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3 pudet prodere inter haec tempora, cum ista gereren-
tur, quae saepe Gallienus malo generis humani quasi

4 per iocura dixerit. nam cum ei nuntiatura esset
Aegyptum descivisse, dixisse fertur : " Quid ? sine

5 lino Aegyptio esse non possumus ! ' cum autem vas-
tatam Asiam et elementorum concussionibus et Scy-
tharum incursionibus comperisset, "Quid," inquit,

6 " sine aphronitris esse non possumus ! ' perdita Gallia
risisse ac dixisse perhibetur : " Num sine Atrebaticis

7sagis tuta res publica est?" sic denique de omnibus
partibus mundi, cum eas amitteret, 4 quasi detrimentis

8 vilium ministeriorum videretur affici, iocabatur. ac ne
quid mali deesset Gallieni temporibus, Byzantiorum
civitas, clara navalibus bellis, claustrum Ponticum, per
eiusdem Gallieni milites ita omnis vastata est, ut pror-

9sas nemo superesset. denique nulla vetus familia

1 saltern Ellis, Hohl ; salutem P, 2, Peter 2 . 2 So Salm.,
Petf-r 1 , Hohl; ostentare P, Z. 8 So Petschenig, Hohl;

fama satis nota ]>o];nlos P. 4 amitteret E\ mitteret P.

1 See note to c. v. '; on AJarcianus' later victory see c. xiii.
10 and Zosimus, i. 40, 1.

H.e., the famous temple of Artemis; this invasion (men-
tioned also in c. vii. 3) was in 263.

3 The Atrebates lived in northern Gaul, around the modern
Arras, later famous for its tapestry, but the centre of the in-
dustry in antiquity seems to have been Turnacum (Tournai).


even to a slight degree. All these things, as I have
frequently said, were done out of contempt for Gal-
lienus. a man given over to luxury and ever ready,

' O , "

did he feel free from danger, for any disgraceful deed.
VI. Against these same Goths a battle was fought

O o

in Achaea under the leadership of Marcianus, 1 and
being defeated they withdrew from there through the

O * O

country of the Achaeans. The Scythians they are


a portion of the Goths devastated Asia and even
plundered and burned the Temple of the Moon at
Ephesus,- the fame of which building is known
through all nations. 1 am ashamed to relate what
Gallienus used often to say at this time, when such


things were happening, as though jesting amid the
ills of mankind. For when he was told of the revolt
of Egypt, he is said to have exclaimed " What ! We
cannot do without Egyptian linen ! ' and when in-
formed that Asia had been devastated both by the
violence of nature and by the inroads of the Scythians.

he said, " What ! We cannot do without saltpetre I '
and when Gaul was lost, he is reported to have
laughed and remarked, " Can the commonwealth be

safe without Atrebatic 3 cloaks?" Thus, in short,
with regard to all parts of the world, as he lost them,
he would jest, as though seeming to have suffered the
loss of some article of tritling service. And finally,
that no disaster might be lacking to his times, the
city of Byzantium, famed for its naval wars and the


key to the Pontus. was destroyed by the soldiers of


Gallienus himself so completely, that not a single soul
survived. 4 In fact, no ancient family can now be

4 The cause of this outbreak is unknown ; on the punish-
ment inflicted, see c. vii. 2.


apud Byzantios invenitur, nisi si aliquis peregrinatione
vel militia occupatus evasit, qui antiquitatem generis
nobilitatemque repraesentet.

VII. Contra Postumum igitur Gallienus cum Aureolo
et Claudio duce, qui postea imperium obtinuit, principe
generis Constantii Caesaris nostri, bellum iniit. et
cum 1 multis auxiliis Postumus iuvaretur Celticis atque
Francicis, in bellum cum Victorino processit, cum quo
imperium parti ipaverat. victrix Gallieni pars tuit

2 pluribus proeliis eventuum variatione - decursis. erat
in Gallieno subitae virtutis audacia, nam aliquando
iniuriis graviter movebatur. denique ad vindictam
Byzantiorum processit. et cum non putaret recipi se
posse muris, receptus alia die omnes milites inermes
armatorum corona circumdatos interemit, fracto foe-

3 dere quod promiserat. per eadem tempora etiam
Scythae in Asia Romanorum ducum virtute ac ductu
vastati ad propria recesserunt.

4 Interfectis sane militibus apud Byzantium Gallienus,
quasi magnum aliquid gessisset, Romam cursu rapido
convolavit convocatisque patribus decennia celebravit
novo genere ludorum, nova specie pomparum, ex-

VIII. quisito genere voluptatum. iam primum inter togatos
patres et equestrem ordinem albato milite 3 et omni
populo praeeunte, servis etiam prope omnium et

1 So Gruter and Peter; incitet cum P. *uariatioiie Gas. ;
rationeP,2. 3 albato milite Baehrens, Peter 2 ; albatos

milites P.

1 See c. iv. 6 and note.

, 2 See Claud., xiii. 2 and note. 3 See Tyr. Trig., vi.

4 The Decennalia were celebrated in the autumn of 262, at
the beginning of the tenth year after Gallienus' joint accession
with Valerian ; the festival was commemorated by an issue of



found among the Byzantines, unless some member,
engaged in travel or warfare, escaped to perpetuate
the antiquity and noble descent of his stock.

VII. Gallienus, then, entered into war against
Postumus, 1 having with him Aureolus and the general
Claudius, afterwards emperor and the head of the
family of Constantius our Caesar. 2 And Postumus, too,
with many auxiliary troops of Celts and Franks ad-
vanced to the fight, in company with Victorinus, 3 with
whom he had shared the imperial power. After
several battles had been fought with varying outcome,
the side of Gallienus was finally victorious. In fact,
Gallienus had the boldness of suddenly aroused
valour, for at times he was violently stirred by af-
fronts. Then finally he went forth to avenge the
wrongs of the Byzantines. And whereas he had no
expectation of being received within the walls, he
was admitted next day, and then, after placing a ring
of armed men around the disarmed soldiers, contrary
to the agreement he had made he caused them all to
be slain. During this time, too, the Scythians in
Asia were routed by the courage and skill of the
Roman generals and retired to their own abode.

Now Gallienus, after the slaughter of the soldiers
at Byzantium, as though he had performed some
mighty feat, hastened to Rome in a rapid march,
convened the senators, and celebrated a decennial
festival with new kinds of spectacles, new varieties of
parades, and the most elaborate sort of amusements. 4
VI II. First of all, he repaired to the Capitol with
the senators and the equestrian order dressed in their
togas and with the soldiers dressed all in white, and

coins with the legends Votis Decennalibus and Votis Xet XX ;
see Matt.-Syd., v. p. 138, nos. 92-96.



mulieribus cum cereis facibus et lampadis praece-

2 dentibus Capitolium petiit. praecesserunt etiara
altrinsecus centeni albi boves cornuis auro iugatis et

3 dorsualibus sericis discoloribus praefulgentes ; agnae
candentes ab utraque parte ducentae praecesserunt et
decem elephant!, qui tune erant Romae, mille ducenti
gladiatores pompabiliter ornati cum auratis vestibus
matronarum, mansuetae ferae diversi generis ducentae
ornatu quam maximo affectae, carpenta cum mimis et
omni genere histrionum, pugiles flacculis non veritate
pugillantes. Cyclopea etiam luserunt omnes apinarii,
ita ut miranda quaedam et stupenda monstrarent.

4 omnes viae ludis strepituque et plausibus personabant.
5ipse medius cum picta toga et tunica palmata inter

patres, ut diximus, omnibus sacerdotibus praetextatis

6 Capitolium petiit. hastae auratae altrinsecus quin-
genae, vexilla centena praeter ea quae collegiorum
erant, dracones et signa templorum omniumque

7 legionum ibant. ibant praeterea gentes simulatae, ut

l flacculi occurs only here, but it may perhaps be the same
as the i/icWe? ol fiaXaKwrepoi in use at Elis in Pausaniaa'
time (see Paus., vi. 23, 3), or the oldest typa of the boxing-
straps, the untanned ^fiAlxai, contrasted in Paus., viii. 40, 3
with the harder 1/jia.s bvs, a development of which was the
metal-studded cestus.

2 Apina, supposed to have been the name of a town in
Apulia (Pliny, Nat. Hist., iii. 104), seems to have been used, in
the plural, like tricae, to denote trifles; it is applied thus to
literary work of a light nature (nugae) by Martial, i. 113, 2;
xiv. 1, 7. Hence the adjective may be supposed to mean
" buffoons."

8 The Cyclops Polyphemus seems in the Hellenistic period
to have become a figure in low farcical comedy, perhaps
somewhat as represented in the burlesque in Aristophanes,
Plutus, 290 f., both as the lover of Galatea and as a comic


with all the populace going ahead, while the slaves of
almost all and the women preceded them, bearing
waxen flambeaux and torches. There preceded them,
too, on each side one hundred white oxen, having
their horns bound with golden cords and resplendent
in many-coloured silken covers ; also two hundred
lambs of glistening white went ahead on each side,
besides ten elephants, which were then in Rome, and
twelve hundred gladiators decked with all pomp, and
matrons in golden cloaks, and two hundred tamed
beasts of divers kinds, tricked out with the greatest
splendour, and waggons bearing pantomimists and
actors of every sort, and boxers who fought, not in
genuine combat, but with the softer straps. 1 All the
buffoons 2 also acted a Cyclops-performance, 3 giving
exhibitions that were marvellous and astonishing. So
all the streets resounded with merry-making and
shouts and applause, and in the midst the Emperor
himself, wearing the triumphal toga and the tunic
embroidered with palms, and accompanied, as I have
said, by the senators and with all the priests dressed
in bordered togas, proceeded to the Capitol. On
each side of him were borne five hundred gilded
spears and one hundred banners, besides those which
belonged to the corporations, and the flags of auxili-
aries and the statues from the sanctuaries 4 and the
standards of all the legions. There marched, further-
more, men dressed to represent foreign nations, as

drunkard. In this latter capacity especially he appeared in
the Roman mimes (see Horace, Sat. t i. 5, 04, and Epist., ii. 2.
125), and the Cyclopea mentioned here and in Car., xix. 3,
probably consisted of comic dancing or, possibly, comic feats
of strength.

4 i.e. , those in the camps of the legions, as also in Herodian,
iv. 4, 8.


Gothi, Sarmatae, Franci, Persae, ita ut non minus
quam duceni globis singulis ducerentur.

IX. Hac pompa homo ineptus eludere se credidit
populum Romanum, sed, ut sunt Romanorum facetiae,
alius Postumo favebat, alius Regaliano, alius Aureolo
aut Aemiliano, alius Saturnine, nam et ipse iam im-

2 perare dicebatur. inter haec ingens querella de patre,
quern inultum filius Hquerat, et quern externi utcumque

3 vindicaverant. nee tamen Gallienus ad talia move-
batur obstupefacto voluptatibus corde, sed ab iis qui
circum eum erant requirebat : " Ecquid habemus in
prandio ? ecquae voluptates paratae sunt ? et qualis

4 eras erit scaena qualesque circenses?" sic confecto
itinere celebratisque hecatombis ad domum regiam
rediit conviviisque et epulis decursis 1 alios dies

5 voluptatibus publicis deputabat. praetereundum non
est baud ignobile facetiarum genus, nam cum grex 2
Persarum quasi captivorum per pompam (rem ridi-
culam) duceretur, quidam scurrae miscuerunt se Persis,
diligentissime scrutantes omiiia atque uniuscuiusque

6 vultum mira inhiatione rimantes. 3 a quibus cum
quaereretur quidnam agerent 4 ilia sollertia, illi re-

jsponderunt: " Patrem principis quaerimus." quod
cum ad Gallienum pervenisset, non pudore, non
maerore, non pietate commotus est scurrasque iussit

8 vivos exuri. quod populus factum tristius, quam quis-
quam aestimet, tulit, milites vero ita doluerunt ut non
multo post vicem redderent.

1 decursis Eyssenhardt, Petschenig, Hohl; depulsis P,
Peter. 2 rac P. 3 rimantes Ellis, Walter, Damste";

mirantes P, Peter. 4 agerent Jordan ; ageret P, Peter.

Tyr. Trig., x. 2 See Tyr. Trig., xxiii.

3 i.e., Odaenathus; see c. x. 1-3.



Goths and Sarmatians, Franks and Persians, and no
fewer than two hundred paraded in a single group.

IX. By this procession the foolish man thought to
delude the people of Rome ; nevertheless for such
is the Romans' love of a jest one man kept support-
ing Postumus, another Regalianus, 1 another Aureolus
or Aemilianus, and another Saturninus 2 for he, too,
was now said to be ruling. Amid all this there was
loud lamentation for the father whom the son had left
unavenged and for whom foreigners had tried, in one
way or another, to exact a vengeance. 3 Gallienus,
however, was moved to no such deed, for his heart was
dulled by pleasure, but he merely kept asking of those
about him, " Have we anything planned for luncheon ?
Have any amusements been arranged ? What manner
of play will there be to-morrow and what manner of
circus-games ? " So, having finished the procession, he
offered hecatombs and returned to the royal residence,
and then, the banquets and feastings having come to
an end, he appointed further days for the public amuse-
ments. One well-known instance of jesting, however,
must not be omitted. As a band of Persians, supposed
to be captives, was being led along in the procession
(such an absurdity !), certain wits mingled with them
and most carefully scrutinized all, examining with
open-mouthed astonishment the features of every one ;
and when asked what they meant by that sagacious
investigation, they replied, " We are searching for the
Emperor's father/' When this incident was reported
to Gallienus, unmoved by shame or grief or filial affec-
tion, he ordered the wits to be burned alive a
measure which angered the people more than anyone
would suppose, but so grieved the soldiers that not
much later they requited the deed.



X. Gallieno et Saturnine consulibus Odaenathus
rex Palmyrenorum obtinuit totius orientis imperium,
idcirco praecipue quod se fortibus factis dignum tantae
maiestatis infulis declaravit, Gallieno aut nullas aut

2 luxuriosas aut ineptas et ridiculas res agente. deni-
que statim bellum Persis in vindictam Valerian!, quam

3eius filius neglegebat, indixit. Xisibin et Carrhas
statim occupat tradentibus sese Nisibenis atque Car-

4 rhenis et increpantibus Gallienum. nee defuit tamen
reverentia Odaeiiathi circa Gallienum. nam captos
satrapas insultandi prope gratia et ostentandi sui ad

5 eum misit. qui cum Romam deducti essent, vincente
Odaenatho triumphavit Gallienus nulla mentione pa-
tris facta, quern ne inter deos quidem nisi coactus ret-
tulit, cum mortuum audisset, sed adhuc viventem,

6 nam de illius morte falso compererat. Odaenathus
autem ad Ctesiphontem Parthorum multitudinem ob-
sedit vastatisque circum omnibus locis innumeros

7 homines interemit. sed cum satrapae omnes ex
omnibus rejjionibus illuc defeiisionis communis gratia


convolassent, fuerunt longa et varia proelia, longior

8 tamen Romana victoria, et cum nihil aliud ageret nisi
ut Valeriamim Odaenathus liberaret, instabat cottidie,
at : locorum difficultatibus in alieno solo imperator
optimus laborabat.

1 at Gas., Peter; ac P, Hohl.

1 See Tyr. Trig., xv. 1 and note.

- As a matter of fact, he was acting as the general of
Gallienus and under his command.

3 Coins of 264, celebrating this triumph, show Gallienus in
a four-hor-e chariot ; see Matt.-Syd. v. pp. 166-167, nos. 412-413.
The cognomina Persicus Maximus and Parthicus Maximus
are found in papyri and inscriptions.



X. In the consulship of Gallienus and Saturninus 264
Odaenathus, king of the Palmyrenes, held the rule
over the entire East l chiefly for the reason that by
his brave deeds he had shown himself worthy of the
insignia of such great majesty, whereas Gallienus was
doing nothing at all or else only what was extravagant,
or foolish and deserving of ridicule. Now at once he
proclaimed a war on the Persians to exact for Valerian
the vengeance neglected by Valerian's son. He
immediately occupied Xisibis and Carrhae, the people
of which surrendered, reviling Gallienus. Neverthe-
less, Odaenathus showed no lack of respect toward
Gallienus, for he sent him the satraps he captured
though, as it seemed, merely for the purpose of in-
sulting him and displaying his own prowess. 2 After
these had been brought to Rome, Gallienus held a
triumph because of Odaenathus' victory; 3 but he
still made no mention of his father and did not even
place him among the gods, when he heard he was
dead, until compelled to do so 4 although in fact
Valerian was still alive, for the news of his death was
untrue. Odaenathus, besides, besieged an army of
Parthians at Ctesiphon and devastated all the country
round about, killing men without number. But when
all the satraps from all the outlying regions flocked
together to Ctesiphon for the purpose of common
defence, there were long-lasting battles with varying
results, but more long-lasting still was the success
of the Romans. Moreover, since Odaenathus' sole
purpose was to set Valerian free, he daily pressed
onward, but this best of commanders, now on a
foreign soil, suffered greatly because of the difficult

4 There is no other evidence of Valerian's consecration.



XI. Dum haec apud Persas geruntur, Scythae in
Cappadociam pervaserunt. illic captis civitatibus bello
etiam vario diu acto se l ad Bithyniam contulerunt.

2 quare milites iterum de novo imperatore faciendo
cogitarunt. quos omnes Gallienus more suo, cum
placare atque ad gratiam suam reducere non posset,

3 Cum tamen sibi milites dignum principem quaere-
rent, Gallienus apud Athenas archoii erat, id est sum-
mus magistratus, vanitate ilia, qua et civis adscribi de-

4siderabat et sacris omnibus interesse. quod neque
Hadrianus in summa felicitate neque Antoninus in
adulta fecerat pace, cum tanto studio Graecarum
docti^ sint litterarum ut raro aliquibus doctissimis

5 magnorum arbitrio cesserint virorum. Areopagitarum
praeterea cupiebat ingeri numero contempta prope re

Gpublica. fuit enim Gallienus, quod negari non potest,
oratione. poemate atque omnibus artibus clarus.

7 huius illud est epithalamion, quod inter centum poetas
praecipuum fuit. nam cum fratrum suorum filios
iungeret, et omnes poetae Graeci Latinique epitha-
lamia dixissent, idque per dies plurimos, ille, cum

1 acto se Salm. ; actos P. 2 docti P, 27; ducti Baehrens,

Peter, Hohl.

1 This invasion of Cappadocia is mentioned in Zosimus, i.
28, 1, as in the year 252 or 253, whereas it actually took place
in 264.



XI. While these events were happening among the
Persians, the Scythians made their way into Cap-
padocia. 1 After capturing many cities there and
waging war for a long time with varying success,
they betook themselves to Bithynia. Wherefore the
soldiers again considered the choosing of a new
emperor ; but since he could not placate them or win
their support, Gallienus, after his usual fashion, put
all of them to death.

Just, however, when the soldiers were looking for
a worthy prince, Gallienus was holding the office of
archon chief magistrate, that is at Athens, showing
that same vanity which also made him desire to be
enrolled among its citizens and even take part in all
its sacred rites which not even Hadrian had done at
the height of his prosperity or Antoninus during a
long-established peace, 2 and these emperors, too,
were schooled by so much study of Greek letters
that in the judgement of great men they were
scarcely inferior to the most learned scholars. He
desired, furthermore, to be included among the
members of the Areopagus, almost as though he
despised public affairs. For indeed it cannot be
denied that Gallienus won fame in oratory, poetry,
and all the arts. His, too, is the epithalamium which
had the chief place among a hundred poets. For,
when he was joining in marriage the children of his
brothers, and all the poets, both Greek and Latin, had
recited their epithalamia, and that for very many
days, Gallienus, holding the hands of the bridal pair,

2 Hadrian had been archon at Athens, but before hia
accession to power (see Hadr. t xix. 1), and both he and Marcus
Aurelius were initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries (Hadr. t
xiii. 1; Marc., xxvii. 1).



maims sponsorum teneret, ut quidam dicunt, saepius l
ita dixisse fertur :

8 Ite, agite, 2 o pueri, pariter sudate medullis
omnibus inter vos, non murmura vestra columbae,
brachia noil hederae, non vincant oscula conchae.

9 longum est eius versus orationesque conectere, quibus
suo tempore tarn inter 3 poetas quam inter rhetores
emicuit. sed aliud in imperatore quaeritur, aliud in
oratore vel poeta flagitatur.

XII. Laudatur sane eius optimum factum. nam
consulatu 4 Valeriani fratris sui et Lucilli propinqui,
ubi comperit ab Odaenatho Persas vastatos, redactam
Nisibin et Carrhas in potestatem Romanam, omnem
Mesopotamiam nostram, denique Ctesiphontem esse
perventum, fugisse regem, captos satrapas, plurimos
Persarum occisos, Odaenathum participate imperio
Augustum vocavit eiusque monetam, qua Persas
captos traheret, cudi iussit. quod et senatus et urbs
et omnis aetas gratanter accepit.

2 Fuit praeterea idem ingeniosissimus, cuius osten-

Sdendi acuminis 5 scilicet pauca libet ponere : nam

cum taurum ingentem in arenam misisset, exissetque

ad eum feriendum venator 6 neque productum decies

1 sa*)pius Gas., Hohl ; sceptus P; o-KanmKuis Oberdick,
Peter 2 . 2 ait P. 8 in P. * consulatu Czwalina,

Peter 2 ; consulta P, 2. *ostendendi acuminis Madvig,

Hohl ; ostendentia cum in his P. 6 uector P.

1 Found also in the lost "Codex Bellovacensis " of Binetus
(Riese, Anth. Lat. t i. 2, p. 17G, no. 711 = Baehrens, P.L.lf.,
iv. pp. 103 104) with the addition of two more lines : " Ludite :
sed vigiles nolite extinguere lychnos. | Omnia nocte vident,
nil eras meminere lucernae."



so it is reported, is said to have recited repeatedly
the following verses :

"Come now, my children, grow heated together in

deep-seated passion,
Never, indeed, may the doves outdo your billings and

Never the ivy your arms, or the clinging of sea-shells

your kisses." l

It would be too long a task to collect all his verses
and speeches, which made him illustrious among both
the poets and the rhetoricians of his own time. But
it is one thing that is desired in an emperor, and
another that is demanded of an orator or a poet.

XII. One excellent deed of his, to be sure, is
mentioned with praise. For in the consulship of his 265
brother Valerian and his kinsman Lucillus, when he
learned that Odaenathus had ravaged the Persians,
brought Nisibis and Carrhae under the sway of Rome,
made all of Mesopotamia ours, and finally arrived at
Ctesiphon, put the king to flight, captured the satraps
and killed large numbers of Persians, he gave him
a share in the imperial power, conferred on him the
name Augustus, 2 and ordered coins to be struck in his
honour, which showed him haling the Persians into
captivity. This measure the senate, the city, and
men of every age received with approval.

Gallienus, furthermore, was exceedingly clever, and
I wish to relate a few actions of his in order to show
his wit. Once, when a huge bull was led into the
arena, and a huntsman came forth to fight him but
was unable to slay the bull though it was brought out

a Tbis is incorrect ; see note to Tyr. Trig., xv. 1.



4potuisset occidere, coronam venatori misit, mussanti-
busque cunctis, quid rei esset quod homo ineptissimus
coronaretur, ille per curionem dici iussit : " Tauruin

5totiens non ferire difficile est". idem, cum quidam
gemmas vitreas pro veris 1 vendidisset eius uxori, atque
ilia re prodita vindicari vellet, subripi quasi ad leonem
venditorem iussit, deinde e cavea caponem emitti,
mirantibusque cunctis rem tarn ridiculam per curionem
dici iussit : " Imposturam fecit et passus est". deinde
negotiatorem dimisit.

6 Occupato tamen Odaenatho bello Persico, Gallieno
rebus ineptissimis, ut solebat, incubante Scythae navi-
bus factis Heracleam pervenerunt atque inde cum
praeda in solum proprium reverterunt, quamvis multi
naufragio perierint navalive 2 bello superati sint.

XIII. Per idem tempus Odaenathus insidiis con-
sobrini sui interemptus est cum filio Herode, quern et

2 ipsum imperatorem appellaverat. turn 3 Zenobia, uxor
eius, quod parvuli essent filii eius qui supererant,

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