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inserted among those of Quintilian, 2 who, as the read-
ing of even a single chapter will show at the first
glance, 3 was the sharpest rhetorician of the Roman
race.

LOLLIANUS

V. In consequence of this man's 4 rebellion in Gaul,
Postumus, the bravest of all men, was put to death
after he had brought back the power of Rome into its
ancient condition at the time when Gaul was on the
brink of ruin because of Gallienus' excesses. Lolli-
anus was, indeed, a very brave man, but in the face
of rebellion his strength was insufficient to give him
authority over the Gauls. He was killed, moreover,
by Victorinus, son of Vitruvia, or rather Victoria, 5 who
was later entitled Mother of the Camp and honoured
by the name of Augusta, though she herself, doing
her utmost to escape the weight of so great a burden,

4 His correct name was C. Ulpius Cornelius Laelianus
Augustus, according to his coins ; see Cohen, vi. 2 p. 66 f. He
rebelled against Postumus and seized the imperial power at
Mainz, but (despite the statements in 1-4) he was defeated
by Postumus ; see Aurelius Victor, Caes., 33, 8, and Eutropiug,
ix. 9.

"See c. xxxi.

78



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

4fi]ium contulisset imperia. et Lollianus quidem non
nihilum rei publicae profuit. nam plerasque Galliae
civitates, nonnulla etiam castra, quae 1 Postumus per
septem annos in solo barbarico aedificaverat, quaeque
interfecto Postumo subita inruptione Germanorum et
direpta fuerant et incensa, in 2 statum veterem re-
formavit. deinde a suis militibus, quod in labore
nimius esset, occisus est.

5 Ita Gallieno perdente rem publicam in Gallia pri-
mum Postumus, deinde Lollianus, Victorinus deinceps,
postremo Tetricus, (nam de Mario nihil dicimus) ad-

tisertores Romani nominis exstiterunt. quos omnes
datos divinitus credo, ne, cum ilia pestis inauditae
luxuriae impediretur malis, possidendi Romanum so-

7lum Germanis daretur facultas. qui si eo genere
tune evasissent quo Gothi et Persae, consentientibus
in Romano solo gentibus venerabile hoc Romani

8 nominis finitum esset imperium. Lolliani autem vita
in multis obscura est, ut et ipsius Postumi, sed
privata; virtute enim clari, non nobilitatis pondere
vixerunt.

VICTORINUS

VI. Postumus senior cum videret multis se Gal-
lieni viribus peti atque auxilium non solum militum
verum etiam alterius principis necessarium, Victo-

1 quac 2; om. in P. 2 in 2; om. in P.

1 See c. xxiv.-xxv. 2 Sec note to c. iii. 4,

3 M. Piavouius Victorinus Augustus, according to his in-
scriptions and coins; see Cohen, vi. 2 pp. 68-84. He served as
general under Postumus, but the statement of the vita and of
Gall., vii. 1 that he was made co-ruler by Postumus is piobably
false, for, according to Aur. Victor, Goes., 33, 12 and Eutropius,
ix. 9 he seems to have held the power after Murius (c. viii.) for

74



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS V. 4 VI. 1.

had bestowed the imperial power first on Marius and
then on Tetricus together with his son. 1 Lolliamis,
in fact, did to some extent benefit the commonwealth ;
for many of the communes of Gaul and also some of
the camps, built on barbarian soil by Postumus during
his seven years, 2 but after his murder plundered and
burned during an incursion of Germans, were restored
by him to their ancient condition. Then he was slain
by his soldiers because he exacted too much labour.

And so, while Gallienus was bringing ruin on the
commonwealth, there arose in Gaul first Postumus,
then Lolli nus, next Victorinus, and finally Tetricus
(for of Marius we will make no mention), all of them
defenders of the renown of Rome. All of these, I
believe, were given by gift of the gods, in order that,
while that pestiferous fellow was caught in the toils
of unheard-of excesses, no opportunity might be
afforded the Germans for seizing Roman soil. For if
they had broken forth then in the same manner as
did the Goths and the Persians, these foreign nations,
acting together in Roman territory, would have put
an end to this venerable empire of the Roman nation.
As for Lollianus, his life is obscure in many details,
as is also that of Postumus, too but only their private
lives ; for while they lived they were famed for their
valour, not for their importance in rank.

VICTORINUS

VI. When the elder Postumus saw that Gallienus
was marching against him with great forces, and that
he needed the aid not only of soldiers but also of a
second prince, he called Victorinus, 3 a man of soldierly

two years, apparently under Claudius (so Epit., 34, 3) and so
probably 270-271.

75



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

rinum, militaris industriae virum, in participatum
vocavit imperil et cum eodem contra Gallienum con-

2flixit. cumque adhibitis ingentibus Germanorum

Sauxiliis diu bella traxissent, victi sunt. tune inter-
fecto etiam Lolliano solus Victorinus in imperio re-
mansit, qui et ipse, quod matrimoniis militum et
militarium corrumpendis operam daret, a quodam
actuario, cuius uxorem stupraverat, composita fac-
tione Agrippinae percussus, Victorino filio Caesare a
matre Vitruvia sive Victoria, quae mater castrorum
dicta est, appellate, qui et ipse puerulus statim est
interemptus, cum apud Agrippinam pater eius esset
occisus.

4 De hoc, quod fortissimus fuerit et praeter libidinem

5optimus imperator, a multis multa sunt dicta, sed
satis credimus lulii Atheriani partem libri cuiusdam

6 ponere, in quo de Victorino sic loquitur : " Victorino,
qui Gallias post lulium Postumum rexit, neminem
aestimo praeferendum, non in virtute Traianum, non
Antoninum in dementia, non in gravitate Nervam,
non in gubernaiido aerario Vespasianum, non in
censura totius vitae ac severitate militari Pertinacem

7vel Severum. sed omnia haec libido et cupiditas
mulierariae voluptatis sic perdidit ut nemo audeat
virtutes eius in litteras mittere, quern constat omnium

Siudicio meruisse puniri." ergo cum id iudicii de
Victorino scriptores habuerint, satis mihi videor eius
dixisse de moribus.



*i.e., Cologne. 2 See c. xxxi.

3 Not otherwise known and probably an invention of the
biographer's.

4 See note to c. iii. 1.

76



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS VI. 2-8

energy, to a share in the imperial power, and in com-
pany with him he fought against Gallienus. Having
summoned to their aid huge forces of Germans, they
protracted the war for a long time, but at last they
were conquered. Then, when Lollianus, too, had
been slain, Victorinus alone remained in command.
He also, because he devoted his time to seducing the
wives of his soldiers and officers, was slain at Agrip-
pina l through a conspiracy formed by a certain clerk,
whose wife he had debauched ; his mother Vitruvia,
or rather Victoria, 2 who was later called Mother of
the Camp, had given his son Victorinus the title of
Caesar, but the boy, too, was immediately killed after
his father was slain at Agrippina.

Concerning Victorinus, because he was most valiant
and, save for his lust fulness, an excellent emperor,
many details have been related by many writers.
We, however, deem it sufficient to insert a portion of
the book of a certain Julius Atherianus, 3 in which he
writes of Victorinus as follows : " With regard to
Victorinus, who ruled the provinces of Gaul after
Julius 4 Postumus, I consider that no one should be
given a higher place, not Trajan for his courage, or
Antoninus for his kindness, or Nerva for his noble
dignity, or Vespasian for his care of the treasury, or
yet Pertinax or Sever us for the strictness of their
whole lives or the severity of their military discipline.
All these qualities, however, were offset to such an
extent by his lustfulness and his desire for the pleasures
gotten from women that no one would dare to set forth
in writing the virtues of one who, all are agreed, de-
served to be punished." And so, since this is the
judgement that writers have given concerning Victo-
rinus, I consider that I have said enough regarding his
character. 77



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

VICTORINUS IUNIOR

VII. De hoc nihil amplius in litteras est relatum,
quam quod nepos Victoriae Victorini filius fuit et a
patre vel ab avia sub eadem bora qua Victorinus in-
teremptus Caesar est nuncupatus ac statim a militibus

2ira occisus. exstant denique sepulchra circa Agrip-
pinam, brevi marmcre impressa humilia, in quibus
titulus l est inscriptus : " Hie duo Victorini tyranni siti
sunt."

MARIUS

VIII. Victorino, Lolliano et Postumo interemptis
Marius ex fabro, ut dicitur, ferrario triduo tantum

2 imperavit. de hoc quid amplius requiratur ignore,
nisi quod eum insigniorem brevissimum fecit imperi-
um. nam ut ille consul, qui sex meridianis horis con-
sulatum suffectum tenuit, a Marco Tullio tali aspersus
est ioco : " Consulem habuimus tarn severum tamque
censorium ut in eius magistratu nemo pranderit,
nemo cenaverit, nemo dormiverit/' de hoc etiam dici
posse videatur, qui una die factus est imperator, alia
die visus est imperare, tertia interemptus est.

3 Et vir quidem strenuus ac militaribus usque ad
imperium gradibus evectus, quern plerique Mamurium,

1 titnlvs Cas. ; unus P, .



1 The head of a son of Victorinus appears on a coin of the
pretender (Cohen, vi. 2 p. 84), but the boy is included here, like
Postumus Junior in c. iv., merely for the purpose of increasing
the number of the Tyranni.

2 M. Aurelius Marius Augustus. He held the imperial power
before Victorinus; see note to c. vi. 1. The length of his rule
given heie as three days (two days by Aurelius Victor and
Eutropius) is certainly wrong, for the large number of his

78



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS VII. 2 VIII. S

VICTORINUS THE YOUNGER

VII. Concerning him l nothing has been put into
writing save that he was the grandson of Victoria
and the son of Victorinus and that he was entitled
Caesar by his father or grandmother on the eve of
his father's murder and was at once slain in anger
by the soldiers. Their tombs, indeed, are still to be
seen near Agrippina, humble monuments covered
with common marble, and on them is carved the
inscription, " Here lie the two Victorini, pretenders."

MARIUS

VIII. After Victorinus, Lollianus and Postumus
were slain, Marius, 2 formerly a worker in iron, so it is
said, held the imperial power, but only for three days.
What more can be asked concerning him I know not,
save that he was made more famous by the shortness
of his rule. For, just as that consul 3 who held the
office as substitute for six hours at midday was ridiculed
by Cicero in the jest, " We have had a consul so stern
and severe that during his term of office no one has
breakfasted, no one has dined, and no one has slept,"
so the same, it would seem, can be said of Marius,
who on the first day was made emperor, on the second
seemed to rule, and on the third was slain.

He was, indeed, an active man and rose through
the various grades of military service to the imperial

coins is sufficient evidence of a longer reign ; see Cohen, vi. 1
pp. 87-89.

3 C. Caninius Rebilus, consul on 31 Dec., 45 B.C. A jest of
Cicero's concerning him, differing somewhat from the follow-
ing quotation is contained in Epist. ad Fam., vii. 30, 1.

79



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

nonnulli Veturium, opificem utpote ferrarium, nun-

4cuparunt. sed de hoc nimis multa, de quo illud ad-

didisse satis est, nullius man us vel ad feriendum vel

ad impellendum 1 fortiores fuisse, cum in digitls

5nervos videretur habuisse non venas. nam et carra

venientia digito salutari reppulisse dicitur et fortis-

simos quosque uno digito sic adflixisse, ut quasi ligni

vel ferri obtunsioris ictu percussi dolerent. multa

6duorum digitorum allisione contrivit. occisus est a

quodam milite, qui, cum eius quondam in fabrili of-

ficina fuisset, contempt us est ab eodem, vel cum dux

7 esset 2 vel cum imperium cepisset. addidisse verba 3
dicitur interemptor : " Hie est gladius quern ipse
fecisti."

8 Huius contio prima talis fuisse dicitur : " Scio, con-
militones, posse mihi obici artem pristinam, cuius

9mihi omnes testes estis. sed dicat quisque quod vult.
utinam ferrum semper exerceam, non vino, non
floribus, non mulierculis, non popinis, ut facit Gallic -
nus, indignus patre suo et sui generis nobilitate,

lOdepeream. ars mihi obiciatur ferraria, dum me et
exterae gentes ferrum tractasse suis cladibus re-

11 cognoscant. enitar 4 denique, ut omnis Alamannia
omnisque Germania cum ceteris quae adiacent genti-
bus Romanum populum ferratam putent gentem, ut

1 impellendum 27; implendum P. -dux esset Gas.,

Eyssenhardt, Hohl ; duxisset P corr., Peter. 3 iterba

Editor; uerbo P, 27; uero Salm., Peter. 4 enitar

Petschenig, Hohl ; in Italia P, 27, foil, by lacuna Peter.



1 Mamurius Veturius was the legendary forger of the
aucilia, the shields of the Salii ; his name was inserted in

80



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS VIII. 4-11

power itself this one whom many called Mamurius
and some Veturius, 1 because, forsooth, he was a
worker in iron. But we have already said too much
about this man, concerning whom it will be sufficient
to add that there was no one whose hands were
stronger, for either striking or thrusting, since he
seemed to have not veins in his fingers, but sinews.
For he is said to have thrust back on-coming waggons
by means of his forefinger and with a single finger to
have struck the strongest men so hard that they felt
as much pain as though hit by a blow from wood or
blunted iron ; and he crushed many objects by the
mere pressure of two of his fingers. He was slain by
a soldier whom, because he had once been a worker
in his smithy, he had treated with scorn either when
he commanded troops or after he had taken the
imperial power. His slayer is said to have added the
words, "This is a sword which you yourself have
forged."

His first public harangue, it is said, was as follows :
" I know well, fellow-soldiers, that I can be taunted
with my former trade, of which all of you are my wit-
nesses. However, let anyone say what he wishes.
As for me, may I always labour with steel rather than
ruin myself with wine and garlands and harlots and
gluttony, as does Gallienus, unworthy of his father
and the noble rank of his house. Let men taunt me
with working with steel as long as foreign nations
shall know from their losses that I have handled the
steel. In short, I will strive to the utmost that all
Alamannia and Germany and the nations round about
shall deem the Roman people a steel-clad folk, and

the Carmen Saliare as a reward for his labour; see Festug,
p. 131 M. ; Ovid, Fasti, iii. 383 f.

81



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

12specialiter in nobis ferrum tiraeant. vos tamen cogi-
tetis velim fecisse vos principem, qui numquam quic-

ISquam scierit tractare nisi ferrum. quod idcirco dico,
quia scio mihi a luxuriosissima ilia peste nihil opponi
posse nisi hoc, quod gladiorum atque armorum artifex
fuerim."

INGENUUS

IX. Tusco et Basso consulibus cum Gallienus vino
et popinis vacaret cumque se lenonibus, mimis et
meretricibus dederet ac bona naturae luxuriae con-
tinuatione deperderet, Ingenuus, qui Pannonias tune
regebat, a Moesiacis legionibus imperator est dictus,
ceteris Pannoniarum volentibus. neque in quoquam
melius consultum rei publicae a militibus videbatur
quam quod instantibus Sarmatis creatus est imperator,

2 qui fessis rebus mederi sua virtute potuisset. causa
autem ipsi arripiendi tune imperii fuit, ne suspectus
esset imperatoribus, quod erat fortissimus ac rei pub-
licae iiecessarius et militibus, quod imperantes vehe-

Smenter movet, acceptissimus. sed Gallienus, ut erat
nequam et perditus, ita etiam, ubi necessitas coegisset,
velox, fortis, vehemens, crudelis, denique Ingenuum
conflictu habito vicit eoque occiso in omnes Moesiacos



1 The correctness of this date has been questioned, for
Aurelius Victor (Goes., 33, 2) places the revolt of Ingenuus
alter the capture of Valerian, i.e. in 260. It occurred, how-
ever, shortly before the revolt of Postumus, and there is
reason to believe that this was in 258 or 259 ; see note to
c. iii. 2.

3 At Mursa (mod. Eszek) or at Sirmium (Mitrovitz) in
Pannonia ; see Aur. Victor, Caes. t 33, 2 ; Eutropius, ix. 8, 1 ;
Zonaras, xii. 24.



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS VIII. 12 IX. 3

that it shall be most of all the steel that they fear in
us. But as for you, I wish you to rest assured that
you have chosen as emperor one who will never know
how to deal with aught but the steel. And this I say
because I know that no charge can be brought against
me by that pestiferous profligate save this, that I have
been a forger of swords and armour."

INGENUUS

IX. In the consulship of Tuscus and Bassus, 1 while 258
Gallienus was spending his time in wine and gluttony
and giving himself up to pimps and actors and harlots,
and by continued debauchery was destroying the
gifts of nature, Ingenuus, then ruler of the Pannonian
provinces, was acclaimed emperor by the legions of
Moesia, and those in Pannonia assented thereto.
And, in fact, it appeared that in no other case had
the soldiers taken better counsel for the common-
wealth than when, in - the face of an inroad of the
Sarmatians, they chose as their emperor one who by
his valour could bring a remedy to the exhausted
state. His reason, moreover, for seizing the power
at that time was his fear of becoming an object of
suspicion to the emperors, because he was both very
brave and necessary to the commonwealth, and also
a cause which rouses rulers most of all well
beloved by the soldiers. Gallienus, however, worth-
less and degraded though he was, could still, when
necessity demanded, show himself quick in action,
courageous, vigorous and cruel, and finally, meeting
Ingenuus in battle, 2 he defeated him and, after slay-
ing him, vented his anger most fiercely on all the
Moesians, soldiers and civilians alike. For he left

83



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

tarn milites quam cives asperrime saeviit. nee quem-
quam suae crudelitatis exsortem reliquit, usque adeo
asper et truculentus ut plerasque civitates vacuas a
4virili sexu relinqueret. fertur sane item Ingenuus
civitate capta in aquam se mersisse l atque ita vitam
finisse, ne in tyranni crudelis potestatem veniret.

5 Exstat sane epistula Gallieni, quam ad Celerem
Verianum scripsit, qua eius nimietas crudelitatis os-
tenditur. quam ego idcirco interposui ut omnes in-
tellegerent hominem luxuriosurn crudelissimum esse,
si necessitas postulet :

6 " Gallienus Veriano. non mihi satisfacies, si tan-
turn armatos occideris, quos et fors in bellis interi-

7 mere potuisset. perimendus est omnis sexus virilis, si
et senes atque impuberes sine reprehensione nostra

Soccidi possent. occidendus est quicumque male
voluit, occidendus est quicumque male dixit contra
me, contra Valeriani filium, contra tot principum

9 patrem et fratrem. Ingenuus factus est imperator.
lacera, occide, concide, animum meum intellege, mea
mente irascere, qui haec manu mea scripsi."

REGALIANUS

X. Fati publici f'uit, ut Gallieni tempore quicumque
potuit ad imperium prosiliret. Regalianus denique

1 in aquam se tn^rsisse , Hohl ; in qua se P 1 ; intrasse
domum in qua se pugione transfodit P corr. ; laqueasse se
Peter.



1 On the other hand, Gallienus' clemency is noted by the
Continuator of Cassius Dio, frg. 163 (ed. Boissevain, iii. p. 743)
and Zonaras, xii. 25, and, in other instances, by Aminianus
Marcelliuus, xxi. 16, 10.

84



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS IX. 4 X. 1

none exempt from his cruelty, 1 and so brutal and
savage was he, that in many communities he left not
a single male alive. It is said of Ingenuus, indeed,
that when the city was captured, he threw himself
into the water, and so put an end to his life, 2 that
he might not fall into the power of the brutal tyrant.

There is, indeed, still in existence a letter of
Gallienus, written to Celer Verianus, 3 which shows
his excessive brutality. This 1 have inserted, in
order that all may learn that a profligate, if necessity
demand, can be the most brutal of men :

" From Gallienus to Verianus. You will not
satisfy me if you kill only armed combatants, for
these even chance could have killed in the war.
You must slay every male, that is, if old men and
immature boys can be put to death without bringing
odium upon us. You must slay all who have wished
me ill, slay all who have spoken ill of me, the son of
Valerian, the father and brother of so many princes.
Ingenuus has been created emperor ! Therefore
mutilate, kill, slaughter, see that you understand my
purpose and show your anger with that spirit which I
am showing, I who have written these words with my
own hand."

REGALIANUS

X. It was the public destiny that in the time of
Gallienus whosoever could, sprang up to seize the

2 According to Zonaras, xii. 24, he was killed by his
attendant soldiers during his flight. It is difficult to re-
concile this with sny of the suggested readings of 4.

3 Unknown and probably fictitious.

85



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

in Illyrico ducatum gerens imperator est factus
auctoribus imperil Moesis, qui cum Ingenuo fuerant
ante superati, in quorum parentes graviter Gallienus

2 saevierat. hie tamen multa fortiter contra Sarmatas
gessit, sed auctoribus Roxolanis consentientibusque
militibus et timore provincialium ne iterum Gallienus
graviora faceret, interemptus est.

3 Mirabile fortasse videatur, si quae origo imperil eius
fuerit declaretur. capitali enim ioco ] regna prome-

4ruit. nam cum milites cum eo quidam cenarent,
exstitit vicarius tribuni qui diceret : " Regaliani
nomen unde credimus dictum ? ' alius continue,

5"Credimus quod a regno ". turn iis qui aderat
scholasticus coepit quasi grammaticaliter declinare

6etdicere, "Rex, regis, regi, Regalianus ". milites,
ut est hominum genus pronum ad ea quae cogitant,
"Ergo potest rex esse?" item alius, "Ergo potest
nos regere ? ' item alius, ''Deus tibi regis nomen

7imposuit". 2 quid multa? his dictis cum alia die
mane processisset, a principiis imperator est saluta-
tus. ita quod aliis vel audacia vel iudicium, huic
detulit iocularis astutia.

8 Fuit, quod negari non potest, vir in re 3 militari

1 lo~o P, S. ? - imposuit 27, Hohl, foil, by Klotz ; posuit

P, Peter. 3 re ins. by Novak ; om. iu P 1 ; ins. after militari
P corn, Peter.



1 P. C Regalianus Augustus, according to his coins ;

see Cohen, vi. 2 p. 10. The form Regilianus in which his name
appears in the MSS. of this vita (except 5) and also in
Gall., ix. 1 and Claud., vii. 4 seems to owe its origin to the
desire to make the pun contained in 3 f. Aur. Victor (33, 2)
agrees with the biographer in relating that he rallied the
remains of Ingenuus' army and renewel the war against
Gallienus.

86



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS X. 2-8

imperial power. And so Regalianus, 1 who held the
command in Illyricum, was declared emperor, the
prime movers being the Moesians, who had previously
been defeated with Ingenuus and on whose kinsmen
Gallienus had vented his anger severely. He, in-
deed, performed many brave deeds against the
Sarmatians, but nevertheless, at the instigation of
the Roxolani 2 and with the consent of the soldiers
and the provincials, who feared that Gallienus might,
on a second occasion, act even more cruelly, he was
put to death.

It may perhaps seem a matter for wonder if
I relate the origin of his rule, for it was all because
of a notable jest that he gained the royal power.
For when some soldiers were dining with him and
a certain acting-tribune arose and said, " Whence
shall we suppose that Regalianus gets his name ? "
another replied at once, " I suppose from his regal
power." Then a schoolmaster who was present
among them began, as it seemed, to decline gram-
matically, saying, " Rex, regis, regi, Regalianus,"
whereupon among the soldiers a class of men who
are quick to express what they have in mind one
cried out, " So, then, can he be regal ? ' another,
" So, then, can he hold regal sway over us ? " and
again another, " God has given you a regent's name."
Why should I then say more ? The next day after
these words were spoken, on going forth in the morn-
ing he was greeted as emperor by the front-line
troops. Thus what was offered to others through
daring or reasoned choice was offered to him through
a clever jest.

It cannot, indeed, be denied that he had always

2 See note to Hadr., vi. 6.

87



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

semper probatus et Gallieno iam ante suspectus,
quod dignus videretur imperio, gentis Daciae, De-
9cebali ipsius, ut fertur, adfinis. exstat epistula divi
Claudii tune privati, qua Regaliano, Illyrici duci,
gratias agit ob redditum Illyricum, cum omnia
Gallieni segnitia deperirent. quam ego repertam in



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