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East seems to be commemorated by coins with the legend
Exercitus Pers(icus) ; see Cohen, vi. 2 p. 273, no. 207.

3 See Tac. t xvi. 6 and note. 4 See note to Sev. t xxii. 7.

8 Otherwise unknown.

355



PROBUS

perfruaris, annonam et corameatus et quicquid neces-
sariura est ubique militi l pares, ego, quantum in me
est, si recte omnia gubernaveris, praefectum alterum
iion habebo."

8 Cognito itaque quod imperaret Probus milites Floria-
num, qui quasi hereditarium arripuerat imperium, 2 in-
teremerunt, scientes neminem dignius posse imperare

9quam Probum. ita ei sine ulla molestia totius orbis
imperium et militum et senatus iudicio delatum est.

XI. Et quoniam mentionem senatus fecimus, scien-
dum est quid ipse ad senatum scripserit, quid item ad
eum amplissimus ordo rescripserit :

2 Oratio Probi prima ad senatum :

" Recte atque ordine, patres conscripti, proximo
superiore anno factum est ut 3 vestra dementia orbi
terrarum principem daret, et quidem de vobis, qui et
estis mundi principes et semper fuistis et in vestris

Sposteris eritis. atque utinam id etiam Florianus ex-
spectare voluisset nee velut hereditarium sibi vin-
dicasset imperium, vel ilium vel alium quempiam

4 maiestas vestra fecisset. nunc quoniam ille imperium
arripuit, nobis a militibus delatum est nomen Augus-
tum, vindicatum quin etiam in ilium a prudentioribus
militibus, quod fuerat usurpatum. quaeso ut de meis
meritis iudicetis 4 facturus quicquid iusserit vestra
dementia."

1 militi 2; milites P. arripuerat imperium 27, ins. by
Peter and Hohl; om. in P. s ut; ad P. 4 iudicetis

ins. by Hohl (Helm) ; om. in P and by Peter.



1 Apparently modelled on Cicero, in CatiL, iv. 11.

2 See Tac., xiv. 2 and note.

356



PRORUS X. 8 XI. 4

you hope to enjoy with me the state in safety, l to
supply the soldiers everywhere with grain and pro-
visions and all necessities. I assure you that in so
far as it lies in me, I will have no other prefect if you
administer all things well."

And so, when it was known that Probus was
emperor, the soldiers killed Florian, 2 who had seized
the imperial power as though an inheritance, for they
knew well that no one could rule more worthily than
Probus. Accordingly, without any effort of his, the
rule of the whole world was conferred upon him by
the voice of both army and senate.

XI. Now, since we have mentioned the senate, it
should be made known what he himself wrote to the
senate and likewise what reply that most noble body
wrote back to him :

The first message of Probus to the senate :

" Rightly and duly did you act, Conscript Fathers,
in the last year that has passed, when your clemency
gave to the world a prince, 3 and one, indeed, from
among yourselves, you who are the princes of the
world, as you have ever been in the past and shall
continue to be in the days of your descendants. And
I would that Florian also had been content to wait
for this and had not claimed the imperial power as
though an inheritance, or even that your majesty had
made him or some other man your prince. But now,
since he has seized the imperial power, we have been
offered the name of Augustus by the army, while he
has even been punished by the wiser soldiers because
he usurped it. I beg you, therefore, to judge con-
cerning my merits, for I am ready to do whatsoever
your clemency shall command."

s i.e., Tacitus ; see Tac., iii.-vi.

357



PROBUS

6 Item senatus consultum :

Die III nonas Feb. in Aede Concordiae inter cetera
Aelius Scorpianus consul dixit : " Audistis, patres con-
scripti, litteras Aurelii Valerii Probi ; de his quid vide-
6tur?" tune adclamatum est : " Probe August, di te
servent. olim dignus et fortis et iustus, bonus ductor,
bonus imperator, exemplum militiae, exemplum im-

7 perii. di te servent. adsertor rei publicae felix im-
peres, magister railitiae felix imperes, te cum tuis

8di custodiant. et senatus aiitea te delegit. aetate
Tacito posterior, ceteris prior, quod imperium suscep-
isti gratias agimus tuere nos, tuere rem publicam.

9 bene tibi com mittimus quos ante servasti. tu Franci-
cus, tu Gothicus, tu Sarmaticus, tu Parthicus, tu omnia.
et prius fuisti semper dignus imperio, dignus triumphis.
felix agas, feliciter imperes."

XII. Post haec Manlius Statianus, qui primae sen-
tentiae tune erat, ita locutus est : " Dis inmortalibus
gratias et prae ceteris, patres conscripti, lovi Optimo,
qui nobis principem talem qualem semper optabamus

2dederunt. si recte cogitemus, non nobis Aurelianus,
non Alexander, non Antonini, non Traianus, non
Claudius requirendi sunt. omnia in uno principe con-
stituta sunt, rei militaris scientia, animus clemens, vita

1 On such " senatus consulta " and acclamations, see notes to
Vol., v. 3 and 4.

2 This date is also given (incorrectly) as that of the announce-
ment in Rome of Aurelian's death; see Aur., xli. 3. In this
instance it is also incorrect, since Florian was killed in the
summer (probably August) of 276 ; see note to Tac., xiv. 2.
There is no record of any consul named Scorpianus in 276.

3 See note to Pert., iv. 9.

4 See note to c. i. 3.

5 Of all these cognomina only Gothicus was ever borne by
Probus ; see note to c. xiii. 5.

358



PROBUS XI. 5 Xil. 2

Likewise the decree of the senate 1 :

On the third day before the Nones of February, 2
in the Temple of Concord, 3 Aelius Scorpianus, the
consul, said during his speech : " Conscript Fathers,
you have listened to the letter of Aurelius Valerius 4
Probus ; now what is your pleasure concerning it ? "
Thereupon they shouted out: "Probus Augustus,
may the gods keep you ! Long since worthy, brave
and just, a good leader, a good commander, an ex-
ample in warfare, an example in command. May the
gods keep you ! Deliverer of the commonwealth,
may you be happy in your rule, master in warfare,
may you be happy in your rule ! May the gods guard
you and yours ! Even before this the senate chose
you. In years inferior to Tacitus, in all else superior.
For having accepted the imperial power we give you
our thanks. Protect us, protect the commonwealth.
Rightly do we entrust to your keeping those whom
you formerly saved. You are Francicus, you are
Gothicus, you are Sarmaticus, you are Parthicus, 5 you
are all things. In former years, too, you were ever
worthy of command, worthy of triumphs. Happily
may you live, happily rule ! "

XII. Thereupon Manlius Statianus, 8 whose right it
then was to give his opinion first, spoke as follows ;
" All thanks to the immortal gods, Conscript Fathers,
and above the others to Jupiter the Best, for they
have given us such an emperor as we always desired.
If we consider the matter rightly we need seek no
Aurelian, no Alexander, no Antonines, no Trajan, no
Claudius. All their qualities are found in this one
prince, knowledge of warfare, a merciful spirit, a

6 Otherwise unknown.

359



PROBUS

venerabilis, exemplar agendae rei publicae atque om-

3 nium praerogativa virtutum. enimvero quae mumli
pars est, quam ille non vincendo didicerit ? testes sunt
Marmaridae, in Africae solo victi, testes Franci, in 1
inviis strati paludibus, testes Germani et Alamanni,

4 longe a Rheni summoti litoribus. iam vero quid Sar-
matas loquor, quid Gothos, quid Parthos ac Persas
atque omnem Ponticum tractum ? ubique vigent 2 Probi

5 virtutis insignia, longum est dicere quot reges mag-
narum gentium fugarit, quot duces manu sua occiderit,

6 quantum armorum sit, quae ipse cepit privatus. superi-
ores principes quas illi gratias egeriut, testes sunt lit-
terae publicis insertae monumentis. di boni, quotiens
ille donis militaribus est donatus ! quas militum laudes
emeruit ! adulescens tribunatus, non longe post adules-

7 centiam regendas legiones accepit. luppiter Optime
Maxime, luno Pegina tuque virtutum praesul Minerva,
tu orbis Concordia et tu Romana Victoria, date hoc
senatui populoque Romano, date militibus, date sociis
atque exteris nationibus 3 : imperet quemadmodum

8 militavit ! decerno igitur, patres conscripti, votis
omnium conciiientibus nomen imperatorium, nomen
Caesareanum, nomen Augustum, acldo proconsulare
imperium, patris patriae reverentiam, poiitificatum
maximum, ius tcrtiae relationis, tribuniciam potes-
tatem." post haec adclamatum est, " Omnes, omnes."

1 in om. in P. ~uigent 2; uigeant P. '^nationibus E\
nationes P.



1 See Marc., vi. 6 and notes.
360



PROBUS XII. 3-8

revered life, a pattern for conducting the common-
wealth, and the assurance of every virtue. For what
part of the world is there which he has not learned
to know by conquering it ? Witness the Marmaridae,
conquered on African soil, witness the Franks, over-
thrown amid pathless marshes, witness the Germans
and the Alamanni, driven far back from the banks of
the Rhine. But why need I now speak of Sarma-
tians, of Goths, of Parthians and Persians, and all the
expanse of Pontus ? In all places the signs of Probus'
valour abound. It were too long to relate how many
kings of mighty nations he drove into flight, how
many commanders he slew with his own hand, how
many arms he captured unaided while still a com-
moner. What thanks former emperors gave him their
letters attest, now placed in the public memorials.
Ye Gods, how many times he has been presented
with military gifts ! What praise he has won from
the soldiers ! As a youth he received a tribuneship,
not long after his youth the command of legions. O
Jupiter, Best and Greatest, thou, Juno our Queen,
thou, Minerva, patroness of the virtues, thou, Concord
of the world and thou, Victory of Rome, do ye all
grant this to the senate and the people of Rome,
grant this to our soldiers, grant this to our allies and
to foriegn nations : may he rule even as he has served 1
Therefore, Conscript Fathers, in accordance with the
harmonious wish of us all I vote him the name of
emperor, the name of Caesar, the name of Augustus ;
and I add thereto the proconsular command, the re-
vered title of Father of his Country, the chief pontifi-
cate, the right of three proposals in the senate, 1 and
the tribunician power." Thereupon they shouted
out, "So say we all of us, all of us."

36 1



PROBUS

XIII. Accepto igitur hoc senatus consulto secunda
oratione permisit patribus ut ex magnorum iudicum ap-
pellationibus ipsi cognoscerent, proconsules crearent,
legates proconsulibus l darent, ius praetorium prae-
sidibus darent, leges quas Probus ederet senatus con-
sultis propriis consecrarent.

2 Statim deinde, si quidam ex interfectoribus Aureliaiii
superfuerant, vario genere vindicavit, mollius tamen
moderatiusque quara priiis exercitus et postea Tacitus

3 vindicaverant. deinde animadvertit etiam in eos qui
Tacito insidias fecerant. Floriani sociis pepercit, quod
non tyrannum aliquem videbantur secuti, sed sui prin-

4 cipis fratrera. recepit deinde omnes Europenses ex-
ercitus, qui Florianum et imperatorem fecerant et
occiderant.

5 His gestis cum ingenti exercitu Gallias petiit, quae
omnes occiso Postumo turbatae fuerant, interfecto

6 Aureliano a Germanis possessae. tanta autem illic
proelia et tarn feliciter gessit, ut a barbaris sexaginta
per Gallias nobilissimas reciperet civitates, praedam
deinde omnem, qua illi praeter divitias etiam 2 effere-

7baiitur ad gloriam. et cum iam in nostra ripa, immo
per omnes Gallias, securi vagarentur, caesis prope

1 proconsulibus Mommsen ; considibus P; ex consulibus
Salm. , Peter. *diuitias etiam Gas; diuinas tamen P.



1 See note to Tac., xviii. 3.

2 This is not clear, for the provincial governors had always
had judicial functions.

3 See Aur., xxxvii. 2 and Tac. t xiii. 1. According to Zosi-
mus, i. 65, he resorted to the ruse of inviting them to a banquet
and had them killed there.

4 See Toe., xiv. 2 and note.

362



PROBUS XIII. 1-7

XIII. On receiving this decree of the senate, then,
Probus in a second message granted the fathers the
right to decide on appeals from the highest judges, 1
to appoint the proconsuls, to name the proconsuls'
legates, to confer on the governors the rights of a
praetor, 2 and to sanction by special decree of the
senate all the laws that Probus enacted.

Immediately thereafter he punished in various ways
all the slayers of Aurelian who still survived, but he
used therein more mildness and leniency than the
army at first and Tacitus later had shown. 3 Next he
punished those also who had formed a plot against
Tacitus, but the comrades of Florian he spared, be-
cause they seemed to have followed no mere pre-
tender but the brother of their prince. He then
received the submission of all the armies of Europe,
who had made Florian emperor and then had killed
him. 4

This done, he set out with a huge army for the
provinces of Gaul, 5 which since the death of Postumus
had all been in turmoil, and after the murder of
Aurelian had been seized by the Germans. 6 There,
moreover, he fought battles so great and successful
that he took back from the barbarians sixty most
famous communes of Gaul, besides all the booty, by
which the Germans, even apart from the actual wealth,
were puffed up with glory. And whereas they were
wandering at large on our bank, or rather through all
the country of Gaul, Probus, after slaying about four

5 In 277. In the autumn of 276 he probably completed the
war begun by Tacitus and Florian against the Goths in Asia
Minor, since in an inscription of 277 he bears the title Gothicua ;
see C.I.L., xi. 1178 b.

6 See note to Aur., xxxv. 4.

363



PROBUS

quadringeiitis milibus, qui Romanum occupaverant
solum, reliquos l ultra Nicrum fluvium et Albam re-

8 movit. tantum his praedae barbaricae tulit quantum

ipsi Romanis abstulerant. contra urbes Romanas

castra in solo barbarico posuit atque illic milites col-

XIV. locavit. agros et horrea et domos et annonam Trans-

rhenanis omnibus fecit, iis videlicet quos in excubiis

2conlocavit. nee cessatum est umquam pugnari, cum
cottidie ad eum barbarorum capita deferrentur, iam
ad singulos aureos singula, quamdiu reguli novem
ex diversis gentibus venirent atque ad pedes Probi

3 iacerent. quibus ille primum obsides imperavit, qui
statim dati suiit, deinde frumentum, postremo etiam

4vaccas atque oves. dicitur iussisse his acrius ut
gladiis non uterentur, Romanam exspectaturi defen-

5 sionem, si essent ab aliquibus vindicandi. sed visum
est id non posse fieri, nisi si limes Romanus exten-

Gderetur et fieret Germania tota provincia. maxime
tamen ipsis regibus consentientibus in eos vindicatum

7 est qui praedam fideliter non reddiderunt. accepit

1 reliqiios 2 ; religuas P.



1 Greatly exaggerated, like the number in Claud., vi. 4.

2 The Swabian Alb, a plateau south of the Neckar and east of
the Black Forest; see Pauly-Wissowa, Realenci/cL, i. 1299.
According to the much fuller account in Zosimus, i. 67-68,
Probus conducted this campaign (against the Alamanni) in
person, while his generals fought against the Franks further
north. Zosimus' narrative is embellished with picturesque de-
tails such as a miraculous rain, which saved Probus' army
from starvation, and the capture of a German chieftain of the
Loudones (Lugii) named Semnon. A second campaign, against
the Burgundians and Vandals, which Zosimus records, is omitted

364



PROBUS XIII. 8 XIV. 7

hundred thousand 1 who had seized upon Roman soil,
drove all the rest back beyond the river Neckar and
the district of Alba, 2 getting from them as much bar-
barian booty as they themselves had seized from the
Romans. Opposite the Roman cities, moreover, he
built camps on barbarian soil 3 and in these he
stationed troops. XIV. He also provided farms and
store-houses, homes and rations of grain for all beyond
the Rhine, for those only, that is, whom he placed
in the garrisons there. All the while the heads of
barbarians were brought in to him daily, now at the
price of an aureus apiece, and he never ceased fight-
ing until nine princes of different tribes came before
him and prostrated themselves at his feet. From these
he demanded, first hostages, which they gave him at
once, then grain, and last of all their cows and their
sheep. It is said, moreover, that he sharply ordered
them not to use swords, since now they might count
on protection from Rome in case they must be de-
fended against any foe. It appeared, however, that
this could not be accomplished, unless the Roman
frontier were advanced and the whole of Germany
turned into a province. Nevertheless, with the
princes' consent, he punished severely those who did
not faithfully give back the booty. He took, besides,
sixteen thousand recruits, all of whom he scattered

by the biographer, unless we are to suppose with Dannhauser
(Untersuch. z. Gesch. d. Kaisers Probus, p. 56 f.) that this battle
took place when Probus was in Raetia; see c. xvi. 1. In cele-
bration of his success he assumed the title Germanicus Maxi-
mus and issued coins with the legend Victwia Germ(m/.ica);
see Cohen, vi 2 . p. 328 f., nos. 754-776.

3 i.e., on the right bank of the Rhine, which he hoped to
make the frontier instead of the old limes (on which see note to
Hadr., xii. 6).

365



PROBUS

praeterea sedecim milia tironum, quos omnes per di-
versas provincias sparsit, ita ut numeris vel limitaneis
militibus quinquagenos et sexagenos intersereret,
dicens sentiendum esse non videndum cum auxiliari-
bus barbaris Romanus iuvatur.

XV. Compositis igitur rebus in Gallia tales ad sena-
tum litteras dedit : " Ago dis inmortalibus gratias,
patres conscript!, quia vestra in me iudicia compro-
2barunt. subacta est omnis qua tenditur late Ger-
mania, novem reges gentium diversarum ad meos
pedes, immo ad vestros, supplices stratique iacuerunt.
omnes iam barbari vobis arant, vobis iam serunt 1 et

3 contra interiores gentes militant. supplication es
igitur vestro more decernite. nam et quadrigenta
milia hostium caesa sunt, et sedecim milia armatorum
nobis oblata, et septuaginta urbes nobilissimae a cap-
tivitate hostium vindicatae, et omnes penitus Galliae

4 liberatae. coronas, quas mihi obtulerunt omnes Gal-
liae civitates aureas, vestrae, patres conscripti clemen-
tiae dedicavi. eas lovi Optimo Maximo ceterisque dis
deabusque inmortalibus vestris manibus consecrate.

5 praeda omnis recepta est, capta etiam alia, et quidem

6 maior quam fuerat ante direpta. arantur Gallicana
rura barbaris bubus et iuga German ica captiva prae-
bent nostris colla cultoribus, pascuntur ad nostrorum
alimoiiiam gentium pecora diversarum, equinum pecus
nostro iam fecundatur equitatui, frumento barbarico
plena sunt horrea. quid plura ? illis sola relinquimus

1 serunt Salm., Peter ; seruiunt P, 27, Hohl.



1 According to Zosimus, i. 68, 3, he settled some of the cap-
tured Germans in Britain.

366



PROBUS XV. 1-6

through the various provinces, 1 incorporating bodies
of fifty or sixty in the detachments or among the
soldiers along the frontier ; for he said that the aid
that Romans received from barbarian auxiliaries must
be felt but not seen.

XV. And so, the affairs in Gaul being settled,
he sent to the senate the following letter : " I give
thanks, Conscript Fathers, to the immortal gods that
they have confirmed your judgment of me. For all of
Germany, throughout its whole extent, has now been
subdued, and nine princes of different tribes have lain
suppliant and prostrate at my feet, or, I should say, at
yours. Now all the barbarians plough for you, plant
for you, and serve against the more, distant tribes.
Therefore do you, in accord with your custom, decree
thanksgivings. For four hundred thousand of our foes
have been slain, sixteen thousand armed men are at
our disposal, seventy most famous cities have been
rescued from the enemy's possession, and all the Gallic
provinces have been made entirely free. The crowns of
gold which all the communes of Gaul have bestowed
upon me I have dedicated to your clemency, Conscript
Fathers. Do you, with your own hands, now con-
secrate them to Jupiter Best and Greatest and to the
other immortal gods and goddesses. All booty has
been regained, other booty too has been captured,
greater, indeed, than that which was previously
taken. The barbarians' oxen now plough the farms
of Gaul, the Germans' yoked cattle, now captive,
submit their necks to our husbandmen, the flocks of
divers tribes are fed for the nourishing of our troops,
their herds of horses are now bred for the use of our
cavalry, and the grain of the barbarians fills our
granaries. Why say more ? We have left them solely

367



PROBUS

7 sola, 1 nos eorum omnia possidemus. volueramus,
patres conscript!, Germaniae novum praesidem facere,
sed hoc ad pleniora vota distulimus. quod quidem
credimus conferre, cum divina providentia nostros
uberius secundarit exercitus."

XVI. Post haec Illyricum petiit. priusquam veni-
ret, Raetias sic pacatas reliquit ut illic ne suspicionem

2 quidem ullius terroris relinqueret. in Illyrico Sarmatos
ceterasque gentes ita contudit ut prope sine bello

3 cuncta reciperet quae illi diripuerant. tetendit deinde
iter per Thracias atque omnes Geticos populos fama
rerum territos et antiqui nominis potentia pressos aut
in deditionem aut in amicitiam recepit.

4 His gestis orientem petiit atque itinere 2 potentis-
simo quodam latrone Palfuerio capto et interfecto
omnem Isauriam liberavit, populis atque urbibus

6 Romanis legibus restitutis. barbarorum, qui apud
Isauros sunt, vel per terrorem vel urbanitatem loca
ingressus est. quae cum peragrasset, hoc dixit,
" Facilius est ab istis locis latrones arceri quam tolli."

6 veteranis omnia ilia quae anguste adeuntur loca
privata donavit, addens ut eorum filii ab anno octavo

1 sola S ; so/o P. a So P, Leasing ; in itinere S, Peter,

Hohl.



1 Probably in 279. His benefits to this region were com-
memorated by coins minted at Siscia (mod. Sissek) with the
legend Restit(utor) Illyrici ; see Cohen, vi 2 . p. 304, no. 505.

2 In Thrace, on both banks of the lower Danube. Probably
those tribes who inhabited the northern bank, despite Aurelian's
evacuation of the country in their favour (see Aur., xxxix. 7),
had crossed over to plunder Roman territory, or perhaps they
had been driven over by the Gotlis dwelling further north.

368



PROBUS XV. 7 XVI. 6

their soil, and all their goods we now possess. It had
been our wish, Conscript Fathers, to appoint a new
governor for Germany, but this we have postponed for
the completer fulfilment of our prayers. This indeed
we believe will come to pass when divine providence
shall more richly have prospered our armies."

XVI. After this he set out for Illyricum, but before
going thither he left Raetia in so peaceful a state that
there remained therein not even any suspicion of fear.
In Illyricum l he so crushed the Sarmatians and other
tribes that almost without any war at all he got back
all they had ravaged. He then directed his march
through Thrace, and received in either surrender or
friendship all the tribes of the Getae, 2 frightened by
the repute of his deeds and brought to submission by
the power of his ancient fame.

This done, he set out for the East, 3 and while on his
march he captured and killed a most powerful brigand,
named Palfuerius, and so set free the whole of Isauria
and restored the laws of Rome to the tribes and the
cities. By fear or favour he entered the places held
by the barbarians living among the Isaurians, and
when he had gone through them all he remarked : " It is
easier far to keep brigands out of these places than to
expel them." And so all those places which were
difficult of access he gave to his veterans as their own
private holdings, attaching thereto the condition that
their children, that is, the males only, should be sent

3 In 280. Zosimus (i. 69-70) tells a romantic story of an
Isaurian brigand named Lydius (perhaps the same man as
Palfuerius here mentioned), who, after ravaging Pamphylia and
Lycia, seized the strongly fortified colony Cremna (in Pisidia)
and there resisted the Romans until he was killed by the
treachery of one of his men.

369



PROBUS

decimo, mares dumtaxat, ad militiam mitterentur, ne
latrocinare umquam discerent.

XVII. Pacatis denique omnibus Pamphyliae parti-
bus ceterarumque provinciarum, quae sunt Isauriae

2vicinae, ad orientem iter flexit. Blemmyas etiam
subegit, quorum captives Romam transmisit qui mira-
bilem sui visum stupente populo Romano praebuerunt.

3 Copten praeterea et Ptolemaidem urbis ereptas bar-

4barico servitio Romano reddidit iuri. ex quo tantum
profecit ut Parthi legates ad eum mitterent confitentes
timorem pacemque poscentes, quos ille superbius



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