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56



THE TWO GALL1ENI XIX. 1-6

SALONINUS GALLIENUS

XIX. He was the son of Gallienus l and the grand-
son of Valerian, and concerning him there is scarcely
anything worth setting down in writing, save that he
was nobly born, royally reared, and then killed, not
on his own account but his father's. With regard to
his name there is great uncertainty, for many have
recorded that it was Gallienus and many Salon inus.
Those who call him Saloninus declare that he was
so named because he was born at Salonae ; 2 and
those who call him Gallienus say that he was named
after his father and Gallienus' grandfather, who once
was a very great man in the state. As a matter of
fact, a statue of him has remained to the present
time at the foot of the Hill of Romulus, 3 in front of
the Sacred Way, that is, between the Temple of
Faustina and the Temple of Vesta near the Fabian
Arch, which bears the inscription "To Gallienus the
Younger " with the addition of " Saloninus/' and from
this his name can be learned. 4

It is well enough known that the rule of Gallienus
exceeded ten years. 5 This statement I have added
for the reason that many have said that he was killed
in the ninth year of his rule. There were, moreover,
other rebels during his reign, as we shall relate in

who, according to Zonaras, xii. 26, was killed by the senate
after the death of Gallienus.

a On the Dalmatian coast. This derivation is nonsense,
for his name was taken from that of his mother Cornelia
Salonina, as is correctly stated in c. xxi. 3.

3 The Palatine Hill.

4 Since there is no evidence whatsoever that he bore the
name Gallienus, this "inscription," like that in FoZ., viii. 3,
may be regarded as one of the author's fabrications.

5 See c. xxi. 5 and note.

57



THE TWO GALLIENI

volumine includere, idcirco quod nee multa de his
dici possunt, et in Gallieni vita pleraque iam dicta
sunt.

7 Et haec quidera de Gallieno hoc interim libro
dixisse sufficiet. nam et multa iam in Valerian! vita
dicta sunt, alia l in libro qui de triginta tyrannis in-
scribendus est iam loquemur, quae iterari ac saepius

8 dici minus utile videbatur. hue accedit quod quaedam
etiam studiose praetermisi, ne eius posteri multis

XX. r ebus editis laederentur. scis enim ipse tales 2
homines cum iis qui aliqua de maioribus eorum scrip-
serint quantum gerant bellum, nee ignota esse arbitror
quae dixit Marcus Tullius in Hortensio, quern ad ex-

2emplum Protreptici scripsit. unum tamen ponam,
quod iucunditatem quandam sed vulgarem habuit,

3 morem tamen novum fecit, nam cum cingula sua
plerique militantium, qui ad convivium venerant,
poiierent hora convivii, Saloninus puer sive Gallienus
his auratos costilatosque balteos rapuisse perhibetur,
et, cum esset difficile in aula Palatina requirere quod
perisset, ac taciti ex militibus 3 viri detrimeiita pertu-
lissent, postea rogati ad convivium cincti adcubuerunt.

4cumque ab his quaereretur, cur non solverent cingu-
lum, respondisse dicuntur, " Salonino deferimus,"
atque hinc tractum morem, ut deinceps cum impera-

5 tore cincti discumberent. negare non possum aliunde

1 dicta sunt alia ins. by Peter ; om. in P. " tales Gas.,

Peter ; qicales P, Hohl. 3 taciti ex militibus Salm., Peter J ;

tacitis militibus P, 2 ; tacitis mtltibus Haupt, Peter 2 , Hohl.

1 See note to c. xvi. 1.

2 A lost work, written in 45 B.C.

8 Aristotle's UpoToe-n-TiKts, now lost, an exhortation to the
study of philosophy.

58



THE TWO GALLIENI XIX. 7 XX. 5

the proper place ; for it is our purpose to include
twenty pretenders 1 in one single book, since there
is not much to be told about them, and many things
have already been said in the Life of Gallienus.

It will suffice, meanwhile, to have told in this
book these facts concerning Gallienus ; for much
has already been said in the Life of Valerian, and
other things shall be told in the book which is to be
entitled " Concerning the Thirty Pretenders," and
these it seems useless to repeat here and relate too
often. It must also be added that I have even
omitted some facts on purpose, lest his descendants
should be offended by the publication of many details.
XX. For you know yourself what a feud such men
maintain with those who have written certain things
concerning their ancestors, and I think that you are
acquainted with what Marcus Tullius said in his
Hortensius? written in imitation of the Protrepticufi*
One incident, however, I will include, which caused
a certain amount of amusement, albeit of a common-
place kind, and yet brought about a new custom.
For since most military men, on coming to a banquet,
laid aside their sword-belts when the banquet began,
the boy Saloninus (or Gallienus), it is related, once
stole these belts studded with gold and adorned with
rows of jewels, and since it was difficult to search in
the Palace for anything that had disappeared, these
military men bore their losses in silence, but when
afterwards they were bidden to a banquet, they
reclined at table with their sword-belts on. And
when asked why they did not lay aside their belts,
they replied, it is said, " We are wearing them for
Saloninus." And this gave rise to the custom that
always thereafter they should dine with the emperor

59



THE TWO GALLIENI

plerisque videri huius rei ortum esse morem ; dicunt
militare prandium, quod dictum est parandium ab eo
quod ad bellum milites paret, a cinctis initum ; cui
rei argumentum est quod a discinctis etiam cum im-
peratore cenatur. quae idcirco posui, quia digna et
memoratu videbantur et cognitu.

XXI. Nunc transeamus ad viginti J tyrannos, qui 2
Gallieni temporibus contemptu mali principis ex-
stiterunt. de quibus brcviter et pauca dicenda sunt.

2neque enim digni sunt eorum plerique, ut volumen
talium hominum saltern nominibus occupetur, 3
quamvis aliqui non parum in se virtutis habuisse
videantur, multum etiam rei publicae profuisse.

3 Tam variae item opiniones sunt de Salonini nomine,
ut qui se verius putet dicere, a matre sua Salonina ap-
pellatum esse dicat, 4 quam is 5 perdite dilexit. et
dilexit 6 Piparam nomine barbaram regis nliam.

4quare 7 Gallienus cum suis semper flavo crinem condit.

5 De annis autem Gallieni et Valeriani ad imperium
pertinentibus adeo incerta traduntur, ut, cum quin-
decim annos eosdem imperasse constet, id est

1 uiginti P, Hohl ; triginta Peter ; but see c. xvi. 1. 2 qui
Pcorr., 2, Hohl ; om. in P 1 ; Gallieni . . . exstiterunt del. by
Peter. 3 occupetur Kellerbauer, Hohl ; occuparetur P, 27,

Peter. * dicat Salm., Jordan ; om. inP; lacuna assumed

by Peter and Hohl. 6 quam is Salm., Peter 1 ; quamuis

P, Peter 2 , Hohl. 6 et dilexit ins. by Editor ; lacuna in P

assumed by Peter and Hohl. 7 quare ins. by Editor.

1 See note to c. xvi. 1.

2 Cornelia Salonina Augusta. Her name and head appear
on many coins.

3 Pipa, according to Aur. Victor, Caes., 33, 6 and Epit., 33, 1.
Her father was a German (Marcomannic) king, with whom
Gallienus made a treaty ceding part of Pannonia perhaps in
return for aid against Germanic invaders.

60



THE TWO GALLIENI XXI. 1-5

belted. I cannot, indeed, deny that many believe
this custom had a different origin ; for, they say, at
the soldiers' ration (prandium] which they called
a " preparation " (parandiuiri) because it prepares them
for fighting men come in wearing belts, and the
proof of this statement is that with the emperor
men still dine unbelted. These details I have given
because they seemed worthy of being related and
known.

XXI. Now let us pass on to the twenty pretenders, 1
who arose in the time of Gallienus because of con-
tempt for the evil prince. With regard to them
I need tell but a few things and briefly ; for most of
them are not worthy of having even their names put
into a book, although some of them seem to have had
no little merit and even to have been of much benefit
to the state.

Various, indeed, are the opinions concerning the
name of Saloninus, but the author who believes he
speaks most truthfully declares that he was named
from his mother Salonina, 2 whom Gallienus loved to
distraction. He loved also a barbarian maid, Pipara
by name, 3 the daughter of a king. And for this
reason Gallienus, moreover, and those about him
always dyed their hair yellow.

With regard to the number of years through which
the rule of Gallienus and Valerian extended, such
varied statements are made that, whereas all agree
that together they ruled for fifteen years, 4 that is,

4 253-268. Since Valerian ceased to rule not later than 260,
the "almost ten years " is, of course, an error, evidently due
to the celebration of the Decennalia (see c. vii. 4 f.) in 262,
at the beginning of the tenth year after Gallienus' joint
accession with his father.

61



THE TWO GALLIENI

Gallienus usque ad quintum decimum pervenisset,
Valerianus vero sexto sit captus, alii novem annis,
vix l decem alii etiam Gallienum imperasse in litteras
mittant, cum constet et decennalia Romae ab eodem
celebrata et post decennalia Gothos ab eo victos, cum
Odaenatho pacem factam, cum Aureolo initam esse
concordiam, pugnatum contra Postumum, contra Lol-
lianum, multa etiam ab eo ge^ta, quae ad virtutem,
6 plura tamen quae ad dedecus pertinebant. nam et
semper noctibus popinas dicitur frequentasse et cum
lenonibus, mimis scurnsque vixisse.



1 uix Peter ; bi& P,



THE TWO GALIJRNI XXI. 6

that Gallienus himself attained to his fifteenth year,
while Valerian was captured in his sixth, some have
set down in writing that Gallienus ruled for nine
years, and others, again, that it was almost ten while,
on the other hand, it is generally known that he
celebrated a decennial festival at Rome, and that
after this festival he defeated the Goths, made peace
with Odaenathus, entered into friendly relations with
Aureolus, 1 warred against Postumus and against Lol-
lianus,' J and did many things that mark a virtuous
life, but more that tend to dishonour. For he used
to frequent public-houses at night, it is said, and
spent his life with pimps and actors and jesters.

1 See c. ii. 6 aud note. 2 See Tyr. Trig., v.



TYRANNI TRIGINTA

TREBELLII POLLIONIS

I. Scriptis iam pluribus libris non historico nee
diserto sed pedestri adloquio, ad earn temporum
venimus seriem, in qua per annos, quibus Gallienus
et Valerianus rem publicam tenuerunt, triginta
tyranni occupato Valeriano magnis belli Persici ne-
cessitatibus exstiterunt, cum Gallienum non solum
viri sed etiam mulieres contemptui haberent, ut suis
2 locis probabitur. sed quoniam tanta obscuritas eorum
hominum fuit, qui ex diversis orbis partibus ad im-
perium convolabant, ut non multa de iis vel dici
possint a doctioribus vel requiri, deinde ab omnibus



1 The collection actually contains 32 name?, of which the
last two form a sort of appendix containing two men ad-
mittedly not of the time ot Gallienus. The author's original
plan, according to Gall., xvi. 1 ; xix. 6; xxi. 1, was to include
20, but as Peter has pointed out (Abh. Sachs. Ges., xxvii.
p. 190 f.), this number was raised to that of the Thirty Tyrants
of Athens by padding with ten additional names. If we take
from the list the names of the two women and the six youths
who never held the imperial power, the list is reduced to 22.
Of these it may be definitely asserted of Cyriades, Odaenathus,
Maeonius and Ballista that they never assumed the purple,



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

BY

TREBELLIUS POLLIO

I. After having written many books in the style of
neither an historian nor a scholar but only that of a lay-
man, we have now reached the series of years in which
the thirty pretenders l arose the years when the Em-
pire was ruled by Gallienus and Valerian, when Valer-
ian was busied with the great demands of the Persian
War and Gallienus, as will be shown in the proper
place, was held in contempt not only by men but by
women as well. But since so obscure were these men,
who flocked in from divers parts of the world to seize
the imperial power, that not much concerning them
can be either related by scholars or demanded of
them, and since all those historians who have written

and the same may be said with almost equal certainty of
Valens, Piso and Aemilianus. Saturninus, Trebellianus and
Celsus may be regarded as inventions of the author. Of the
twelve remaining names, Valens "Superior " was of the time
of Decius and Victorinus and Tetricus of the time of Claudius
and Aurelian. The list, then, of the authentic pretenders
under Gallienus reduces itself to nine, viz., Postumus (258-268),
Laelianus, Marius, Ingenuus (258), Regalianus (258 ?), Aureolus
(268), and Macrianus and his two sons (260-261).

65



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

historicis, qui Graece ac Latine scripserunt, ita non-
nulli praetereaiitur ut eorum nee l nomina frequenten-
tur, postremo cum tam varie a plerisque super iis
normulla sint prodita, in unum eos libellum contuli
et quidem brevem, maxime cum vel in Valerian! vel
in Gallieni vita pleraque de iis dicta nee repetenda
tamen satis constet.

CYRIADES

II. Hie patrem Cyriadem fugiens, dives et nobilis,
cum luxuria sua et moribus perditis sanctum senem
gravaret, direpta magna parte auri, argent i etiam in-

2finito pondere Persas petiit. atque hide Sapori regi
coniunctus atque sociatus, cum hortator belli Romanis
inferendi fuisset, Odomastem primum, deinde Sapo-
rem ad Romanum solum traxit ; Antiochia etiam

ucapta et Caesarea Caesareanum nomen meruit. atque
hide vocatus Augustus, cum omnem orientem vel
virium vel audaciae terrore quateret, patrem vero
interemisset (quod alii historic! negant factum), ipse
per insidias suorum, cum Valerianus iam ad bellum

4 Persicum veniret, occisus est. neque plus de hoc
historiae quicquam mandatum est quod dignum me-
moratu esse videatur, quern clarum perfugium et

1 nee ins. by Erasmus ; om. in P.



1 To be identified with the adventurer Mareades, or Mari-
ades, a native of Antioch in Syria, who, after being banished
from his native city for embezzling public funds, brought over
into Syria the army of Sapor, which captured and plundered
Antioch. He was later put to death by Sapor; see Ammianus
Marcellinus, xxiii. 5, 3 and Malalas, xii. p. 235 f. There is no
reason to suppose that he was ever proclaimed Caesar or



Augustus.



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 11. 1-4

in Greek or in Latin have passed over some of them
without dwelling even on their names, and, finally,
since certain details related about them by many have
varied so widely, I have therefore gathered them all
into a single book, and that a short one, especially as
it is evident that much concerning them has already
been told in the Lives of Valerian and Gallienus and
need not be repeated here.

CYRIADES

II. This man, 1 rich and well born, fled from his
father Cyriades when, by his excesses and profligate
ways, he had become a burden to the righteous old
man, and after robbing him of a great part of his gold
and an enormous amount of silver he departed to the
Persians. Thereupon he joined King Sapor and be-
came his ally, and after urging him to make war on
the Romans, he brought first Odomastes ' 2 and then
Sapor himself into the Roman dominions ; and also
by capturing Antioch and Caesarea 3 he won for him-
self the name of Caesar. Then, when he had been
hailed Augustus, after he had caused all the Orient
to tremble in terror at his strength or his daring, and
when, moreover, he had slain his father (which some
historians deny), he himself, at the time that Valerian
was on his way to the Persian War, was put to death
by the treachery of his followers. Nor has anything
more that seems worthy of mention been committed
to history about this man, who has obtained a place

2 Perhaps an error for Oromastes (Hormizd), Sapor's son and
successor.

3 Mod. Kaisariyeh in Cappadocia, taken by Sapor after the
capture of Valerian.

67



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

parricidium et aspera tyrannis et 1 summa luxuria
litteris dederunt.



POSTUMUS

III. Hie vir in bello fortissimus, in pace constantis-
simus, in omni vita gravis, usque adeo ut Saloninum
filium suum eidem Gallienus in Gallia positum crede-
ret, quasi custodi vitae et morum et actuum imperi-
ls alium institutori. sed, quantum plerique adserunt
(quod eius non convenit moribus), postea fidem fregit
Set occiso Salonino sumpsit imperium. ut autem
verius plerique tradiderunt, cum Galli vehemen-
tissime Gallienum odissent, puerum autem apud se
imperare ferre non possent, eum, qui commissum
regebat imperium, imperatorem appellarunt missis-
4 que militibus adulescentem interfecerunt. quo inter-
fecto ab omni exercitu et ab omnibus Gallis Postumus
gratanter acceptus talem se praebuit per annos septem

l etS\ ex P.



1 M. Cassianius Latiniua Postumus Augustus ; the name
lulius given to him in c. vi is accordingly incorrect, like
practically all that is said of him in this vita ; see Mommsen,
Hist. Rom. Provinces (Eng. Trans.), i. pp. 178-179.

2 After successful campaigns against the Germans he was
left in command of the Rhine frontier by Gallienus when he
departed to put down the revolt of Ingenuus (see c. ix.), but
rivalry broke out between him and Silvanus (or Albanus), to
whose care Gallienus had entrusted his son perhaps as the
nominal ruler of the West. In consequence of this rivalry
Postumus seized Cologne and caused Silvanus and the prince
to be put to death ; see Zosimus, i. 38, 2 and Zonaras, xii. 24.
Thereupon he declared himself emperor and, despite the efforts

68



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS III. 1-4

in letters solely by reason of his famous flight, his act
of parricide, his cruel tyranny, and his boundless
excesses.

POSTUMUS

III. This man, 1 most valiant in war and most stead-
fast in peace, was so highly respected for his whole
manner of life that he was even entrusted by Gallienus
with the care of his son Saloninus (whom he had
placed in command of Gaul), as the guardian of his
life and conduct and his instructor in the duties of a
ruler.- Nevertheless, as some writers assert though
it does not accord with his character he afterwards
broke faith and after slaying Saloninus 3 seized the
imperial power. As others, however, have related
with greater truth, the Gauls themselves, hating
Gallienus most bitterly and being unwilling to endure
a boy as their emperor, hailed as their ruler the man
who was holding the rule in trust for another, and
despatching soldiers they slew the boy. When
he was slain, Postumus was gladly accepted by
the entire army and by all the Gauls, and for seven

of Gallienus (see Gall., iv. 4-5; vii. 1), remained practically
independent ruler of Gaul until his death at Mainz in 268 or
269.

3 The question of the date of Postumus' assumption of the
imperial power is bound up with that of the name of this
murdered prince, also given as Salcninus in Zosimus, i. 38, 2.
Saloninus, however, Gallienus' younger son (cf. Gall., xix. 1
and note) seems to have been alive as late as 260-261 . More-
over, according to Epit., 32, 3; 33, 1, it was the elder son
(Valerian) who was put to death at Cologne ; he is shown by
the evidence of papyri to have died in 258. This accords with
the evidence of c. ix. 1, that the revolt of Ingenuus was in
268.

69



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

ut Gallias instauraverit, cum Gallienus luxuriae et po-
pinis vacaret et araore barbarae raulieris consenesceret.

5 gestum est tamen a Gallieno contra hunc bellum tune,

6 cum sagitta Gallienus est vulneratus. si quidem nimius
amor erga Postumum omnium erat in Gallicanorura
mente l populorum, quod summotis omnibus Germani-
cis gentibus Romanum in pristinam securitatem re-

7 vocasset imperium. sed cum se gravissime gereret, 2
more illo, quo Galli novarum rerum semper sunt
cupidi, Lolliano agente interemptus est.

8 Si quis sane Postumi meritum requirit, iudicium de
eo Valeriani ex hac epistula, quam ille ad Gallos misit,

9 intelleget : " Transrhenani limitis 3 ducem et Galliae
praesidem Postumum fecimus, virum dignissimum se-
veritate Gallorum, praesente quo non miles in castris,
non iura in foro, non in tribunalibus lites, non in curia
dignitas pereat, qui unicuique proprium et suum servet,
virum quern ego prae ceteris stupeo, et qui locum
principis mereatur iure, de quo spero quod mihi gratias

lOagetis. quod si me fefellerit opinio quam de illo
habeo, sciatis nusquam gentium reperiri qui possit

11 penitus adprobari. hums filio Postumo nomine tribu-
natum Vocontiorum dedi, adulescenti qui se dignum
patris moribus reddet."

1 mente Salm. ; gent* P, 27. 3 gereret Baehrens, Peter ;

regeret P, S. *milites P, 2.



1 So also Gall., iv. 5. As a matter of fact he ruled for ten
years, according to his coins with trib. pot. X (Cohen, vi. a
p. 45, nos. 284-286) and Eutropius, ix. 10.

* See Gall , xxi. 3. Gf. Gall., iv. 4.

4 Cf. Firm., vii. 1.



70



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS III. 5-11

years l he performed such exploits that he completely
restored the provinces of Gaul, while Gallienus spent
his time in debauchery and taverns and grew weak
in loving a barbarian woman. 2 Gallienus, however,
was warring against him at that time when he
himself was wounded by an arrow. 3 Great, indeed,
was the love felt for Postumus in the hearts of all the
people of Gaul because he had thrust back all the
German tribes and had restored the Roman Empire
to its former security. But when he began to conduct
himself with the greatest sternness, the Gauls, follow-
ing their custom of always desiring a change of
government, 4 at the instigation of Lollianus put him
to death.

If anyone, indeed, desires to know the merits of
Postumus, he may learn Valerian's opinion concerning
him from the following letter which he wrote to the
Gauls : " As general in charge of the Rhine frontier
and governor of Gaul we have named Postumus, a
man most worthy of the stern discipline of the Gauls.
He by his presence will safeguard the soldiers in the
camp, civil rights in the forum, law-suits at the bar
of judgement, and the dignity of the council- chamber,
and he will preserve for each one his own personal
possessions ; he is a man at whom I marvel above all
others and well deserving of the office of prince,
and for him, I hope, you will render me thanks. If,
however, I have erred in my judgement concerning
him, you may rest assured that nowhere in the world
will a man be found who can win complete approval.
Upon his son, Postumus by name, a young man who
will show himself worthy of his father's character, I
have bestowed the tribuneship of the VoconthY'



71



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

POSTUMUS IUNIOR

IV. De hoc prope nihil est quod dicatur, nisi quod
a patre appellatus Caesar ac deinceps in eius honore
Augustus cum patre dicitur interemptus, cum Lollia-
nus in locum Postumi subrogatus delatum sibi a

2 Gallis sumpsisset imperium. iuit autem (quod solum
memoratu dignum est) ita in declamationibus disertus
ut eius controversiae Quintiliano dicantur insertae,
quern declamatorem Romani generis acutissimum vel
unius capitis lectio prima statim fronte demonstrat.

LOLLIANUS

V. Huius rebellione in Gallia Postumus, vir omnium
fortissimus, interemptus est, cum iam nutante Gallia 1
Gallieni luxuria in veterem statum Roman um formas-

2 set imperium. fuit quidem etiam iste fortissimus, sed
rebellionis intuitu minorem apud Gallos auctoritatem

8 de suis viribus tenuit. interemptus autem est a
Victorino, Vitruviae filio vel Victoriae, quae postea
mater castrorum appellata est et Augustae nomine
affecta, cum ipsa per se fugiens tanti ponderis molem
primum in Marium, deinde in Tetricum atque eius

1 Gallia ins. by Paucker, Peter, 2 Hohl; om. in P and 2.



J There is no other evidence of his participation in the
imperial power or even of his existence.

2 Presumably the extant collection of Declamationes (or
controversial i.e. imaginary law-cases used in the schools of
rhetoric) attributed to Quintilian, the famous author of the
Institutio Oratoria, but probably not his work.

3 The expression prima statim fronte is used in just this
sense by Quintilian in Inst. Orat., xii. 7, 8.

72



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS IV. 2 V. 3

POSTUMUS THE YOUNGER

IV. Concerning this man 1 there is naught to relate
save that after receiving the name of Caesar from his
father and later, as a mark of honour to him, that of
Augustus, he was killed, it is said, together with his
father at the time when Lollianus, who was put in
Postumus' place, took the imperial power offered to
him by the Gauls. He was, moreover and only this
is worthy of mention so skilled in rhetorical exer-
cises that his Controversies are said to have been



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