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Herennianus et Timolaus, ipsa suscepit imperium

3 diuque rexit non muliebriter neque more femineo, sed
non solum Gallieno, quo quaeque 4 virgo melius im-
perare potuisset, verum etiam multis imperatoribus

4 fortius atque sollertius. Gallienus sane, ubi ei nun-
tiatum Odaenathum interemptum, bellum Persis ad
seram nimis vindictam patris paravit collectisque per

1 ue fas pro uitrels P, 2. 2 ue ins. by Bitschofsky ; om.

inP; nauali .... sint del. by Peter. z cum P.
Peter 2 ; quoc[iie P ; quo quae Hohl.

1 Mod. Benderegli on the northern coast of Bithynia ; this
seems to have been in 266.

2 See Tyr. Trig., xv. 5 ; xvii. 3 See Tyr. Trig., xvi.


ten times, he sent the huntsman a garland, and when,
all the crowd wondered what it might mean that so
foolish a fellow should be crowned with a garland, he
bade a herald announce : " It is a difficult thing to
miss a bull so many times." On another occasion,
when a certain man sold his wife glass jewels instead
of real, and she, discovering the fraud, wished the
man to be punished, he ordered the seller to be haled
off, as though to a lion, and then had them let out
from the ca^e a capon, and when all were amazed at
so absurd a proceeding, he bade the herald proclaim :
" He practised deceit and then had it practised on
him." Then he let the dealer go home.

But while Odaenathus was busied with the war
against the Persians and Gallienus was devoting
himself to most foolish pursuits, as was his custom,
the Scythians built ships and advanced upon Hera-
clea, 1 and thence they returned with booty to their
native land, although many were lost by shipwreck or
defeated in a naval engagement.

XIII. About this same time Odaenathus was
treacherously slain by his cousin, 2 and with him his
son H erodes, 3 whom also he had hailed as emperor.
Then Zenobia, his wife, since the sons who remained,
Herennianus and Timolaus, 4 were still very young,
assumed the power herself and ruled for a long time, 5
not in feminine fashion or with the ways ol a woman,
but surpassing in courage and skill not merely Gallienus,
than whom any girl could have ruled more success-
fully, but also many an emperor. As for Gallienus,
indeed, when he learned that Odaenathus was
murdered, he made ready for war with the Persians

4 See Tyr. Trig., xxvii-xxviii. 8 See Tyr. Trig., xxx.



Heraclianum ducera militibus sollertis principis rera

5gerebat. qui tamen Heraclianus, cum contra Persas
profectus esset, a Palmyrenis victus omnes quos para-
verat milites perdidit, Zenobia Palmyrenis et orienta-
libus plerisque viri liter imperaiite.

6 Inter haec Scythae per Euxinum navigantes His-
trum ingressi multa gravia in solo Romano fecerunt.
quibus compertis Gallienus Cleodamum et Athenaeum
Byzantios instaurandis urbibus muniendisque praefecit,
pugnatumque est circa Pontum, et a Byzantiis ducibus

7victi sunt barbari. Veneriano item duce navali l>ello
Gothi superati sunt, cum ipse Venerianus militari

Speriit morte. atque inde Cyzicum et Asiam, deinceps
Achaiam omnem vastaverunt et ab Atheniensibus duce
Dexippo, scriptore horum temporum, victi sunt. unde
pulsi per Epirum, Macedoniam, Boeotiam pervagati

9 sunt. Gallienus interea vix excitatus publicis mails
Gothis vagaiitibus per Illyricum occurrit et fortuito
plurimos interemit. quo comperto Scythae facta
carragine per montem Gessacem fugere sunt conati.

1 If this is true, it means a breaking of the friendly relations
which had hitherto existed between Rome ami Palmyra
perhaps an attempt to put an end to the unusual powers held
by Zenobia but we have no other evidence of it. Odae-
nathus was killed sometime in 266-67, and in the summer of
26S Heraclianus was with Gallienus at Milan ; see c. xiv. 1.

2 This was the great invasion of the Eruli, a Germanic
tribe, in 267. Setting forth with 500 ships from the Sea of
Azov, they sailed into the mouth of the Danube. Gallienus,
engaged in the war against Postumus, deputed the various
generals here mentioned to deal with them, but despite their
efforts the invaders overran Greece, even as far as the
Peloponnese. They were defeated by Dexippus in an attempt
to take Athens on their return northward, and again by



an over-tardy vengeance for his father and, gather-
ing an army with the help of the general Heraclianus,
he plciyed the part of a skilful prince. This Hera-
clianus, however, on setting out against the Persians,
was defeated by the Palmyrenes and lost all the
troops he had gathered, 1 for Zenobia was ruling
Palmyra and most of the East with the vigour of
a man.

Meanwhile the Scythians sailed across the Black
Sea and, entering the Danube, did much damage on
Roman soil. 2 Learning of this, Gallienus deputed
Cleodamus and Athenaeus the Byzantines to repair
and fortify the cities, and a battle was fought near
the Black Sea, in which the barbarians were conquered
by the Byzantine leaders. The Goths were also de-
feated in a naval battle by the general Venerianus,
though Venerianus himself died a soldier's death.
Then the Goths ravaged Cyzicus and Asia and then
all of Achaea, but were vanquished by the Athenians
under the command of Dexippus, an historian of
these times. 3 Driven thence, they roved through
Epirus, Macedonia and Boeotia. Gallienus, mean-
while, roused at last by the public ills, met the Goths
as they roved about in Illyricum, and, as it chanced,
killed a great number. Learning of this, the
Scythians, after making a barricade of wagons, at-
tempted to escape by way of Mount Gessaces. 4 Then
Marcianus made war on all the Scythians with varying

Gallienus himself (who had left the war against Postumua
and hurried to meet them) in a battle on the river Nestos, the
boundary between Macedonia and Thrace. For a fuller
account see Syncellus, p. 717.

3 See note to Alex., xlix. 3.

4 Unknown; perhaps Mt. Bhodope in Thrace.



lOomnes inde Scythas Marcianus varia bellorum fortuna

quae omnes Scythas ad rebellionem excitarunt.

XIV. Et haec quidem Heracliani ducis erga rem
publicam devotio luit. verum cum Gallieni tantam
improbitatem ferre non possent, consilium inierunt
Marcianus et Heraclianus, ut alter eorum imperium

2caperet et Claudius quidem, ut suo dicemus

loco, vir omnium optimus, electus est, qui consilio
non adfuerat, eaque apud cunctos reverentia, ut iuste
dignus videretur imperio, quemadmodum postea com-

3 probatum est. is enim est Claudius, a quo Constantius,

4 vigilissimus Caesar, originem ducit. fuit iisdem socius
in appetendo imperio quidam Ceronius sive Cecropius,
dux Dalmatarum, qui eos et urbanissime et prudentis-

6 sime adiuvit. sed cum imperium capere vivo Gallieno
non possent, huius modi eum insidiis adpetendum
esse duxerunt, ut labem improbissimam malis fessa re
publica a gubernaculis human! generis dimoverent,
ne diutius theatre et circo addicta res publica per

6 voluptatum deperiret inlecebras. insidiarum genus
fuit tale : Gallienus ab Aureolo, qui principatum
invaserat, dissidebat, sperans cottidie gravem et in-

7tolerabilem tumultuarii imperatoris adventum. hoc

1 Gallienus, summoned home by the revolt of Aureolus (see
note to c. xiv. 1), left Marcianus (cf. c. vi. 1) and Claudius (cf.
Claud., vi. 1) to complete the victory and hurried to northern

2 According to the more complete accounts in Zosimus, i. 40
and Zonaras, xii. 25, Gallienus defeated Aureolus (at Pons
Aureolus = Pontirolo, Aur. Victor, Caes. t 33, 18) and shut him
up in Milan. There a conspiracy was made against Gallienus,
which included Claudius and Aurelian as well as Heraclianus,
the prefect of the guard. Later, an attempt was made to
show that Claudius had nothing to do with it, as here and in
Claud., i. 3, and a scene was even invented in which Gallienus



success, 1 which measures roused all the

Scythians to rebellion.

XIV. Such, in fact, was the devotion of the general
Heraclianus to the commonwealth. But being un-
able to endure further all the iniquities of Gallienus,
Marcianus and Heraclianus formed a plan that one of

them should take the imperial power 2 And

Claudius, in fact, was chosen, the best man of all, as we
shall narrate ill the proper place. He had had no part
in their plan, but was held by all in such respect that
he seemed worthy of the imperial power, and justly
so, as was proved by later events. For he is that
Claudius from whom Constantius, our most watchful
Caesar, derives his descent. 3 These men had also as
their comrade in seeking the power a certain Ceronius,
or rather Cecropius, commander of the Dalmatians,
who aided them with the greatest shrewdness and
wisdom. But being unable to seize the power while
Gallienus was still alive, they decided to proceed
against him by a plot of the following nature, purpos-
ing, now that the state was exhausted by disasters, to
remove this most evil blot from the governance of the
human race and to save the commonwealth, now given
over to the theatre and circus, from going to de-
struction through the allurements of pleasure. Now
the nature of their plot was as follows : Gallienus was
at enmity with Aureolus, who had seized upon the
position of prince, and was daily expecting the coming
of this usurping ruler a serious and, indeed, an un-
endurable thing. Being aware of this, Marcianus and

on his deathbed was represented as bestowing the imperial
insignia on Claudius; see Aur. Victor, Goes., 33, 28; Epit.,
34, 2. The evidence of papyri places the murder in July or
August, 268.

8 See Claud., xiii. 2 and note.



scientes Marcianus et Cecropius subilo Gallieno ius-

8 serant uuntiari Aureolum iam venire, ille igitur militi-
bus cogitatis quasi cerium processit ad proelium atque

9ita missis percussoribus interemptus est. et quidem
Cecropii Dalmatarum ducis telo 1 Gallienus dicitur
esse percussus, ut quidam ferunt, circa Mediolanum,
ubi continue et frater eius Valerianus est interemptus,
quern multi Augustum, multi Caesarem, multi neutrum
lOfuisse dicunt. quod veri simile non est, si quidem
capto iam Valeriano scriptum invenimus in fastis :
"Valeriano imperatore consule." quis igitur alius
11 potuit esse Valerianus nisi Gallieni frater ? constat
de genere, non satis tamen constat de dignitate vel,
ut coeperunt alii loqui, de maiestate.

XV. Occiso igitur Gallieno seditio ingens militum
fuit, cum spe praedae ac publicae vastationis impera-
torem sibi utilem, necessarium, fortem, efficacem ad

2 iiividiam faciendam dicerent raptum. quare consilium
principum fuit, ut milites eius quo solent placari genere
sedarentur. promissis itaque per Marcianum aureis
vicenis et acceptis (nani praesto erat thesaurorum
copia) Gallienum tyrannum militari iudicio in fastos

Spublicos rettulerunt. sic militibus sedatis Claudius,

1 telo Peter 2 ; om. in P.

1 He was consul (for the second time) in 265; cf. c. xii. 1.
He is mentioned in literature only here and in Vol., viii.,
where also he is said to have received the title of Augustus.
However, no coins can be definitely proved to be his (see
Matt.-Syd. v. p. 28), and in the lack of any evidence it may be
seriously doubted that he was either Augustus or Caesar. The
"inscription" cited in Fa/., viii. 3 is of equally little value
with that quoted in c. rix. 4.

2 This, if true, had no legal significance, for a damnatio
could be pronounced only by the senate. According to Aur.



Cecropius suddenly caused word to be sent toGallienus
that Aureolus was now approaching. He, therefore,
mustered his soldiers and went forth as though to
certain battle, and so was slain by the murderers sent
for the purpose. It is reported, indeed, that Gallienus
was pierced by the spear of Cecropius, the Dalmatian
commander, some say near Milan, where also his
brother Valerian was at once put to death. This man,
many say, had the title of Augustus, and many, that of
Caesar, and many, again, neither one which, indeed,
is not probable, for we have found written in the
official lists, after Valerian had been taken prisoner,
"During the consulship of Valerian the Emperor."
So who else, pray, could this Valerian have been but
the brother of Gallienus ? l There is general agree-
ment concerning his family, but not concerning his
rank or, as others have begun to say, concerning his
imperial majesty.

XV. Now after Gallienus was slain, there was a
great mutiny among the soldiers, for, hoping for booty
and public plunder, they maintained, in order to
arouse hatred, that they had been robbed of an
emperor who had been useful and indispensable to
them, courageous and competent. Wherefore the
leaders took counsel how to placate Gallienus' soldiers
by the usual means of winning their favour. So,
through the agency of Marcianus, twenty aurei were
promised to each and accepted (for there was on hand
a ready supply of treasure), and then by verdict of the
soldiers they placed the name of Gallienus in the
public records as a usurper. 2 The soldiers thus

Victor, Goes., 33, 31-34, the senate and people gave general
vent to their hostility. Nevertheless, Claudius ordered that
he should be deified in the usual manner.



vir sanctus ac iure venerabilis et bonis omnibus carus,
amicus patriae, amicus legibus, acceptus senatui,
populo bene cognitus accepit imperium.

XVI. Haec vita Gallieni fuit, breviter a me litteris
intimata, qui natus abdomini et voluptatibus dies ac
noctes vino et stupris perdidit, orbem terrarum
viginti l prope per " tyrannos vastari fecit, ita ut etiam

'2 mulieres illo melius imperarent. ac ne eius praetere-
atur miseranda sollertia, veris tempore cubicula de
rosis fecit, de pomis castella composuit. uvas triennio
servavit. hieme summa melones exhibuit. mustum
quemadmodum toto anno haberetur docuit. ficos
virides et poma ex arboribus recentia semper alienis

3 mensibus praebuit. mantelibus aureis semper stravit.

4gemmata vasa fecit eademque aurea. crinibus suis
auri scobem aspersit. radiatus saepe processit. cum
chlamyde purpurea gemmatisque fibulis et aureis
Romae visus est, ubi semper togati principes vide-
bantur. purpuream tunicam auratamque virilem
eandemque manicatam habuit. gemmato balteo usus
est. corrigias 3 gemmeas adnexuit, cum campagos

5 reticulos appellaret. convivatus in publico est. con-

6giariis populum mollivit. senatui sportulam sedens

1 uiginti P, 27, Hohl ; triginta Salm., Peter. 2 per om.

in P. 8 cwrigias Mommsen.Hohl ; caligias P ; caligas 27,


1 The manuscript reading viginti here and also in c. xix. 6
and xxi. 1 seems to show that the author's original plan was
to include twenty pretenders, not thirty, in the v\ork now
called Tyranni Triginta; see note to Tyr. Trig., i. 1 and Peter,
Die S. H. A., p. 37 f.

2 A crown surrounded by projecting rays, originally regarded
as the emblem of a deified emperor, but apparently worn by



quieted, Claudius, a venerated man and justly re-
spected, dear to all good men, a friend to his native
land, a friend to the laws, acceptable to the senate,
and favourably known to the people, received the
imperial power.

XVI. Such was the life of Gallienus, which I have
briefly described in writing, who, born for his belly
and his pleasures, wasted his days and nights in wine
and debauchery and caused the world to be laid waste
by pretenders about twenty in number, 1 so that even
women ruled better than he. He, forsooth, in order
that his pitiable skill may not be left unmentioned
used in the spring-time to make sleeping-places of roses.
He built castles of apples, preserved grapes for three
years, and served melons in the depth of winter. He
showed how new wine could be had all through the
year. He always served out of season green figs and
apples fresh from the trees. He always spread his
tables with golden covers. He made jewelled vessels,
and golden ones too. He sprinkled his hair with
gold-dust. He went out in public adorned with the
radiate crown, 2 and at Rome where the emperors
always appeared in the toga he appeared in a purple
cloak \vith jewelled and golden clasps. He wore a
man's tunic of purple and gold and provided with
sleeves. He used a jewelled sword-belt and he
fastened jewels to his boot-laces and then called his
boots " reticulate." 3 He used, moreover, to banquet
in public. He won the people's favour by largesses,
and he distributed, seated, portions of food to the

the rulers of the third century, for it is regularly shown on their

3 i.e., ]ike the network caps worn by women and effeminate
men (cf. Heliog., xi. 7).



erogavit. matronas ad consilium l suum rogavit iisdem-
que manum sibi osculantibus quaternos aureos sui
XVII. nominis dedit. ubi de Valeriano patre comperit quod
captus esset, id quod philosophorum optimus de filio
amisso dixisse fertur, "Sciebam me genuisse morta-
lem," ille sic dixit 2 : " Sciebam patrem meum esse

2 Nee defuit Annius Cornicula, qui eum quasi con-
stantem principem falso 3 sua voce laudaret. peior

Stamen ille qui credidit. 4 saepe ad tibicinem processit,
ad organum se recepit, cum processui et recessui cani

4 iuberet. lavit ad diem septimo aestate vel sexto,

5 hieme secundo vel tertio. bibit in aureis semper
poculis aspernatus 5 vitrum, ita ut 6 diceret nil esse

6 communius. semper vina variavit neque umquam

7 in uno convivio ex uno vino duo pocula bibit. con-
cubinae in eius tricliniis saepe accubuerunt. mensam
secundam scurrarum et miniorum semper prope habuit.

8 cum iret ad hortos nominis sui, omnia Palatina officia
sequebantur. ibant et praefecti et magistri officiorum
omnium adhibebanturque conviviis et natationibus 7

9 lavabant simul cum principe. admittebantur saepe
etiam mulieres, cum ipso pulchrae puellae, cum illis
anus deformes. et iocari se dicebat, cum orbem

1 consulatum P. 2 So Peter ; mortalem, nee defuit an ille

se dixit P ; nee defuit mortalem del. by Hohl. 3 falsu

P. *peior credidit om. in Z and del. by Hohl.

*natus P. 6 ita, ut Z, Hohl ; om. in P; cum Salm.,

Peter. 7 natationibus 2} t Peter, 2 Hohl ; nationibus P.

1 This is attributed to Anaxagoras by Cicero, Tusc. Disp.,
iii. 30 and 58, by Valerius Maximus, v. 10, Ext. 3, and by
Plutarch, de Cohib. Ira 16 and d& Tranq. An. 16., and to
Xenophon by Diogenes Laertius, ii. 6, 55. It was paraphrased



senate. He invited matrons into his council, and to
those who kissed his hand he presented four aurei
bearing his own name. XVII. When he learned that
his father Valerian was captured, just as that best of
philosophers, it is said, exclaimed on the loss of his
son, " I knew that I had begotten a mortal, 1 so he
exclaimed, " I knew that my father was mortal."

There has even been an Annius Cornicula 2 to raise
his voice in praise of Gallienus as a steadfast prince,
but untruthfully. However, he who believes him is
even more perverse. Gallienus often went forth to
the sound of the pipes and returned to the sound of
the organ, ordering music to be played for his going
forth and his returning. In summer he would bathe
six or seven times in the day, and in the winter twice
or thrice. He always drank out of golden cups, for
he scorned glass, declaring that there was nothing
more common. His wines he continually changed,
and at a banquet he never drank two cups of the
same wine. His concubines frequently reclined in
his dining-halls, and he always had near at hand
a second table for the jesters and actors. Whenever
he went to the gardens named after him, all the staff'
of the Palace followed him. And there went with
him, too, the prefects and the chiefs of all the staffs,
and they were invited to his banquets and bathed in
the pools along with the prince. Women, too, were
often sent in, beautiful girls with the emperor, but
with the others ugly old hags. And he used to say
that he was making merry, whereas he had brought

by Ennius in his Telamon frg. 312 Vahlen (quoted by Cicero,
Tusc. Disp., iii. 28), trom whom it was taken by Seneca, Cons.
ad>Polyb., 11, 2.

2 Otherwise unknown.



XVIII. terrarum undique perdidisset. fuit tamen nimiae
crudelitatis in milites ; nam et terna milia et quaterna
militum singulis diebus occidit.

2 Statuam sibi maiorem Colosso fieri praecepit Solis
habitu, sed ea imperfecta periit. tarn magna deni-
que coeperat fieri, ut duplex ad Colossum videre-

3 tur. poni autem illam voluerat in summo Esquiliarum
monte, ita ut hastam teneret, per cuius scapum 1

4infans ad summum posset ascendere. sed et Claudio
et Aureliano deinceps stulta res visa est, si quidem
etiam equos et currum fieri iusserat pro qualitate

& statuae atque in altissima 2 base poni. porticum
Flaminiam usque ad Pontem Mulvium et ipse para-
verat ducere, ita ut tetrastichae fierent, ut autem
alii dicunt, pentastichae, ita ut primus ordo pilas
haberet et ante se columnas cum statuis, secundus et
tertius et deinceps Sia Tecnra'pan/ columnas.

Longum est 3 eius cuncta in litteras mittere, quae
qui volet scire legat Palfurium Suram, qui ephe-
meridas eius vitae composuit. nos ad Saloninum

1 scapum Scaliger ; caput P, 27. 2 altissima Haupt,

Peter s ; actussima P l . 3 est 27 ; om. in P.

1 But see note to Tyr. Trig., ix. 3.
8 See note to Hadr., xix. 12.



the world on all sides to ruin. XVIII. But the
soldiers he treated with excessive cruelty, 1 killing as
many as three or four thousand of them in a single

He gave orders to make a statue of himself arrayed
as the Sun and greater than the Colossus, 2 but it was
destroyed while still unfinished. It was, in fact,
begun on so large a scale that it seemed to be double
the size of the Colossus. His wish was that it should
be placed on the summit of the Esquiline Hill, hold-
ing a spear, up the shaft of which a child could climb
to the top. The plan, however, seemed foolish to
Claudius and after him to Aurelian, especially as he
had ordered a chariot and horses to be made in pro-
portion to the size of the statue and set up on a
very high base. He planned to construct a Flaminian
portico 3 extending as far as the Mulvian Bridge, and
having columns in rows of four or, as some say, in
rows of five, so that the first row should contain
pillars with columns bearing statues in front of them,
while the second and third and the rest should have
columns in lines of four.

It would be too long to set down in writing all that
he did, and if anyone wishes to know these things,
he may read Palfurius Sura, 4 who composed a journal
of his life. Let us now turn to Saloninus.

3 i.e., extending along the Via Flaminia northward from
the Porta del Popolo.

4 Otherwise unknown.



XIX. Hie Gallieni films fuit, nepos Valeriani, de
quo quidem prope l nihil est dignum quod 2 in litteras
mittatur, nisi quod nobiliter natus, educatus regie,

2 occisus deinde non sua sed patris causa, de huius
nomine magna est ambiguitas. nam multi eum
Gallienum, multi Saloninum historiae prodiderunt.

3 et qui Saloninum, idcirco quod apud Salonas natus
esset, cognominatum ferunt ; qui autem Gallienum,
patris nomine cognominatum et avi Gallieni, summi

4 quondam in re publica viri. fuit denique hactenus
statua in pede Montis Romulei, hoc est ante Sacram
Viam, inter 3 Templum Faustinae ac Vestam 4 ad
Arcum Fabianum, quae haberet inscriptum " Gallieno
iuniori " " Salonino " additum. ex quo eius nomen
intellegi poterit.

6 Transisse decennium imperil Gallienum satis
clarum est. quod idcirco addidi, quia multi eum

6 imperii sui anno nono 5 perisse dixerunt. fuisse
autem et alios rebelliones sub eodem proprio di-
cemus loco, si quidem placuit viginti 8 tyrannos uno

1 quidem prope Kellerbauer, Peter 2 ; guippe P. 2 quod

dignum P, 27. * inter Mommsen, Peter 2 ; intra P, 27.

*ac Vestam Jordan, Peter 2 ; aduentam P, 27. 6 nono om. in
P and 27. 6 uiginti P, 27, Hohl ; triginta Peter ; but see

c. xvi. 1.

1 He was the younger of the two sons of Gallienus, and the
correct form of his name is shown by inscriptions and coins
to have been P. Licinius Cornelius Salouinus Valerianus.
He received the title of Caesar after the death of his older
brother, Valerian, in 258. Since the Alexandrian coins bear-
ing his name cease with the year 260-61, it is generally
inferred that he died in this year ; but he may be the son

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