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matre genitus, forma conspicuus, verecundia proba-
bilis, eruditione pro aetate clarus, moribus periucundus
atque a fratris dissolutione seiunctus, a patre absente
Caesar est appellatus, a fratre, ut Caelestinus dicit,

2 Augustus, nihil habet praedicabile in vita, nisi quod
est nobiliter natus, educatus optime et miserabiliter

3 Et quoniam scio errare plerosque, qui Valeriani im-
peratoris titulum in sepulchro legentes illius Valeriani
redditum putaiit corpus, qui a Persis est captus, ne
ullus error obrepat, mittendum in litteras censui hunc
Valerianum circa Mediolanum sepultum addito titulo
Claudii iussu : " Valerianus imperator."

1 propter om. in P and 2. 2 de 2, Peter ; sen P.

1 See note to Oall. t xiv. 10. a Otherwise unknown.



necessity of passing judgement on the people, the
soldiers, the senate, and all judges, tribunes and
generals the whole world over. It is for this that
you have the name of Augustus. You it is on whom
the office of censor devolves, for no commoner can
duly fill it. Therefore I ask to be excused from this
office, to which my life is unequal, my courage un-
equal, and the times so unfavourable that human
nature does not desire the office of censor."

VII. I could, indeed, cite many other senatorial
decrees and imperial judgements concerning Valerian,
were not most of them known to you, and did I not
feel ashamed to extol too greatly a man who was
vanquished by what seems a destined doom. Now
let me turn to the younger Valerian.

VIII. Valerian the younger, 1 the son of a different
mother from Gallienus, conspicuous for his beauty,
admired for his modesty, distinguished in learning for
one of his years, amiable in his manners, and holding
aloof from the vicious ways of his brother, received
from his father, when absent, the title of Caesar and
from his brother, so says Caelestinus, 2 that of Augustus.
His life contains nothing worthy of note, save that
he was nobly born, excellently reared, and pitiably

Now since I know that many are in error, who have
read the inscription of Valerian the Emperor on a
tomb, and believe that the bodv of that Valerian who

* >

was captured by the Persians was given back again,
1 have thought it my duty, that no error might creep
in, to set down in writing that it was this younger
Valerian who was buried near Milan and that by
Claudius' order the inscription was added : " Valerian
the Emperor."



4 Non puto plus aliquid vel de maiore Valeriano vel

5 de iuniore requirendum. et quoniam vereor ne
modum voluminis transeam, si Gallienum, Valerian!
filium, de quo iam multus et forlasse nimius nobis fuit
sermo in illius vitn, vel Saloninum filium etiam Gallieni,
qui et Saloninus et Gallienus est dictus in historia sui
temporis, huic libro adiunctos edam, nunc ad aliud
volumen transeamw.?, ut iubetur. semper enim nos
vobis dedimMj et famae, cui negare nihil possumus. 1

1 Italics are supplements of Peter to fill lacunae in P.


Nothing further, I think, should be demanded con-
cerning either older or younger Valerian. And since
I fear to exceed the proper limit of a volume, if I add
to this book Valerian's son Gallienus, concerning
whom we have already said much, and perchance too
much, in the life of his father, or even Gallienus' son
Saloninus, 1 who is called in the history of his time
both Saloninus and Gallienus, let us now pass, as we
are bidden, to another volume. For, indeed, we have
ever submitted to you and to Fame, to whom we can
make no refusal.

1 See Qall. t xix 1-4.



I. Capto Valeriano (enimvero unde incipienda est
Gallieni vita, nisi ab eo praecipue malo, quo eius vita
depressa est ?), nutante re publica, cum Odaenathus
iam orientis cepisset imperium, Gallienus comperta
patris captivitate gauderet, vagabantur ubique exer-
citus, murmurabant omnibus in provinciis duces, erat
omnium in gens maeror, quod Valenanus imperator
Romanus in Perside serviliter teneretur. sed erat
etiam maior omnium maestitia quod Gallienus n&fictus
imperium ut pater fato sic ipse moribus rem publicatn
perdiderat. 1

1 Italics are supplements of Obrecht and Peter to fill lacunae
in P.

1 P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus (253-260 with
Valerian ; 260-268 sole emperor). The biographer, like
Eutropius and Aurelius Victor, portrays Gallienus in the
worst possible light a tendency due, parti}', to senatorial
hostility aroused by his exclusion of senators from military
commands (Aur. Victor, Cats., 33, 33 f ), but particularly to the
desire, by blackening Gallienus, to enhance the glories of his
successor Claudius, who, as the reputed ancestor of Constantius
Chlorus (see note to Claud., xiii. 2), is made the hero of this
series of biographies. Consequently, the depreciation of
Gallienus, as neglecting the welfare of the Empire and
interested only in amusements and debauchery, and the





I. When Valerian was captured (for where should
we begin the biography of Gallienus, 1 if not with
that calamity which, above all, brought disgrace on his
life ?), when the commonwealth was tottering, when
Odaenathus had seized the rule of the East, and when
Gallienus was rejoicing in the news of his father's
captivity, the armies began to range about on all
sides, the generals in all the provinces to murmur,
and great was the grief of all men that Valerian, a
Roman emperor, was held as a slave in Persia. But
greater far was the grief of them all that now having
received the imperial power, Gallienus, by his mode
of life, as his father by his fate, brought ruin on the
commonwealth. 2

exaltation of Claudius (and his descendant) form the prin-
cipal theme of the series. A more favourable and, as it ia
now generally believed, a more truthful, account of his reign
is given by the Greek writers Zosimus (i. 30-40) and Zonaras
(xii. 24-25). The modern point of view (based on these
writers and supported by the evidence of inscriptions and
archaeological research), which represents Gallienus as an
active and able ruler, has been excellently presented by
L. Homo in Rev. Hist., cxiii. pp. 1-22 ; 225-267.
8 Cf. Tyr. Trig., xii. 8.



2 Gallieno igitur et Volusiano consulibus Macrianus
et Ballista in unum coeunt, exercitus reliquias con-
vocant et, cum Romanum in oriente nutaret imperium,
quern facerent imperatorem requirunt, Gallieno tarn
neglegenter se agente ut eius ne mentio quidem apud

3 exercitum fieret. placuit denique ut Macrianum cum
filiis suis imperatores dicerent ac rem publicam de-
fendendam . . capesserent sic igitur ...

4 imperium ... delatumest ... Macriano causae

Macriawo imperandi 1 cum filiis haec fuerunt :

primum quod nemo eo tempore sapientior ducum
habebatur, nemo ad res regendas aptior ; deinde ditis-
simus et qui privatis posset fortunis publica explere

6 dispendia. hue accedebat quod liberi eius, fortissimi
iuvenes, tota mente in bellum ruebant, ut essent
legionibus exemplo ad omnia munera 2 militaris..

II. Ergo Mzcrianus undique auxilia ... petiit

occupa^ a se ... partibus, quas ipse ... posuerat 1 ita
ut Jirmaret imperium. deinde bellum ita instruxit ut
par esset omnibus, quae contra eum poterant cogitari. 3

2 idem Macrianus Pisonem, unum ex nobilibus ac 4
principibus senatus, ad Achaiam destinavit ob hoc ut
Valentem, qui illic proconsulari imperio rem publicam

Sgubernabat, opprimeret. sed Valens, comperto quod
Piso contra se veniret, sumpsit imperium. Piso igitur

1 So P; lacunae closed up in Z". 2 munera suppl. by

Editor; lacuna in P. 3 Italics are supplements of Jordan
to fill lacunae in P. 4 ac Kellerbauer, Hohl ; a P ; et Peter.

1 The date 261 is incorrect, for papyri show that Macrianus
and Quietus were recognized as emperors in Egypt in Sept.,
260. On this revolt see Tyr. Trig., xii-xiv. ; xviii. This vita,
beginning as it does with this event, omits any account of
Gallienus' success in repelling the Germans who attempted to



So then, when Gallienus and Volusianus were 261
consuls, Macrianus and Ballista met together, called
in the remains of the army, and, since the Roman
power in the East was tottering, sought someone to
appoint as emperor. 1 For Gallienus was showing
himself so careless of public affairs that his name was
not even mentioned to the soldiers. It was then
finally decided to choose Macrianus and his sons as
emperors and to undertake the defence of the state.
And so the imperial power was offered to Macrianus.
Now the reasons why Macrianus and his sons should
be chosen to rule were these : First of all, no one of
the generals of that tune was held to be wiser, and
none more suited to govern the state ; in the second
place, he was the richest, and could by his private
fortune make good the public losses. In addition to
this, his sons, most valiant young men, rushed with
all spirit into the war, ready to serve as an example
to the legions in all the duties of soldiers.

II. Accordingly, Macrianus sought reinforcements
on every side and, in order to strengthen his power,
took control of the party which he himself had formed.
So well did he make ready for war that he was a
match for all measures which could be devised against
him. He also chose Piso,' 2 one of the nobles and of the
foremost men in the senate, as governor of Achaea, in
order that he might crush Valens, 3 who was administer-
ing that province with the authority of a proconsul.
Valens, however, learning that Piso was marching
against him, assumed the imperial power. Piso,
therefore, withdrew into Thessaly, and there he,

invade Gaul in 254-258 or of his suppression of the revolt of
Ingenuus in Pannonia in 258 or 259 (see Tyr. Trig., ix.).
2 See Tyr. Trig., xxi. 3 See Tyr. Trig., xix.



4 in Thessaliam se recepit. ubi missis a Valente militi-
bus cum plurimis interfectus est. ipse quoque im-
perator appellatus cognomento Thessalicus.

6 Et l Macrianus retento in oriente uno ex filiis,
pacatis iam rebus, Asiam primum venit et 2 Illyricum

epetiit. in Illyrico cum Aureoli imperatoris, qui contra
Gallienum imperium sumpserat, duce, Domitiano
nomine, manum conseruit, unum ex filiis secum

7 habens et triginta milia militum ducens. sed victus
est Macrianus cum filio Macriano nomine deditusque
omnis exercitus Aureolo imperatori.

III. Turbata interim re publica toto penitus orbe
terrarum, ubi Odaenathus comperit Macrianum cum
filio interemptum, regnare Aureolum, Gallienum re-
missius rem gerere, 3 festinavit ad alterum filium
Macriani cum exercitu, si hoc daret fortuna, capien-

2 dum. sed ii qui erant cum filio Macriani, Quieto
nomine, consentientes Odaenatho auctore praefecto
Macriani Ballista iuvenem occiderunt missoque per
murum corpore Odaenatho se omnes affatim dedide-

3 runt, totius prope igitur orientis tactus est Odaenathus
imperator, cum Illyricum teneret Aureolus, Romam

4Gallienus. idem 4 Ballista multos Emesenos, ad quos
confugerant Macriani milites, cum Quieto et thesau-
rorum custode interfecit, ita ut civitas paene deleretur.

1 et Peter ; haec P. 3 et ins. by Peter ; om. in P and by

Hohl. 3 rem gerere Salm., Peter; ingerere P. *idem Z
Peter ; id est P.

1 See Tyr. Trig., xii. 14.

3 This statement (also in o. iii. 1) is incorrect, for Aureolus
did not declare himself emperor until 268, and was at this time
acting as Gallienus' general ; see note to Tyr. Trig. t xi. 1.

n See Tyr. Trig., xv.



together with many, was slain by the soldiers sent
against him by Valens. Now Piso, too, was saluted
as emperor with the surname Thessalicus.

Macrianus, moreover, now that the East was
brought into subjection, left there one of his sons,
and came first of all into Asia, and from there set out
for lllyricum. Here, having with him one of his sons
and a force of thirty thousand soldiers, he engaged
in battle with Domitianus, 1 a general of Aureolus the
emperor, who had assumed the imperial power in
opposition to Gallienus. 2 He was, however, defeated,
together with his son, Macrianus by name, and his
whole army surrendered to the Emperor Aureolus.

III. Meanwhile, when the commonwealth had been
thrown into confusion throughout the entire world,
Odaenathus, 3 learning that Macrianus and his son
had been slain, that Aureolus was ruling, and that
Gallienus was administering the state with still greater
slackness, hastened forward to seize the other son of
Macrianus, together with his army, should Fortune so
permit. But those who were with Macrianus' son
whose name was Quietus taking sides with Odae-
nathus, by the instigation of Ballista, Macrianus' prefect,
killed the young man, and, casting his body over the
wall, they all in large numbers surrendered to Odae-
nathus. And so Odaenathus was made emperor over
almost the whole East, while Aureolus held lllyricum
and Gallienus Rome. This same Ballista murdered,
in addition to Quietus and the guardian of his treasures,
many of the people of Emesa, 4 to whom Macrianus'
soldiers had fled, with the result that this city was
nearly destroyed. Odaenathus, meanwhile, as if

4 The city of Horns in central Syria.



5 Odaenathus inter haec, quasi Gallieni partes ageret,
cuncta eidem mmtiari ex veritate faciebat.

6 Sed Gallienus, cognito quod Macrianus cum suis
liberis esset occisus, quasi securus rerum ac patre iam

7recepto, libidini et voluptati se dedidit. ludos cir-
censes ludosque scaenicos, ludos gymnicos, ludiariam
etiam venationem et ludos gladiatorios dedit popu-
lumque quasi victorialibus diebus ad festivitatem ac

Splausum vocavit. et cum plerique patris eius cap-
tivitatem maererent, ille specie decoris, quod pater
eius virtutis studio deceptus videretur, supra modum

9 laetatus est. constabat autem censuram parentis eum

ferre non potuisse votivumque l illi fuisse quod inmi-

nentem cervicibus suis gravitatem patriamnon haberet.

IV. Per idem tempus Aemilianus apud Aegyptum

sumpsit imperium occupatisque horreis multa oppida

2malo famis pressit. sed hunc dux Gallieni Theodotus
conflictu habito cepit atque imperatoriw ornamentis
exutum Gallieno vivum transmisit. Aegyptus post haec
Theodoto data est ; Aemilianus in carcere strangulatus ;
in Thebaitanos milites quoque saevitum est interfectis
co?npluribus. 2

3 Cum Gallienus in luxuria et improbitate persisteret
cumque ludibriis et helluationi vacaret neque aliter
rem publicam gereret, quam cum pueri fingunt per
ludibria potestates, Galli, quibus insitum est leves ac
degenerantes a virtute Romaiia et luxuriosos principes

1 que ins. by Klotz : cum . . . potuisset Peter, Hohl.
a Italics are supplements of Obrecht to fill lacunae in P (cf .
Tyr. Trig., xxii. 8).

1 On the contrary, he seems, after suppressing the revolt of
Ingenuus (see note to c. i. 1), to have returned to Gaul to take
up the war against Postumns (cf. c. iv. 4)

2 See Tyr. Trig., xxii.



taking the side of Gallienus, caused all that had
happened to be announced to him truthfully.

Gallienus, on the other hand, when he learned that
Macrianus and his sons were slain, as though he were
secure in his power and his father were now set free,
surrendered himself to lust and pleasure. 1 He gave
spectacles in the circus, spectacles in the theatre,
gymnastic spectacles, hunting spectacles, and gladia-
torial spectacles also, and he invited all the populace
to merriment and applause, as though it were a day
of victory. And whereas most men mourned at his
father's captivity, he, under the pretext of doing him
honour on the ground that his father had been
caught through his zeal for valour made merry be-
yond measure. It was generally supposed, moreover,
that he could not endure his father's censure and that
it was his desire to feel no longer his father's authority
bearing heavily upon his neck.

IV. During this same time Aemilianus 2 in Egypt
took the imperial power, and seizing the granaries he
overcame many towns by the pressure of hunger.
However, Theodotus, Gallienus' general, after fight-
ing a battle captured him, and stripping him of his
emperor's trappings sent him alive to Gallienus.
After this Egypt was assigned to Theodotus. As for
Aemilianus, he was strangled in prison, while the
soldiers of Thebes were cruelly punished and many
were put to death.

Now while Gallienus, continuing in luxury and
debauchery, gave himself up to amusements and revel-
ling and administered the commonwealth like a boy
who plays at holding power, the Gauls, by nature
unable to endure princes who are frivolous and given
over to luxury and have fallen below the standard of



ferre non posse, Postumum ad imperium vocarunt,
exercitibus quoque 1 consentientibus, quod occupatum
4 imperatorem libidinibus querebantur. contra hunc Gallienus exercitum duxit ; cumque urbem, in qua
erat Posturaus, obsidere coepisset, acriter earn defen-
dentibus 2 Gallis, Gallienus rauros circumiens sagitta

6 ictus est. nam per annos septem Postumus imperavit
ct Gallias ab omnibus circumfluentibus barbaris validis-

6sime vindicavit. his coactus malis Gallienus pacem
cum Aureolo facit oppugnandi Postumi studio longo-
que bello tracto per diversas obsidiones ac proelia rem

7 modo feliciter modo infeliciter gerit. accesserat prae-
terea his malis, 3 quod Scythae Bithyniam invaserant

8 civitatesque deleverant. denique Astacum, 4 quae
Nicomedia postea dicta est, incensam graviter vasta-

gverunt. denique quasi coniuratione totius mundi
concussis orbis partibus etiam in Sicilia quasi quoddam
servile bellum exstitit latronibus evagantibus, qui vix
V. oppress! sunt. et haec omnia Gallieni contemptu
fiebant. neque enim quicquam est ad audaciam malis,
ad spem bonorum bonis promptius, quam cum vel
malus timetur vel 5 dissolutus contemnitur imperator.

1 quoque Peter ; qui P. 2 So Salm. to fill lacunae in P.

8 malis Z 1 , Peter ; magis P. 4 Astacum Egnatius, Peter 1 ;

contum P. 5 uel 2, Peter ; om. in P.

1 On the revolt of Postumus, see Tyr. Trig., iii. and notes.

9 But see note to Tyr. Trig., iii. 4.

3 Bilt see note to Tyr. Trig., xi. 1. In fact, Aureolus was
entrusted, during Gallienus' absence, with the conduct of the
war against Postumus, but he did not push the campaign
very vigorously; see Zonaras, xii. 24.

4 Gallienus seems to have been called away in the course of
the war, but he returned to it later on ; see c. vii. 1. The
cause of the interruption raay have been the raid of the



Roman valour, called Postumus to the imperial power ; l
and the armies, too, joined with them, for they com-
plained of an emperor who was busied with his lusts.
Thereupon Gallienus himself led his army against
him, and when he began to besiege the city in
which Postumus was, the Gauls defended it bravely,
and GaJlienus, as he went around the walls, was
struck by an arrow. So for seven years 2 Postumus
held his power and with the greatest vigour protected
the regions of Gaul from all the barbarians surging
about. Forced by this evil plight, Gallienus made
peace with Aureolus 3 in his desire to fight with
Postumus, and, as the war dragged on to great
length amid various sieges and battles, he conducted
the campaign, now with good success and again with
ill. 4 These evils had been further increased by the
fact that the Scythians 5 had invaded Bithynia and
destroyed its cities. Finally they set fire to Astacus,
later called Nicomedia, and plundered it cruelly.
Last of all, when all parts of the Empire were thrown
into commotion, as though by a conspiracy of the
whole world, there arose in Sicily also a sort of slave-
revolt, for bandits roved about and were put down
only with great difficulty. V. All these things were
done out of contempt for Gallienus, for there is noth-
ing so quick to inspire evil men to daring and good
men to the hope of good things as an evil emperor
who is feared or a depraved one who is despised.

Alamanni, who about this time invaded northern Italy as far
as Ravenna, but were defeated by Gallienus at Milan; see
Zonaras, xii. 24.

5 Throughout these biographies the term Scythian is often
used for Goth, as had been done regularly by Dexippus. This
invasion of Bithynia seems to have taken place in 258.



2 Gallieno et Fausiano l consulibus inter tot bellicas
clades etiam terrae motus gravissimus fuit et tenebrae

3 per multos dies 2 ; auditum praeterea tonitruum terra
mugiente, non love tonante. quo motu multae fabri-
cae devoratae sunt cum habitatoribus, multi terrore
emortui ; quod quidem malum tristius in Asiae urbibus

4 fuit. mota est et Roma, mota et Libya, hiatus terrae
plurimis in locis fuerunt, cum aqua salsa in fossis ap-

5 pareret. maria etiam multas urbes occuparunt. pax
igitur deum quaesita inspectis Sibyllae libris, fac-
tumque lovi Salutari, ut praeceptum fuerat, sacrificium.
nam et pestilentia tanta exstiterat vel Romae vel in
Achaicis urbibus, ut uno die quiiique milia hominum
pari morbo perirent.

6 Saeviente fortuna, cum hinc terrae motus, inde
hiatus soli, ex diversis partibus pestilentia orbem
Romaiiam vastaret, capto Valeriano, Gallis parte
maxima obsessis, cum bellum Odaenathus inferret,
cum Aureolus perurgueret Illyricum, 3 cum Aemilianus
Aegyptum occupasset, Gothorwwz pars 4 . . ., quod
nome?t, ut & dictum est superius, Gothis inditum est,
occupatis Thraciis, Macedoniam vastaverunt, Thessa-
lonicam obsederunt, neque usquam quies mediocriter

1 Fausiano from C.I.L. xiv. 5357 ; Faustiano P.
2 dies om. in P. 3 Illyricum ins. by Salm. ; lacuna in P.

4 So Hohl; gotharidodius P corr., 2; GotJwri Clodius Peter.

5 So Jordan ; a quo dictum P.

1 Salutaris is included by Cicero (de Finibus, iii. 66) among
tbe cognomina of Jupiter, and dedicatory inscriptions to lovi
Optimo Maximo Salutari have been found at Rome.

2 It had previously raged in the East and wrought great
havoc among the troops of Valerian ; see Zosimus, i. 36. For
a vivid description of its ravages in Egypt, see Eusebius, Hist.
Eccles., vii. 22.

8 The Goths invaded Macedonia and besieged Thessalonioa



In the consulship of Gallienus and Fausianus, 26
amid so many calamities of war, there was also a ter-
rible earthquake and a darkness for many days. There
was heard, besides, the sound of thunder, not like
Jupiter thundering, but as though the earth were
roaring. And by the earthquake many structures
were swallowed up together with their inhabitants,
and many men died of fright. This disaster, indeed,
was worst in the cities of Asia ; but Rome, too, was
shaken and Libya also was shaken. In many places
the earth yawned open, and salt water appeared in the
fissures. Many cities were even overwhelmed by the
sea. Therefore the favour of the gods was sought by
consulting the Sibylline Books, and, according to their
command, sacrifices were made to Jupiter Salutaris. 1
For so great a pestilence, 2 too, had arisen in both
Rome and the cities of Achaea that in one single day
five thousand men died of the same disease.

While Fortune thus raged, and while here earth-
quakes, there clefts in the ground, and in divers
places pestilence, devastated the Roman world, while
Valerian was held in captivity and the provinces of
Gaul were, for the most part, beset, while Odaenathus
was threatening war, Aureolus pressing hard on Illy-
ricum, and Aemilianus in possession of Egypt, a por-
tion of the Goths . . . which name, as has previously
been related, was given to the Goths, having seized
Thrace and plundered Macedonia, laid siege to Thes-
salonica, 3 and nowhere was hope of peace held out,

in 253 or 254 (Zosirnus, i. 29, 2), but, if the chronological order
is reliable, this would seem to be a later incursion, in 262, in
the course of which they were driven back by Marcianus ; see
c. vi. 1 unless, as is not improbable, this notice belongs to
the invasion of 267, described in o. xiii. 6 f.



7 saltern 1 ostentata 2 est. quae omnia contemptu, ut
saepius diximus, Gallieni fiebant, horainis luxuriosis-
simi et, si esset securus, ad omne dedecus paratissimi.

VI. Pugnatum est in Achaia Marciano duce contra
eosdera Gothos, unde victi per Achaeos recesserunt.

2 Scythae autem, hoc est pars Gothorum, Asiam vasta-
bant. etiam templum Lunae Ephesiae despoliatum et
incensum est, cuius operis faraa satis nota per 3 populos.

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