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authenticis inserendam putavi ; fuit enim publica.

10 "Claudius Regaliano multam salutem. felicem
rem publicam quae te talem virum habere in castris
bellicis l meruit, felicem Gallienum, etiamsi ei vera

11 nemo nee de bonis nee de malis nuntiat. pertule-
runt ad me Bonitus et Celsus, stipatores principis
nostri, qualis apud Scupos in pugnando fueris, quot
uno die proelia et qua celeritate confeceris. dignus

12 eras triumpho, si antiqua tempora exstarent. sed
quid multa ? memor cuiusdam hominis cautius velim
vincas. arcus Sarmaticos et duo saga ad me velim
inittas, sed fibulatoria, cum ipse misi de nostris."

13 Hac epistula ostenditur quid de Regaliano senserit
Claudius, cuius gravissimum iudicium suis temporibus
fuisse non dubium est.

14 Nee a Gallieno quidem vir iste promotus est sed a
patre eius Valeriano, ut et Claudius et Macrianus et

1 bellicis Baehrens, Peter ; belli ius P.



1 The formidable king of the Dacians who was finally
overcome by Trajan, after two wais, in 107.

2 Probably Zlokuchan near Uskiib (Skoplje) in Jugoslavia.

88



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS X. 9-14

won approbation in warfare and had long been
suspected by Gallienus because he seemed worthy
to rule ; he was, moreover, a Dacian by birth and
a kinsman, so it was said, of Decebalus 1 himself.
There is still in existence a letter written by the
Deified Claudius, then still a commoner, in which he
expresses his thanks to Regalianus, as general in
command of Illyricum, for recovering this district, at
a time when Gallienus' slothfulness was bringing all
things to ruin. This letter, which I have found in
the original form, I think should be inserted here,
for it was written officially :

" From Claudius to Regalianus many greetings.
Fortunate is the commonwealth, which has deserved to
have such a man as yourself in its military camps, and
fortunate is Gallienus, though no one tells him the
truth about either good men or bad. Word has been
brought to me by Bonitus and Celsus, the attendants
of our emperor, how you conducted yourself in fight-
ing at Scupi 2 and how many battles you fought in
a single day and with what great speed. You were
worthy of a triumph, did but the olden times still
remain. But why say more ? I could wish that you
might be mindful of a certain person and therefore
be more cautious in gaining victories. I should like
you to send me some Sarmatian bows and two military
cloaks, but provided with clasps, for I am sending
you some of my own."

This letter shows what opinion of Regalianus was
held by Claudius, whose judgement was without doubt
most weighty in his own time.

It was not, indeed, from Gallienus that Regalianus
received his promotion, but from his father, Valerian,
as did also Claudius, Macrianus, Iiigenuus, Postumus

89



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

Ingenuus et Postumus et Aureolus, qui omnes in im-
perio interempti sunt, cum mererentur imperium.
15mirabile autem hoc fuit in Valeriano principe, quod
omnes, quoscumque duces fecit, postea militum testi-
moiiio ad imperium perveiierunt, ut appareat senem
imperatorem in deligendis rei publicae ducibus talem
fuisse, qualem Romana felicitas, si continuari fataliter

16 potuisset sub bono principe, requirebat. et utinam
vel illi qui arripuerant imperia regnare potuissent,
vel eius nlius in imperio diutius non fuisset, utlibet

17 se in suo statu res publica nostra tenuisset. sed
nimis sibi Fortuna indulgeiidum putavit, quae et cum
Valeriano bonos principes tulit et Gallienum diutius
quam oportebat rei publicae reservavit.

AUREOLUS

XI. Hie quoque Illyricianos exercitus regens in
contemptu Gallieni, ut omnes eo tempore, coactus

2 a militibus sumpsit imperium. et cum Macrianus
cum filio suo Macriano contra Gallienum venire t cum
plurimis, exercitus eius cepit, aliquos corruptos fidei

3 suae addixit. et cum factus esset hinc validus 1 im-
perator cumque Gallienus expugnare virum fortem

1 hinc. validity Salni., Peter; invalidus P, 2.

1 Despite the assurance contained in 6-7, practically our
only information concerning this really important man comes
from Zonaras (xii. 24). Aureolus as commander of Gallienus'
cavalry contributed greatly to the successful battle against
Ingenuus. Later he was sent to Thrace to oppose the advance
of Macrianus (c. xii. 13-14; Gall., ii. 6-7), whose troops he
persuaded to surrender without a battle. In 268 he declared
himself emperor and advanced on Milan. Here Gallienus

90



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS X. 15 XI. 3

and Aureolus, who all were slain while they held
the imperial power, although they deserved to hold
it. It was, moreover, a matter for marvel in Valerian
as emperor, that all who were appointed commanders
by him, afterwards, by the voice of the soldiers, ob-
tained the imperial rule, so that it is clear that the
aged emperor, in choosing the generals of the common-
wealth, was, in fact, such an one as the felicity of
Rome could it only have been permitted by fate to
continue under a worthy prince ever required. Oh
that it might have been possible either for those who
seized the imperial power to rule for a longer time, or
for this man's son to rule less long, that somehow our
commonwealth might have kept itself in its proper
position ! But Fortune claimed for herself too much
indulgence, when with Valerian she took away our
righteous princes, and preserved Gallienus for the
commonwealth longer than was meet.

AUREOLUS

XI. This man 1 also, while commanding the Illyrian
armies, was urged on by the soldiers in their con-
tempt for Gallienus (as were all others at that time)
and so seized the imperial power. And when Macri-
anus and his son Macrianus marched against Gallienus
with very large forces, he took their troops, and some
he won over to his cause by bribery. When Aureolus
had thus become a mighty emperor, Gallienus, after
trying in vain to conquer so brave a man and being

besieged him but fell during the siege (see Gall., xiv. 6-9).
After his death Aureolus submitted to Claudius but again
planned a revolt, at the outset of which he was killed by his
Boldiers (Claud., v. 1-3).

91



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

frustra temptasset, pacem cum eo fecit 1 contra Postu-
mum pugnaturus. quorum pleraque et dicta sunt et
dicenda.

4 Hunc eundem Aureolum Claudius interfecto iam
Gallieno conflictu habito apud eum pontem interemit
qui nunc pons Aureoli nuncupatur, atque illic ut

6 tyrannum sepulchre humiliore donavit. exstat etiam
nunc epigramma Graecum in hanc formam :

Dono sepulchrorum victor post multa tyranni

proelia iam felix Claudius Aureolum
munere prosequitur mortali et iure superstes,

vivere quern vellet, si pateretur amor
militis egregii, vitam qui iure negavit

omnibus indignis et magis Aureolo.
ille tamen clemens, qui corporis ultima servans

et pontem Aureoli dedicat et tumulum.

6hos ego versus a quodam grammatico translates ita
posui ut fidem servarem, non quo non 2 melius potu-
erint transferri, sed ut fidelitas historica servaretur,
quam ego prae ceteris custodiendam putavi, qui quod

Vad eloquentiam pertinet nihil euro, rem enim vobis

1 fecit 2, Hohl ; om. in P ; ins. after pugnaturiia by Peter.
a non om. *n P.



1 Mod. Pontirolo on the Adda, about 20 miles N.E. of
Milan.

2 The epigram is given in a Greek version, apparently by
Andrea Alciatus, in 7. G., xiv. no. 355* (p. 32*).

2



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XI. 4-7

now on the point of beginning a war against Postumus,
made peace with him of which events many have
already been related and many are still to be told.

This same Aureolus, after Gallienus was slain,
Claudius met in battle and killed at that bridge
which now bears the name of Aureolus' Bridge, 1 and
there he bestowed upon him a tomb, but a lowly one
as became a pretender. There is even now in exist-
ence an epigram in Greek 2 of the following purport :

"Sepulture's gift, after many a battle against the

pretender,

Claudius, flushed with success, gives to Aureolus now,
Doing him honour in death, himself the rightful

survivor.

Fain had he kept him alive, only his glorious troops
Suffered it not in their love ; for they put out of life

very rightly
All who deserved not to live why not Aureolus

more ?
Merciful, though, was that prince, who preserved

what was left of his body,
And in Aureolus' name built both a bridge and a

tomb."

These verses, translated by a certain teacher of
grammar, I have given in such a way that their
accuracy is retained, although they could be trans-
lated more elegantly ; but I do it with the purpose
of preserving historical truth, which I have thought
should be guarded above all else, and caring naught
for considerations of literary style. For, indeed, it is
fact that I have determined to put before you and
not mere words, especially when we have such an

93



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

proposui deferre, lion verba, maxime tanta rerum
copia ut in triginta tyrannorum simul vitis.

MACRIANUS

XII. Capto Valeriano, diu clarissimo principe civi-
tatis, fortissimo deinde imperatori, ad postremum om-
nium infelicissimo, vel quod senex apud Persas con-
senuit vel quod indignos se posteros derel quit, cum
Gallienum coritemnendum Ballista praefectus Valeri-
ani et Macrianus primus ducum 1 intellegerent, quae-
rentibus etiam militibus principem, unum in locum
2 concesserunt quaerentes quid faciendum esset. tunc-
que constitit, Gallieno longe posito Aureolo usurpante
imperium, debere aliquem principem fieri, et quidem

5 optimum, lie quispiam tyrannus exsisteret. verba
igitur Ballistae (quantum Maeonius Astyanax, qui

4consilio interfuit, adserit) haec fuerunt : " Mea et
aetas et professio et voluntas longe ab imperio absunt,
et ego, quod negare non possum, bonum principem

5quaero. sed quis tandem est, qui Valtriani locum
possit implere, nisi talis qualis tu es, fortis, con-
stans, integer, probatus in re publica et, quod

6 maxime ad imperium pertinet, dives ? arripe igitur

1 ducum Salm. ; dum P, 27.



1 M. Fulvius Macrianus Augustus. As Valerian's Ko/j.rjs
Ttav drjffavpwv Kal ttyfffTws rp ayopa rov airov he was not
present when the Emperor was captured ; later he succeeded
in rallying the soldiers at Samo?ata ; see Continuator of
Cassius Dio, frg. 159 (ed. Boissevain, iii. p. 742). Further
details of his revolt in 261, as described here, are given in
Gall., i-ii. and in Zonaras, xii. 24. His coins show that the
correct form of his name and his Bon's is Macrianus, and not

94



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XTI. 1-6

abundance of facts as in the lives of the thirty
pretenders taken together.

MACRIANUS i

XII. After the capture of Valerian, long a most
noble prince in the state, then a most valiant emperor,
but at the last the most unfortunate of all men (either
because in his old age he pined away among the
Persians or because he left behind him unworthy
descendants), Ballista, 2 Valerian's prefect, and Macri-
anus, the foremost of his generals, since they knew
that Gallienus was worthy only of contempt and since
the soldiers, too, were seeking an emperor, withdrew
together to a certain place, to consider what should
be done. They then agreed that, since Gallienus
was far away and Aureolus was usurping the imperial
power, some emperor ought to be chosen, and, indeed,
the best man, lest there should arise some pretender.
Therefore Ballista (or so Maeonius Astyanax, 3 who
took part in their council, relates) spoke as follows :
" As for myself, my age and my calling and my
desires are all far removed from the imperial office,
and so, as I cannot deny, I am searching for a
worthy prince. But who, pray, is there who can fill
the place of Valerian except such a man as yourself,
brave, steadfast, honourable, well proved in public
affairs, and what is of the highest importance for
holding the imperial office possessed of great wealth ?

Maori n us, as it frequently appears in the MSS. of the Historia
Augusta and in other authors ; see Cohen, vi. 2 pp. 2-3. Papyri
dated in the first year of Macrianus and Quietus (c. xiv.) show
that they were accepted in Egypt as emperors in 260.
2 See c. xviii. 3 Otherwise unknown.

95



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

locum meritis tuis debitum. me praefecto, quamdiu
voles, uteris. tu cum re publica tantum bene agas,

7 ut te Romanus orbis factum principem gaudeat." ad
haec Macrianus : " Fateor, Ballista, imperium prudent!
non frustra est. volo enim rei publicae subvenire
atque illam pestem a legum gubernaculis dimovere,
sed non hoc in me aetatis est ; senex sum, ad exem-
plum equitare non possum, lavandum mihi est fre-
quentius, edendum delicatius, divitiae me iam dudum

Sab usu militiae retraxerunt. iuvenes aliqui sunt quae-
rendi, nee unus sed duo vel tres fortissimi, qui ex
diversis partibus l orbis humani rem publicam resti-
tuant, quam Valerianus fato, Gallienus vitae suae

9genere perdideruiit." post haec intellexit eum Bal-
lista sic agere ut de filiis suis videretur cogitare, atque
adeo sic adgressus est : " Prudentiae tuae rem publi-

10 cam tradimus. da igitur liberos tuos Macrianum et
Quietum, fortissimos iuvenes, olim tribunes a Valeri-
ano factos, quia Gallieno imperante, quod boni sunt,

11 salvi esse non possunt." tune ille ubi intellectum
se esse comperit, "Do," inquit, "manus, de meo
stipendium militi duplex daturus. tu tantum prae-
fecti mihi studium et annonam in necessariis locis
praebe. iam ego faxim ut Gallienus, sordidissimus
feminarum omnium, duces sui parentis intellegat."

1 partibu* 2 ; patribua P.

96



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XII. 7-11

Therefore, take this post which your merits deserve.
My services as prefect shall be yours as long as you
wish. Do you only serve the commonwealth well,
so that the Roman world may rejoice that you have
been made its prince." To this Macrianus replied :
" I admit, Ballista, that to the wise man the imperial
office is no light thing. For I wish, indeed, to come
to the aid of the commonwealth and to remove that
pestiferous fellow from administering the laws, but I
am not of an age for this ; I am now an old man, I
cannot ride as an example to others, I must bathe too
often and eat too carefully, and my very riches have
long since kept me away from practicing war. We
must seek out some young men, and not one alone,
but two or three of the bravest, who in different parts
of the world of mankind can restore the common-
wealth, which Valerian and Gallienus have brought
to ruin, the one by his fate, the other by his mode
of life." Whereupon Ballista, perceiving that Macri-
anus, in so speaking, seemed to have in mind his own
two sons, answered him as follows : " To your wisdom,
then, we entrust the commonwealth. And so give
us your sons Macrianus and Quietus, most valiant
young men, long since made tribunes by Valerian,
for, under the rule of Gallienus, for the very reason
that they are good men, they cannot remain un-
harmed/' Then Macrianus, finding out that his
thoughts had been understood, replied : " I will yield,
and from my own funds I will present to the soldiers
a double bounty. Do you but give me your zealous
service as prefect and furnish rations in the needful
places. I will now do my best that Gallienus, more
contemptible than any woman, may come to know his
father's generals." And so, with the consent of all

97



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

12 tactus est igltur cum Macriano et Quieto duobus filiis
cunctis militibus volentibus imperator ac statim contra
Gallienum venire coepit utcumque rebus in oriente

13 clerelictis. sed cum quadraginta quinque milia mili-
tum secum duceret, in Illyrico vel in Thraciarum
extimis congressus cum Aureolo victus et cum filio

14 interemptus est. triginta denique milia militum in
Aureoli potestatem concessere. Domitianus autem
eundem vicit, dux Aureoli fortissimus et vehementis-
simus, qui se originem diceret a Domitiano impera-
tore J trahere atque a Domitilla.

15 De Macriano autem iiefas mihi videtur iudicium
Valeriani praeterire, quod ille in oratione sua, quam
ad senatum e Persidis finibus miserat, posuit. inter

16 cetera ex oratione divi Valeriani : " Ego, patres con-
scripti, bellum Persicum gerens Macriano totam rem
pubiicam credidi et 2 quidem a parte militari. ille
vobis fidelis, ille mihi devotus, ilium et amat et timet
miles, utcumque res exegerit, cum exercitibus agit.

17 nee, patres conscripti, nova vel inopina nobis sunt ;
pueri eius virtus in Italia, adulescentis in Gallia,
iuvenis in Thracia, in Africa iam provecti, senescentis
denique in Illyrico et Dalmatia comprobata est,
cum in diversis proeliis ad exemplum fortiter faceret.

] imperatore ins. by P corr., foil, by Klotz ; om. by Peter
and Hohl. -etom. in P.



1 Mentioned also in c. xiii. 3 and Gall., ii. C. He is probably
the pretender of this name who arose under Aurelian ; see
Zosimus, i. 49, 2. A coin of his has been found in France on
which he bears the titles Caesar and Augustus ; see Babelon in
Compt.es Rendus de VAcad. des Inscrs , 1901, p. 200. His
descent is evidently a fabrication of the biographer's, for

98



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XIJ. 12-17

the soldiers, Macrianus was made emperor, together
with his two sons Macrianus and Quietus, and he
immediately proceeded to march against Gallienus,
leaving affairs in the East in whatever state he could.
But while he was on the march, having with him a
force of forty-five thousand soldiers, he met Aureolus
in Illyricum or on the borders of Thrace, and there
he was defeated and together with his son was slain.
Then thirty thousand of his men yielded to Aureolus'
power. It was Domitianus, 1 indeed, who won this
victory, the bravest and most active of Aureolus'
leaders, who claimed to be the descendant of the
Emperor Domitian and Domitilla.

In writing of Macrianus, moreover, it would seem
to me wrong to leave out the opinion of Valerian,
which he expressed in the message he sent to the
senate from the frontier of Persia. A portion of the
message of the Deified Valerian : " Being now en-
gaged in the war with the Persians, Conscript Fathers,
I have entrusted all public affairs, and even those
which concern the war, to Macrianus. He is faithful
to you, loyal to me, and both beloved and feared by
the soldiers. He with his army Will act as the case
shall demand. And in this, Conscript Fathers, there
is nothing new or unexpected by us. For while a
boy in Italy, while a youth in Gaul, while a young
man in Thrace, while a mature man in Africa, and,
finally, while well advanced in years in Illyricum and
Dalmatia, his valour has been well proved, for in
divers battles he has done brave deeds which may
serve as a pattern to others. I will add, besides,
that he has young sons, worthy of being our associates

Domitilla was Domitian's niece, not his wife ; the latter was
Domitia Longina.

99



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

18 hue accedit quod habet iuvenes filios Romano dignos 1
collegio, nostra dignos l amicitia," et reliqua.



MACRIANUS IUNIOR

XIII. Multa de hoc in patris imperio praelibata
sunt, qui numquam imperator factus esset, nisi pru-

2dentiae patvis eius creditum videretur. de hoc plane
multa miranda dicuntur, quae ad fortitudinem pertin-
eant iuvenalis aetatis. sed quid 2 ad fata aut quantum

3 in bellis unius valet fortitude? hie enim vehemens
cum prudentissimo patre, cuius merito imperare
coeperat, a Domitiano victus triginta (dixi superius)
milibus militum spoliatus est, matre nobilis, patre
tantum forti et ad bellum parato atque ab ultima
militia in summum perveniente ducatum splendore
sublimi.

QUIETUS

XIV. Hie, ut diximus, Macriani filius fuit. cum
patre et fratre Ballistae iudicio imperator est factus.
sed ubi comperit Odaenathus, qui olim iam orientem
tenebat, ab Aureolo Macrianum, patrem Quieti, cum

1 dignos 2 ; dignus P, Peter, Hohl. 2 quid ins. by Helm,
foil, by Hohl ; om. in P and 27 ; ad fata aut in bellis quantum
Peter following Salm. and Obrecht.



J T. Fulvius lunius Macrianus Augustus, according to his
coins; see Cohen, vi. 2 pp. 3-6.

2 T. Fulvius lunius Quietus Augustus, according to his coins ;
see Cohen, vi. 2 pp. 6-8. For his death, see c. xv. 4 and Gall.,
iii. 2. According to Zonaras (xii. 24), he was defeated near

100



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XII. 18 XIV. 1

in Rome and worthy, too, of our friendship/' and so
forth.

MACRIANUS THE YOUNGER

XIII. I have already given a foretaste, in the
account of his father's rule, of many details about this
man, 1 who would never have been chosen emperor,
had it not seemed well to trust to his father's wisdom.
Many marvellous stories, it is true, are related con-
cerning him, all of which have to do with the bravery
of youthful years. But what, after all, does one
single man's bravery avail against fate or how much
does it profit in war ? For, though active himself and
accompanied by the wisest of fathers (through whose
merits he had begun to rule), he was defeated by
Domitianus, and despoiled, as I have previously said,
of an army of thirty thousand soldiers, being himself
of noble birth through his mother, for his father was
merely brave and ready for war, and had risen from
the lowest rank in the army with exalted distinction
to the highest command.

QUIETUS

XIV. This man, 2 as we have said, 3 was the son of
Macrianus and was made emperor, along with his
father and brother, in accordance with the judgement
of Ballista. But when Odaenathus, who had now
for some time held the East, learned that the two
Macriani, the father and brother of Quietus, had been

Emesa (Horns) by Odaenathus and then put to death by the
people of "the city.
o. xii. 12.

101



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS

eius fratre Macriano victos, milites in eius potestatera
concessisse, quasi Gallieni partes vindicaret, adules-
centem cum Ballista praefecto dudum interemit.

2 idem quoque adulescens dignissimus Romano imperio
fiiit, ut vere Macriani filius, Macriani etiam frater,
qui duo adflictis rebus potuerunt rem publicam gerere,
videretur.

3 Non mihi praetereundum videtur de Macrianorum
familia, quae hodieque floret, id dicere quod speciale

4 semper habuerunt. Alexandrum Magnum Mace-
donem viri in anulis et argento, mulieres et in reti-
culis et dextrocheriis et in anulis et in omni orna-
mentorum genere exsculptum semper habuerunt, eo
usque ut tunicae et limbi et paenulae matronales in
familia eius hodieque sint, quae Alexandri effigiem de

5 liciis variantibus monstrent. vidimus proxime Corne-
lium Macrum ex eadem familia virum, cum cenam in
Templo Herculis daret, pateram electrinam, quae in
medio vultum Alexandri haberet et in circuitu omnem
historian! contineret signis brevibus et minutulis,
pontifici propinare, quam quidem circumferri ad

6 omnes tanti illius viri cupidissimos iussit. quod
idcirco posui quia dicuiitur iuvari in omni actu suo
qui Alexandrum expressum vel auro gestitant vel
argento.



1 These writers have a liking for representing descendants of
emperors or pretenders as alive in their own day ; see c. xxxiii.
5 ; Gord., xx. 6; Max.-Balb., xvi. 1 ; Aur., i. 3 ; xlii. 1 ; Prob.,
xxiv. 1; Firm., xiii. 5. Most of these persons are probably
fictitious.

102



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XIV. 2-6

defeated by Aureolus, and that their soldiers had
yielded to his power in the belief that he was uphold-
ing the cause of Gallienus, he put the young man to
death and with him Ballista, for a long time prefect.
This young man, too, was worthy to hold the power
at Rome, so that he seemed to be truly the son of
Macrianus and also the brother of Macrianus, who
together were well able to govern the commonwealth
in its stricken state.

It does not seem to me, in telling of the family of
the Macriani (which is still flourishing to-day), 1 that I
should fail to speak of a peculiar custom which they
have always observed. For an embossed head of
Alexander the Great of Macedonia was always used
by the men on their rings and their silver plate, and
by the women on their head-dresses, their bracelets,
their rings and ornaments of every kind, so that
even to-day there are still in that family tunics and
fillets and women's cloaks which show the likeness
of Alexander in threads of divers colours. We, our-
selves, recently saw Cornelius Macer, a man of that
same family, while giving a dinner in the Temple of
Hercules, 2 drink the health of a pontiff from a bowl
made of electrum, 3 which had in the centre the face
of Alexander and contained on the circumference his
whole history in small and minute figures, and this he
caused to be passed around to all the most ardent
admirers of that great hero. All this I have included
because it is said that those who wear the likeness of



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