi filio, quern imperatorem

3 in Gallia nuncupaverat. incedebat etiam Zenobia,
ornata gemmis, catenis aureis, quas alii sustentabant.
praeferebantur coronae omnium civitatum aureae

4 titulis eminentibus proditae. iam populus ipse

Romanus, iam vexilla collegiorum atque castrorum

et cataphractarii milites et opes regiae et omnis

exercitus et senatus (etsi aliquantulo tristior, quod

senatores triumphari viclebant) multum pompae ad-

Sdiderant. denique vix nona hora in Capitolium

gpervenit, sero autem ad Palatium. sequentibus die bus

1 paterae cesserunt P.

1 From the kingdom of Axomis (mod. Axum) in the district
of Tigrd in northern Abyssinia ; see Mommsen, Hist. Rom. Prov.
(Eng. Trans.), ii. p. 305 f. The king seems to have extended
his sway over the Blemmyes (see also Prob., xvii. 2 ; xix. 1 ;
Firm., iii. 3), a robber nomad-people in lower Nubia, and also
over the Arabs of the Yemen (the Homeritai, see Mommsen,
ibid., p. 321). It would appear that Auteiian had entered into
friendly relations with this luler during his expedition to Egypt.

a From Trans-Caucasia.

;1 See note to Pius, v. 5.



the captives from the barbarian tribes. There were
Blemmyes, Axomitae, 1 Arabs from Arabia Felix,
Indians, Bactrians, Hiberians, 2 Saracens and Per-
sians, all bearing their gifts ; there were Goths,
Alans, 3 Roxolani, Sarmatians, Franks, Suebians, 4
Vandals and Germans all captive, with their hands
bound fast. There also advanced among them certain
men of Palmyra, who had survived its fall, the fore-
most of the State, and Egyptians, too, because of
their rebellion. XXXIV. There were led along also
ten women, who, fighting in male attire, had been
captured among the Goths after many others had
fallen ; these a placard declared to be of the race of
the Amazons for placards were borne before all, dis-
playing the names of their nations. In the proces-
sion was Tetricus also, arrayed in scarlet cloak,
a yellow tunic, and Gallic trousers, 5 and with him
his son, whom he had proclaimed in Gaul as emperor. 6
And there came Zenobia, too, decked with jewels
and in golden chains, the weight of which was borne
by others. There were carried aloft golden crowns
presented by all the cities, made known by placards
carried aloft. Then came the Roman people itself,
the flags of the guilds and the camps, the mailed
cuirassiers, 7 the wealth of the kings, the entire army,
and, lastly, the senate (albeit somewhat sadly, since
they saw senators, too, being led in triumph) all
adding much to the splendour of the procession.
Scarce did they reach the Capitol by the ninth hour
of the day, and when they arrived at the Palace it

4 i.e., Juthungi and Alamanni ; see notes to c. xviii. 2-8.
6 See note to Alex., xl. 11.

6 See note to Ti/r. Trig., xxv. 1.

7 See note to Alex., Ivi. 5.



datae sunt populo voluptates ludorum scaenicorum,
ludorum circensium, venationum, gladiatorum, nau-

XXXV. Non praetereundum videtur quod et
populus memoria tenet et fides historica frequen-
tavit, Aurelianum eo tempore quo proficiscebatur ad
orientem bilibres coronas populo promisisse, si victor
rediret, et, cum aureas populus speraret neque Aureli-
anus aut posset aut vellet, coronas eum fecisse de
panibus, qui nunc siliginei vocantur, et singulis qui-
busque donasse, ita ut siligineum suum cottidie toto
aevo suo unusquisque 1 et acciperet et posteris suis

2 dimitteret. nam idem Aurelianus et porcinam carnem
populo Romano distribuit, quae hodieque dividitur.

3 Leges plurimas sanxit, et quidem salutares. sacer-

1 So Peter ; et unusquisque P, Hohl.

1 His daily distribution of bread (mentioned also in c. xlviii.
1 and Zosimus, i. 61, 3) took the place of the monthly distribu-
tion. It was commemorated by issues of coins with the legends
AnnonaAug. and Llberalitas Aug. ; see Matt.-Syd., v. p. 268,
no. 21, and p. 290, no. 229. The cost was covered by additional
appropriations from the revenues from Egypt, and the boatmen
on thi Nile and the Tiber were organised into compulsory
guilds in order that the service might be improved ; see c. xlv.
1 and xlvii. 1-3. This distribution, like that of pork, which
was now added to the previous allowances of salt and oil
(c. xlviii. 1), seems to have been due to the necessity of reliev-


was late indeed. On the following days amusements
were given to the populace, plays in the theatres,
races in the Circus, wild-beast hunts, gladiatorial
fights and also a naval battle.

XXXV. I think that I should not omit what both
the people remember and the truth of history has
made current, namely, that Aurelian, at the time of
his setting out for the East, promised, if he came back
victorious, to give to the populace crowns weighing
two pounds apiece ; the populace, however, expected
crowns of gold, and these Aurelian either could not
or would not give, and so he had crowns made of the
bread now called wh eaten and gave one to each
separate man, providing that each and every one
might receive his wheaten bread every day of his life
and hand on his right to his heirs. 1 The same
Aurelian, too, gave the allowance of pork to the
Roman people which is given them also to-day.

He enacted very many laws, and salutary ones
indeed. 2 He set the priesthoods in order, he con-
ing the needs of Eome, impoverished by the economic decline of
Italy and threatened with starvation; see Rostovtzeff, Social
and Econ. Hist, of the Roman Emp., p. 611 f. and p. 618.

2 The vita omits any mention of the reform of the coinage,
which is recorded in Zosimus, i. 61, 3, and attested by the coins
themselves. As the result of lack of uniformity in coining and
ftae absence of any fixed standard, the " Antoninianus " had
become worthless. This coin was now replaced by a new piece,
which not only was better made and contained more silver, but
also bore a fixed relation (20 : 1) to a coin of definite value,
perhaps the aureus or the denarius of real silver or even the
reduced denarius; see Matt.-Syd., v. p. 9 f. Also a smaller
coin (the denarius) and bronze coins (the sestertius and
dupondius) were issued again after a lapse of many years.



dotia composuit, Templum Soils fundavit et pontifices 3
roboravit ; decrevit etiam eraolumenta sartis tectis et
minis tr is.

4 His gestis ad Gallias profectus Vindelicos obsidione
barbarica liberavit, deinde ad Illyricum rediit para-
toque magno potius quam ingenti exercitu Persis,
quos eo quoque tempore quo Zenobiam superavit

5 gloriosissime iam vicerat, bellum indixit. sed cum
iter faceret, apud Caenophrurium, mansionem quae
est inter Heracleam et Byzantium, malitia notarii sui
et manu Mucaporis interemptus est.

XXXVI. Et causa occidendi eius quae fuerit et

quemadmodum sit occisus, ne res tanta lateat, brevi

2edisseram. Aurelianus, quod negari non potest, se-

3 verus, truculentus, sanguinarius fuit princeps. hie,

cum usque eo severitatem tetendisset, ut et filiam

sororis occideret non in magna neque in satis idonea

1 pontifices P, , def. by Purser; porticibus Scaliger, foil,
by Peter and Hohl.

J This temple, in campo Agrip2Jae according to the Notitiae,
has been identified with a temple that stood on the western
edge of the Quiriual Hill, just above the gardens of the Palazzo
Colonna, where some magnificent remains are preserved ; but
it is perhaps more probable that it was the temple that stood
farther north, on the eastern side of the Corso, where the Via
Frattiua now enters it. It contained, according to Zosimus,
i Cl, statues of Helios and Belos. The latter was the patron-
god of Palmyra, and beseems to have been the particular deity
in whose honour Aureliau erected the temple, but transformed
into a Roman god with the usual national priests and festival
and evidently intended to be the centre of worship for the
whole Empire, since on coins of Aurelian he is called Sol
Dominus Imperil Romani ; see Wissowa, Relig. u. Knltus
der Burner, p. 307, and Matt.-Syd., v. p. 301, uos. 319-22.



structed the Temple of the Sun, 1 and he founded its
college of pontiffs 2 ; and he also allotted funds for
making repairs and paying attendants.

After doing these things, he set out for the regions
of Gaul and delivered the Vindelici from a barbarian
inroad 3 ; then he returned to Illyricum and having
made ready an army, which was large, though not of
inordinate size, he declared war on the Persians, whom
he had already defeated with the greatest glory at
the time that he conquered Zenobia. 4 While on his
way thither, however, he was murdered at Caeno-

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