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linyphiones aut 1 cuiuscumque artis esse 2 videntur ; et
habent podagrosi quod agant, habent praecisi 3 quod
agant, habent caeci quod faciant, ne chiragrici quidem
apud eos otiosi vivunt. unus illis deus nummus 4 est.

7 hunc Christiani, hunc ludaei, hunc omnes venerantur
et gentes. et utinam melius esset morata civitas,
digna profecto quae pro sui fecunditate, quae pro sui

8 magnitudine totius Aegypti teneat principatum. huic
ego cuncta concessi, vetera privilegia reddidi, nova
sic addidi ut praesenti gratias agerent. denique ut
primum inde discessi, et in filium meum Verum multa
dixerunt, et de Antinoo quae dixerint comperisse te

9 credo, nihil illis opto, nisi ut suis pullis alantur, quos
10 quemadmodum fecundant, pudet dicere. calices tibi

allassontes versicolores transmisi, quos mihi sacerdos
templi obtulit, tibi et sorori meae specialiter dedicates ;
quos tu velim festis diebus conviviis adhibeas. caveas
tamen ne his Africanus noster indulgenter utatur."
IX. Haec ergo cogitans de Aegyptiis Aurelianus

1 aut ins. by Hohl ; om. in P ; <Y77ii> linifiones, omnes certe
Salm. , Peter. z esse Editor; etP; et uidentur et habentur.
Peter. a praecisi Hohl; cesiP; cesi . . . habent del. by
Salm. and Peter. *nummua Vossius, Peter; nulhisP.

ir The three most famous products of Egypt ; see Aur. t xlv. 1

2 i.e., L. Aelius Caesar, whom Hadrian adopted in 136 ; see

Hadr., xxiii. 11. As Hadrian was in Alexandria in 130 (see note

to Hadr., xiv. 4), and as his sister Paulina, the wife of Servianus

( 10), died about 130, this letter is clearly not genuine.



by others to worship Christ. They are a folk most
seditious, most deceitful, most given to injury ; but
their city is prosperous, rich, and fruitful, and in it no
one is idle. Some are blowers of glass, others makers
of paper, all are at least weavers of linen l or seem to
belong to one craft or another ; the lame have their
occupations, the eunuchs have theirs, the blind have
theirs, and not even those whose hands are crippled
are idle. Their only god is money, and this the
Christians, the Jews, and, in fact, all nations adore.
And would that this city had a better character, for
indeed it is worthy by reason of its richness and by
reason of its size to hold the chief place in the whole
of Egypt. I granted it every favour, I restored to it
all its ancient rights and bestowed on it new ones
besides, so that the people gave thanks to me while
I was present among them. Then, no sooner had I
departed thence than they said many things against
my son Verus, 2 and what they said about Antinous 3
I believe you have learned. 1 can only wish for
them that they may live on their own chickens, which
they breed in a fashion I am ashamed to describe. 4
I am sending you over some cups, changing colour 6
and variegated, presented to me by the priest of a
temple and now dedicated particularly to you and
my sister. I should like you to use them at banquets
on feast-days. Take good care, however, that our
dear Africanus 6 does not use them too freely."

IX. So then, holding such an opinion about the

3 See Hadr., xiv. 5-6 and notes.

4 According to Aristotle, Hist. Anim. t vi. 2, they hatched the
eggs by burying them in dung-heaps.

6 I.e., a.\\d(TO'OVTS.

9 Unknown and probably fictitious.

40 i


iusserat lie Saturninus Aegyptum videret, et mente
quidem divina. nam ut primum Aegyptii magnam
potestatem ad se venisse viderunt, statim clamarunt,

2 " Saturnine Auguste, di te servant ! " et ille quidem,
quod negari non potest, vir sapiens de Alexandrina

3 civitate mox fugit atque ad Palaestinam rediit. ibi
tamen cum cogitare coepisset tutum sibi non esse, si
privatus viveret, deposita purpura ex simulacro Vene-
ris cyclade uxoria militibus circumstantibus amictus

4 et adoratus est. avum meum saepe dicentem audivi

5 se inter fuisse, cum ille adoraretur. " Flebat " inquit
e ' et dicebat, ' Necessarium, si non adroganter dicam,
res publica virum perdidit. ego certe instauravi Gal-
lias, ego a Mauris possessam Africam reddidi, ego
Hispanias pacavi. sed quid prodest? omnia haec
adfectato semel honore perierunt.'

X. Et cum eum animarent vel ad vitam vel ad im-
perium, qui amicuerunt purpuram, in haec verba dis-

2seruit: " Nescitis, amici, quid mali sit imperare.
gladii saeta pendentes cervicibus inminent, hastae un-
dique, undique spicula. ipsi custodes timentur, ipsi
comites formidantur. non cibus pro voluptate, non
iter pro auctoritate, non be) la pro iudicio, noil arma

3 pro studio, adde quod omnis aetas in imperio repre-

1 See note to Tyr. Trig., xxv. 3.

2 Au allusion to the well-known story of Dionysius of Syra-
cuse and his courtier Damocles ; see Cicero, Tusc. Disp., v. 61-


Egyptians Aurelian forbade Saturninus to visit Egypt,
showing a wisdom that was truly divine. For as soon
as the Egyptians saw that one of high rank had ar-
rived among them, they straightway shouted aloud,
" Saturninus Augustus, may the gods keep you 1 "
But he, like a prudent man, as one cannot deny, fled
at once from the city of Alexandria and returned to
Palestine. There, however, when he had begun to
reflect that it would not be safe for him to remain
a commoner, he took down a purple robe from a statue
of Venus and, with the soldiers standing about, he
arrayed himself in a woman's mantle and then re-
ceived their adoration. I have often heard my
grandfather 1 tell that he was present when Satur-
ninus thus received adoration ; " He began to weep,"
he would tell us, " and to say, ' The commonwealth
has lost an indispensable man, if I may say so with-
out undue pride. I have certainly restored the pro-
vinces of Gaul, I have recovered Africa, seized by the
Moors, I have brought peace to the provinces of Spain.
But what does it all avail ? For all these services
go for nothing when once I have claimed imperial

X. Then, when those who had clothed him with
the purple began to hearten him, some to defend his
life and others his power, he delivered the following
speech : " My friends, you do not know what an evil
thing it is to rule. A sword suspended by a hair
hangs over your head, 2 on all sides there are spears,
on all sides arrows. You fear your very guards, you
dread your very attendants. Your food brings you
no pleasure, your journeys no honour, your wars do
not meet with approval, your arms call forth no en-
thusiasm. Remember, moreover, that they find fault



henditur. senex est quispiam ? inhabilis videtur :
adulescens ? 1 additur his et furere. 2 iam quid ama-
bilem omnibus Probum dico ? cui cum 3 me aemulum
esse cupitis, cui iibens cedo et cuius esse dux cupio,
in necessitatem mortis me trahitis. habeo solacium
4 mortis : solus perire non potero." Marcus Salvidienus
hanc ipsius orationem vere fuisse dicit, et fuit re vera
non parum litteratus. nam et in Africa rhetori operam
dederat, Romae frequentaverat pergulas magistrales. 4
XI. Et ne longius progrediar, dicendum est, quod
praecipue ad hunc pertinet, errare quosdam et putare
hunc esse Saturuinum qui Gallieni temporibus im-
perium occupavit, cum is longe alius sit et Probo

2 poenam 5 nolente sit occisus. fertur autem Probus et
clementes ad eum litteras saepe misisse et veniam esse
pollicitum, sed milites, qui cum eo fuerant, non credi-

3 disse. obsessum denique in castro quodam ab iis quos
Probus miserat invito Probo esse iugulatum.

4 Longum est frivola quaeque conectere, odiosum di-
cere quali statura fuerit, quo corpore, quo decore, quid
biberit, quid comederit. ab aliis ista dicantur quae
prope ad exemplum nihil prosunt. nos ad ea quae
sunt dicenda redeamus.

1 adulescens ins. by Peter ; om. in P and 27. 2 So Ellis ;

additur his et furore P; est furiosus Peter. 9 cum ins. by

Salm. 4 magistrales 2 Peter; ministrales P. 5 poenam
Editor ; poene P ; paene editors.

1 Unknown.

See Tyr. Trig., xxiii. and note.

8 The statement of Probus' reluctance is probably due to the
general tendency of the author to praise him in all respects.



with a man of any age as ruler. Is he an old man ?
He is deemed incapable. Is he young? They go on
to say that he is mad as well. Why should I now tell
you that Probus is beloved by all ? In wishing me
to be a rival of his, to whom I would gladly yield
place and whose general I desire to be, you do but
force me to an unavoidable death. One solace I have
for my death : I shall not be able to die alone."
This speech, according to Marcus Salvidienus, 1 was
really his own, and, in fact, he was not unlettered,
for he had even studied under a rhetorician in Africa
and attended the schools of the teachers at Rome.

XI. Now, not to proceed at too great length, 1
must say one thing which particularly concerns this
man, namely, that many wrongly believe that he was
the Saturninus 2 who seized the imperial power in
the time of Gallienus, whereas, in fact, he was alto-
gether a different man, for he was put to death under
Probus who did not desire his punishment. It is
said, moreover, that Probus often sent him a letter
offering him mercy and promised him pardon, but the
soldiers who were with him refused to believe it. So
at last he was seized in a certain stronghold and
stabbed by those whom Probus had sent, though it
was not at Probus' desire. 3

It would be too long to include every trivial thing
and tiresome to tell of his stature, his person, and his
comeliness, or how much he could eat and drink.
Let others describe these things, which have almost
no value as an example, and let us return to what we
should tell.

According to the version given by Zosimus, Satuminus was
killed by his own soldiers.



XII. Proculo patria Albingauni fuere, positi in
Alpibus Maritimis. domi nobilis sed maioribus latro-
cinantibus atque adeo pecore ac servis et iis rebus quas

2abduxerant satis dives., fertur denique eo tempore
quo sumpsit imperium duo milia servorum suorum ar-

3 masse, huic uxor virago, quae ilium in hanc prae-
cipitavit dementiam, nomine Samso, quod ei postea

4inditum est, nam antea Vituriga nominata est. filius
Herennianus, quern et ipsum, si quinquennium imples-

6 set, ita enim loquebatur, dicasset imperio. homo, quod
iiegari non potest, . . . idemque fortissimus, ipse
quoque latrociniis adsuetus, qui tamen armatam sem-
per egerit vitam. nam et multis legionibus tribunus

6praefuit et fortia edidit facta. et quoniam minima
quaeque iucunda sunt atque habent aliquid gratiae cum
leguntur, tacendum non est quod et ipse gloriatur in
quadam sua epistula, quam ipsam melius est ponere
quam de ea plurimum dicere :

7 " Proculus Maeciano adfini salutem dicit. centum
ex Sarmatia virgines cepi, ex his una nocte decem
inivi ; omnes tamen, quod in me erat, mulieres intra
dies quindecim reddidi."

8 Gloriatur, ut vides, rem ineptam et satis libidino-

1 His revolt is mentioued also in Prob., xviii. 5; Eutropius,
ix. 17, 1 ; Epit., 37, 2, but no details are given. In all these
passages it is said to have taken place at Agrippina (Cologne),
whereas in c. xiii. 1 we are told that it was at Lugdunum
(Lyons). If the statement in c. xiii. 4 and Prob., xviii. 7 that
be attempted to combine forces with the Franks be correct, it
may be that he began the revolt in Gaul but was forced to
retreat to northern Germany, where he was finally defeated.
The date was probably 280 ; see note to Prob., xviii. 1.



XII. Proculus 1 was a native of Albingauni, 2 situated
in the Maritime Alps. He was a nobleman in his
native place, but his ancestors had been brigands,
and thus he was very rich in cattle and slaves and
all that they had carried away. In fact, it is said
that at the time when he seized the imperial power
he armed two thousand slaves of his own. His wife,
who drove him to this act of madness, was a masculine
woman called Samso though this name was given
her in her later years, for originally she was called
Vituriga. His son was Herennianus, whom also he
would have dedicated to the imperial office for that
was his way of speaking had he but completed his
fifth year. The man himself, it cannot be denied,
was . . . and at the same time most valiant ; though
accustomed also to brigandage, he yet lived his whole
life in arms, for he commanded many legions as tri-
bune and did courageous deeds. And now, since all
the most trivial things are interesting and bring some
pleasure when they are read, I must not fail to men-
tion an incident of which he himself boasts in one of
his letters, deeming it better to quote the letter itself
rather than to speaK about it at length.

" From Proculus to his kinsman Maecianus, 3 greet-
ing. I have taken one hundred maidens from Sar-
matia. Of these I mated with ten in a single night ;
all of them, however, I made into women, as far as
was in my power, in the space of fifteen days."

He boasts, as you see, of a foolish and a very licen-
tious deed, thinking that he would be held a brave

2 Mod. Albenga, on the Riviera di Ponente, about 50 m. S. W.
of Genoa.
8 Unknown.



sam atque inter fortes se haberi credit, si criminum
densitate concallescat. 1

XIII. Hie tamen cum etiam post honores militares
se 2 improbe, libidinose, tamen fortiter gereret, 3 hor-
tantibus Lugdunensibus, qui et ab Aureliano graviter
contusi videbantur et Probum vehementissime perti-
mescebant, in imperium vocitatus est, ludo paene ac
ioco, ut Onesimus dicit, quod quidem apud nullum

2 alium repperisse me scio. nam cum in quodam con-
vivio ad latrunculos luderetur, atque ipse decies im-
perator exisset, quidam non ignobilis scurra " Ave "
inquit " Auguste," adlataque lana purpurea umeris
eius vinxit eumque adoravit ; timor hide consciorum

3 atque inde iam exercitus temptatio et imperii. non
iiihilum tamen Gallis profuit. nam Alamannos, qui
tune adhuc Germani dicebantur, non sine gloriae
splendore contrivit, numquam aliter quam latroci-

4nandi pugnans modo. hunc tamen Probus fugatum
usque ad ultimas terras et cupientem in Francorum
auxilium venire, a quibus originem se trahere ipse dice-
bat, ipsis prodentibus Francis, quibus f'amiliare est

5 ridendo fidem frangere, vicit et interemit. posteri
eius etiam nunc apud Albingaunos agunt, qui ioco

1 concallescat Damstd, Hohl ; coalescat P, Peter. 2 cum se
P. :! gereret Baehrens, Peter 2 ; regeret P.

1 Perhaps during his stay in Gaul in 274-275 ; see Aur.,
xxxv. 4.

2 Cited in c. xiv. 4 as the author of a life of Probus, and also
in Car., iv. 2 ; vii. 3 ; xvi. 1 ; xvii. 6. He is perhaps to be
identified with an " Onasimos " listed by Suidas (s.v.) as an
IffropiK^s /cat o-o<t>i(TTT)s and writer of encomia, who lived under

3 A game resembling chess, but apparently with thirty pieces



man if he grew callous through repeated acts of

XIII. And yet this man, who, even after his mili-
tary honours conducted himself with depravity and
lustfulness but, nevertheless, with courage, at the
bidding of the people of Lugdunum, who seemed to
have been harshly put down by Aurelian l and were
in the greatest fear of Probus, was called to take the
imperial power. This came about through what
was almost a game and a jest, as Onesimus 2 tells,
though I know that I have not found it in any other
writer. For when once at a banquet they were play-
ing a game of " Brigands " 3 and Proculus had ten
times come out as " King," a certain well-known wit
cried out, "Hail, Augustus," and bringing in a gar-
ment of purple wool he clasped it about Proculus'
shoulders and then bowed in adoration. Then fear
fell upon all who had had a part in the deed, and so an
attempt was then made to gain both the army and
the imperial power. He was, nevertheless, of some
benefit to the Gauls, for he crushed the Alamanni
who then were still called Germans and not without
illustrious glory, though he never fought save in
brigand-fashion. He was forced by Probus, however,
to flee to distant lands, and when he attempted to
bring aid to the Franks, from whom he said he de-
rived his origin, Probus conquered and slew him ; for
the Franks themselves betrayed him, whose custom
it is to break faith with a laugh. His descendants 4
still live at Albingauni, and they are wont to say in

on each side. It is frequently alluded to by ancient authors,
and an elaborate account of it is given in the anonymous poem
Laus Pisonis, 11. 192-208.

4 See note to Tyr. Trig., xiv. 3.



solent dicere sibi non placere esse vel principes vel

6 Haec digna memoratu de Proculo didicisse me
memini. veniaraus ad Bonosum, de quo raulto minora

XIV. Bonosus domo Hispaniensi fuit, origine Bri-
tannus, Galla tamen raatre, ut ipse dicebat, rhetoris
films, ut ab aliis comperi, paedagogi litterarii. par-
vulus patrem amisit atque a matre fortissima educatus

2litterarum nihil didicit. militavit primum inter ordi-
iiarios, deinde inter equites ; duxit ordines, tribunatus
egitj dux limitis l Raetici fuit, bibit quantum hominum

3 nemo, de hoc Aurelianus saepe dicebat, "Non ut
vivat natus est, sed ut bibat," quern quidem diu in

4honore habuit causa militiae. nam si quando legati
barbarorum undecumque gentium venissent, ipsi pro-
pinabantur, ut eos inebriaret atque ab iis per vinum
cuncta cognosceret. ipse quantumlibet bibisset, sem-
per securus et sobrius et, ut Onesimus dicit, scriptor

Svitae Probi, adhuc in vino prudentior. habuit prae-
terea rem mirabilem, ut quantum bibisset tantum

1 militis P.

1 His revolt is mentioned briefly in Prob., xviii. 5 ; Aur.
Victor, Goes., 37, 3 ; Epit., 37, 2 ; Eutropius, ix. 17, 1, and
attested by coins struck by him with the legend Pax Augnsti ;
see Cohen, vi 2 . p. 349. All authors agree that it took place at
Agrippina (Cologne). The date was probably 280 ; see note to
Prob., xviii. 1. It would appear from 2 and c. xv. 1 that he
had been left in charge of the Rhine-frontier by Probus when
after his victories over the Germans he set out for Illyricum
and the East in 279 ; see Prob., xiii. 7-8 and xvi. 1 and notes.



jest that they do not desire to be either princes or

This is all that I remember having learned about
Proculus that is worthy of mention. Let us now pass
on to Bonosus, concerning whom I have written much

XIV. Bonosus l was a Spaniard by birth, but in
descent a Briton, though he had a Gallic mother.
His father, so he himself used to say, was a rhetori-
cian, but I have learned from others that he
was only a teacher of letters. He lost his father
when a child, and being reared by his mother, a very
brave woman, he learned nothing of literature. He
served in the beginning as a legionary centurion, 2
and next in the cavalry ; he commanded in the ranks, 3
he held tribuneships, he was general in charge of the
Raetian frontier, and he drank as no man had ever
drunk. In fact, Aurelian used often to say of him,
" He was born, not to live, but to drink," and yet,
because of his prowess in war, he long held him in
honour. Indeed, whenever the envoys of barbarian
nations came from any place, they were plied
with wine in order that he might make them
drunken, and when they were in wine learn from
them all their secrets. But however much he drank
himself, he always remained calm and sober, and, as
Onesimus, 4 the author of a Life of Probus, says, when
in wine he was all the wiser. He possessed, further-
more, a marvellous quality, namely, that he could
always discharge all he had drunk, so that neither his

a See note to CL Alb., xi. 6.

See note to Av. Ca-ss., i. 1. 4 See note to c. xiii. 1.



mingeret, neque umquam eius aut pectus aut venter
aut vesica gravaretur.

XV. Hie idem, cum quodam tempore in Rheno
Romanas lusorias Germani incendissent, timore ne
poenas daret sumpsit imperium, idque diutius tenuit
gquam merebatur. nam longo gravique certamine a
Probo superatus laqueo vitam finivit, cum quidem
iocus exstitit, amphoram pendere, non hominem.

3 Filios duos reliquit, quibus ambobus Probus peper-
cit, uxore quoque eius in honore habita et usque ad

4 mortem salario praestito. fuisse enim dicitur, ut et
avus meus dicebat, femina singularis exempli et fa-
miliae iiobilis, gentis tamen Gothicae ; quam illi Au-
relianus uxorem idcirco dederat ut per eum a Gothis

5 cuncta cognosceret. erat enim ilia virgo regalis. ex-
stant litterae ad legatum Thraciarum scriptae de his
nuptiis et donis, quae Aurelianus Bonoso dari nuptia-
rum causa iussit, quas ego inserui :

6 "Aurelianus Augustus Gallonio Avito salutem.
Superioribus litteris scrips eram, ut optimates Gothi-
cas apud Perinthum conlocares, decretis salariis, non
ut singulae acciperent, sed ut septem simul unum con-
vivium haberent. cum enim divisae accipiunt, et illae

7 parum sumunt et res publica plurimum perdit. nunc
tamen, quoiiiam placuit Bonoso Hunilam dari, dabis ei
iuxta brevem infra scriptum omnia quae praecipimus ;
sumptu etiam publico nuptias celebrabis."

1 See note to Tyr. Trig., xxv. 3.

2 Or Heraclea, now Eski Eregli, on the north shore of the
Sea of Marmora.



stomach nor his abdomen nor his bladder ever felt any

XV. He, then, at the time when the Roman galleys
on the Rhine were burned by the Germans, fearing
that he might have to suffer punishment, seized the
imperial power. This he held longer than he deserved,
for he was finally defeated by Probus only after
a lengthy and difficult struggle, and he then put an
end to his life by the noose, which gave rise to the
jest that it was not a man that was being hanged but
a wine -jug.

He left two sons, both of whom were spared by
Probus, and his wife, too, was treated with honour
and given an allowance as long as she lived. She was
in fact, as my grandfather also used to declare, 1
a woman of unequalled excellence and also of noble
family, though by race a Goth ; for Aurelian had given
her to him as wife in order that through his help lie
might learn all the plans of the Goths, for she was
a maiden of royal blood. There is still in existence
a letter addressed to the governor of Thrace concern-
ing this marriage and the gifts which Aurelian wished
Bonosus to receive on the occasion of his wedding,
and this letter I have inserted :

" From Aurelian Augustus to Gallonius Avitus,
greeting. In a previous letter I wrote you to establish
the Gothic noblewomen at Perinthus, 2 and I assigned
them rations, which they were not to receive singly,
but seven of them together sharing one meal. For
when they receive them singly, they get too little and
the state loses too much. Now, however, since it is our
wish that Bonosus take Hunila to wife, you will give her
all we have ordered in the subjoined list, and you will
celebrate the marriage at the expense of the state."



8 Brevis munerum fuit : " Tunicas palliolatas ianthinas
subsericas, tunicam auro clavatam subsericam librilem
unam, interulas dilores duas, et reliqua quae matronae
conveniimt. ipsi dabis aureos Philippeos centum, ar-
gentos Antoninianos mille, aeris sestertium decies."

9 Haec me legisse teneo de Bonoso. et potui quidem
horum vitam praeterire quos nemo quaerebat, attamen,
ne quid fidei deesset, etiam de his quae didiceram inti-

10 man da curavi. supersunt mihi Car us, Carinus et Nu-
merianus, nam Diocletianus et qui sequuntur stilo
maiore dicendi sunt.

1 See Claud. , xiv. 3 and Aur., ix. 7 and notes.



The list of gifts was as follows : " Violet tunics of
part-silk provided with hoods, one tunic of part-silk
with a golden stripe, to weigh a pound, two double-
striped under-tunics, and all the other things that are
befitting a matron. To Bonosus himself you will give
one hundred Philips of gold, one thousand silver
Antonines, and ten thousand bronze sesterces." l

This is what I remember having read about Bonosus.
I might, indeed, have omitted the lives of these men,
concerning whom no one has ever inquired, but, in
order that there may be no lack of accuracy, I have
taken care to make known what I have learned about
these also. There still remain for me Carus, Carinus
and Numerian ; for Diocletian and those who came
after him must be described in a grander style.



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