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Alexander carved in either gold or silver are aided in
all that they do.

a There were several temples of Hercules in Home.
3 An alloy of gold and silver ; a somewhat similar bowl is
described in Martial, viii. 51.




XV. Nisi Odaenathus, princeps Palmyrenorum,
capto Valeriano, fessis Romanae rei publicae viribus,
sumpsisset imperium, in oriente perditae res essent.
2quare adsumpto nomine primum regali cum uxore
Zenobia et filio maiore, cui erat nomen H erodes,
minoribus Herenniano et Timolao collecto exercitu

3 contra Persas profectus est. Nisibin primum et
orientis pleraque cum omni Mesopotamia in potes-
tatem recepit, deinde ipsum regem victum fugere

4 coegit. postremo Ctesiphonta usque Saporem et
eius liberos persecutus captis concubinis, capta etiam
magna praeda ad orientem vertit, sperans quod Mac-
rianum, qui imperare contra Gallienum coeperat,
posset opprimere, sed illo iam profecto contra Aureo-
lum et contra Gallienum. eo interempto filium eius
Quietum interfecit, Ballista, ut plerique adserunt,

5 regnum usurpante, ne et ipse posset occidi. composite
igitur magna ex parte orientis statu a consobrino suo

1 Septimius Odaenathus, son of Septimius Hairanes. A
member of the most important family of Palmyra, he received
from the Roman government the title of consularis, which he
bears in an inscription of 258 (Lebas-Wad. 2602) and on his
coins. Later he received from Gallienus the office of (rrpar-ny'bs
TTJS 'Ecpas or ird<n)s 'Aj/aroATjs ; see Zonaras, xii. 23-24 and
Syncellus, I., p. 716 (cf. Gall., iii. 3 ; x. 1). This indicates a
general imperium over all the Asiatic provinces and Egypt, but
subject to that of the Roman Emperor. He afterwards took
the title of King of Palmyra ( 2), and on a Palniyrene inscrip-
tion set up in 271 after his death he is called " King of Kings."
There is no evidence that he ever received the title of Augustus




XV. Had not Odaenathus, 1 prince of the Palmy-
renes, seized the imperial power after the capture of
Valerian, when the strength of the Roman state was
exhausted, all would have been lost in the East. He
assumed, therefore, as the first of his line, the title of
King, and after gathering together an army he set
out against the Persians, having with him his wife
Zenobia, 2 his elder son, whose name was Herodes,
and his younger sons, Herennianus and Timolaus. 3
First of all, he brought under his power Nisibis and
most of the East together with the whole of Meso-
potamia, next, he defeated the king himself and
compelled him to flee. Finally, he pursued Sapor
and his children even as far as Ctesiphon, and cap-
tured his concubines and also a great amount of booty ;
then he turned to the oriental provinces, hoping to
be able to crush Macrianus, 4 who had begun to rule
in opposition to Gallienus, but he had already set out
against Aureolus and Gallienus. After Macrianus
was slain, Odaenathus killed his son Quietus also,
while Ballista, many assert, usurped the imperial
power 5 in order that he, too, might not be slain.
Then, after he had for the most part put in order
the affairs of the East, he was killed by his cousin

from Gallienus (Gall., xii. 1), or assumed it himself, or in any
way formally rebelled against the power of Rome, although in
fact his position was almost that of an independent prince. On
his suppression of the revolt of Quietus see also c. xiv. 1 and
Gall., iii. 1-5, and on his invasion of Mesopotamia after the
capture of Valerian see VaL, iv. 2-4 ; Gall., x. 3-8 ; xii. 1.

2 See c. xxx. 3 See c. xxvii-xxviii.

4 See c. xii. See note to c. xviii. 1.



Maeonio. qui et ipse imperium sumpserat, interemptus
e^t cum tilio suo Herode, qui et ipse post reditum de

6 Perside cum patre imperator est appellatus. iratum
fuisse rei publicae deum credo, qui interfeeto Valeri-

7 ano noluit Odaenathum reservare. ille plane cum
uxore /enobia non solum orientem, quern iam in
pristimim reformaverat statum, sed et omnes omnino
totius orbis partes refonnasset, vir aeer in bellis et,
quantum plerique scriptores loquuntur, venatu me-
morabili semper inclitus, qui a prima aetate capiendis
leonibus et pardis. ursis ceterisque silvestribus ani-
mal ibus sudorem orticii virilis impendit quique semper
in silvis ac montibtis \\xit, perferens calorem, pluvias
et omnia mala quae in se continent venatoriae volup-

S tates. quibus duratus solem ac pulverem in bellis
Persieis tulit, non aliter etiain coniuj^e adsueta, quae
nuiltorum sententia fortior marito fuisse perhibetur,
mulier omnium nobilissima orientalium feminarum et,
ut Cornelius Capitolinus adserit. speciosissima. 1


X\ I. Non /enobia matre sed priore uxore genitus
Herodes cum patre accepit imperium. homo omnium
delicatissimus et prorsus orientalis et Graecae luxuriae,

x ' v "'' l saet w "/ P : .

1 See also cV t i//., xiii. 1. On Maeouius, see note to c. xvii. 1.
According to Zosimus. i. 3,\ - 2, the murder took place at Emesa
(Horns); it eau be dated in -JtH^-JOT. as Alexandrian coins show
this to be the first year of Vaballathus. Odaeuathus' son and

- Otherwise unknown and perhaps fictitious.

8 Mentioned also in c. xv. -2 and 5 ; xvii. 1 ; Gall., xiii. 1.
The statement that he wa-^ killed with his father seems to



Maeonius ] (who also had seized the imperial power),
together with his son H erodes, who, also, after return-
ing from Persia along with his father, had received the
title of emperor. Some god, I believe, was angry
with the commonwealth, who, after Valerian's death,
was unwilling to preserve Odaenathus alive. For of
a surety he, with his wife Zenobia, would have re-
stored not only the East, which he had already
brought back to its ancient condition, but also all
parts of the whole world everywhere, since he was
fierce in warfare and, as most writers relate, ever
famous for his memorable hunts ; for from his earliest
years he expended his sweat, as is the duty of a man,
in taking lions and panthers and bears and other
beasts of the forest, and always lived in the woods
and the mountains, enduring heat and rain and all
other hardships which pleasures of hunting entail.
Hardened by these he was able to bear the sun and
the dust in the wars with the Persians ; and his wife,
too, was inured to hardship and in the opinion of
many was held to be more brave than her husband,
being, indeed, the noblest of all the women of the
East, and, as Cornelius Capitolinus 2 declares, the most


XVI. Herodes, 3 who was the son, not of Zenobia,
but of a former wife of Odaenathus, received the
imperial power along with his father, though he was
the most effeminate of men, wholly oriental and given
over to Grecian luxury, for he had embroidered tents

be borne out by Zonaras (xii. 24), who says that Odaenathus'
older son was killed with him.



cui erant sigillata tentoria et aureati papiliones et

2omnia Persica. denique ingenio eius usus Odaenathus

quicquid concubinarum regalium, quicquid divitiarum

gemmarumque cepit, eidem tradidit paternae indul-

Sgentiae adfectione permotus. et erat circa ilium

Zenobia novercali animo, qua re commendabiliorem

patri eum fecerat. neque plura sunt quae de Herode



XVII. Hie consobrinus Odaenathi fuit nee ulla re
alia ductus nisi damnabili invidia imperatorem optimum
interemit, cum ei nihil aliud obiceret praeter filium

2 Herodem. 1 dicitur autem primum cum Zenobia con-
sensisse, quae ferre non poterat ut privignus eius
Herodes priore loco quam filii eius, Herennianus et
Timolaus, principes dicerentur. sed hie quoque spur-

3 cissimus fuit. quare imperator appellatus per errorem
brevi a militibus pro suae luxuriae meritis interemptus


XVIII. De hoc, utrum imperaverit, scriptores inter
se ambigunt. multi enim dicunt Quieto per Odae-

1 So Salm. foil, by Peter ; filii herodes P ; filii Herodis
Helm foil, by Hohl.

!Cf. c. xv. 4 ; Val., iv. 3.

9 He is represented here, as well as in c. xv. 5 and Gall., xiii.
1, as Odaenathus' cousin, but in Zonaras (xii. 24) as his nephew.
Here and in c. xv. 5 his name is given as Maeonius, while
Syncellus (I. p. 717) knows him as Odaenathus, and the
Continuator of Cassius Dio frg. 166 (ed. Boissevain., iii p. 744),
as Kufinus. The statement that he was vested with the
imperial power and not killed until later seems to be an
invention of the biographer's, due to his desire to swell the



and pavilions made out of cloth of gold and every-
thing in the manner of the Persians. In fact,
Odaenathus, complying with his ways and moved by
the promptings of a father's indulgence, gave him all
the king's concubines 1 and the riches and jewels
that he captured. Zeiiobia, indeed, treated him in
a step-mother's way, and this made him all the more
dear to his father. Nothing more remains to be said
concerning Herodes.


XVII. This man, 2 the cousin ot Odaenathus,
murdered that excellent emperor, being moved
thereto by nothing else than contemptible envy,
for he could bring no charge against him save that
Herodes was his son. It is said, however, that previ-
ously he had entered into a conspiracy with Zenobia,
who could not bear that her stepson Herodes should
be called a prince in a higher rank than her own two
sons, Herennianus and Timolaus. But Maeonius,
too, was a filthy fellow, and so, after being saluted as
emperor through some blunder, he was shortly there-
after killed by the soldiers, as his excesses deserved.


XVIII. As to whether this man 3 held the imperial
power or not historians do not agree. For many

number of his " Thirty." According to Zonaras he was killed
immediately after the murder.

3 On his services in aiding Odaenathus to repel the Persians
after Valerian's capture, see VaL, iv. 4 ; Zonaras, xii. 23 (where
he is called Callistus). On his co-operation with Macrianus and
bis sons and his death, see c. xii. 1-3; xiv. 1; xv. 4; Gall., i. 2-4;
iii. 2. There is no evidence for the statement that he assumed
the purple.



nathum occiso Ballistae veniam datam et tamen eum

imperasse, quod nee Gallieno nee Aureolo nee Odae-

2natho se crederet. alii adserunt privatum eum in

agro suo, quern apud Daphnidem sibi compararat, in-

3 teremptum. multi et sumpsisse ilium purpuram, ut
more Romano imperaret, et exercitum duxisse et de
se plura promisisse dixerunt, occisum autem per eos
quos Aureolus miserat ad comprehendendum Quietum,
Macriani filium, quern praedam suam esse dicebat.

4 fuit vir insignis, eruditus ad gerendam rem publicam,
in consiliis vehemens, in expeditionibus clarus, in
provisione annonaria singularis, Valeriano sic ac-
ceptus ut eum quibusdam Htteris hoc testimonio pro-
secutus sit :

5 "Valerianus Ragonio Claro praefecto Illyrici et
Galliarum. si quid in te bonae frugis est, quam esse
scio, parens Clare, dispositiones tu Ballistae perse-

6 quere. his rem publicam informa. videsne ut ille
provinciales non gravet, ut illic equos contineat ubi
sunt pabula, illic annonas militum mandet ubi sunt
frumenta, non provincialem, non possessorem cogat
illic frumenta ul3i non habet dare, illic equum ubi non

7 potest pascere ? nee est ulla alia provisio melior quam
ut in locis suis erogentur quae nascuntur, ne aut vehi-

8 culis aut sumptibus rem publicam gravent. Galatia
frumentis abundat, referta est Thracia, plenum est
Illyricum ; illic pedites conlocentur, quamquam in

1 Presumably Daphne near Antioch.

2 Otherwise unknown and probably, like the letter, fictitious.



assert that when Quietus was killed by Odaenathus,
Ballista was pardoned, but nevertheless took the
imperial power, putting no trust in either Gallienus
or Aureolus or Odaenathus. Others, again, declare
that while still a commoner he was killed on the
lands which he had bought for himself near Daphne. 1
Many, indeed, have said that he assumed the purple
in order to rule in the Roman fashion, and that he
took command of the army and made many promises
on his own account, but was killed by those de-
spatched by Aureolus for the purpose of seizing
Quietus, Macrianus' son, who, Aureolus averred, was
his own due prey. He was a notable man, skilled
in administering the commonwealth, vehement in
counsel, winning fame in campaigns, without an equal
in providing for rations, and so highly esteemed by
Valerian that in a certain letter he honoured him
with the following testimony :

" From Valerian to Ragonius Clarus, 2 prefect of
Illyricum and the provinces of Gaul. If you are
a man of good judgement, my kinsman Clarus, as
I know that you are, you will carry out the arrange-
ments of Ballista. Model your government on them.
Do you see how he refrains from burdening the
provincials, how he keeps the horses in places where
there is fodder and exacts the rations for his soldiers
in places where there is grain, how he never compels
the provincials or the land-holders to furnish grain
where they have no supply, or horses where they
have no pasture ? There is no arrangement better
than to exact in each place what is there produced,
so that the commonwealth may not be burdened by
transport or other expenses. Galatia is rich in grain,
Thrace is well stocked, and Illyricum is filled with



Thracia etiam equites sine noxa provincialium hiemare

possint. multum enim ex campis faeni colligitur.

9 iam vinum, 1 laridum, iam ceterae species in iis dandae

10 sunt locis, in quibus adfatim redundant, quae omnia
sunt Ballistae consilia, qui ex quadam provincia
unam tantum speciem praeberi iussit, quod ea redun-
daret, atque ab ea milites submoveri. id quod pub-
licitus est decretum."

11 Est et alia eius epistula qua gratias Ballistae agit, 2
in qua docet sibi praecepta gubernandae rei publicae
ab eodem data, gaudens quod eius consilio nullum
adscripticium (id est vacantem) haberet tribunum, 3
nullum stipatorem, qui non vere aliquid ageret,
nullum militem, qui non vere pugnaret.

12 Hie igitur vir in tentorio suo Cubans a quodam gre-
gario milite in Odaenathi et Gallieni gratiam dicitur

13 mteremptus. de quo ipse vera non satis comperi,
idcirco quod scriptores temporum de huius praefectura
multa, de imperio pauca dixerunt.


XIX. Hie vir militaris, simul etiam civilium virtu-
turn gloria pollens, proconsulatum Achaiae dato a
2Gallieno tune honore gubernabat. quern Macrianus
vehementer reformidans, simul quod in omni genere

1 iam uinnm Peter, 3 Hohl ; iam in P. 2 agit S, Lessing,
Hohl; ait P, Peter. 3 tribnnnm Cornelissen foil, by

Hohl ; et tribunum P, Peter.

1 See also c. xxi. 2 and Gall., ii. 2-4. He is also said in
Epit., 32, 4 to have declared himself emperor in Macedonia,
and he is listed with Aureolus, Postumus and Ingenuus as an
opponent of Gallienus by Ammianus Marcellinus, xxi. 16, 10,
but no coins of his are known.



it ; so let the foot-soldiers be quartered in these
regions, although in Thrace cavalry, too, can winter
without damage to the provincials, since plenty of
hay can be had from the fields. As for wine and
bacon and other forms of food, let them be handed
out in those places in which they abound in plenty.
All this is the policy of Ballista, who gave orders that
any province should furnish only one form of food,
namely that in which it abounded, and that from it
the soldiers should be kept away. This, in fact, has
been officially decreed."

There is also another letter, in which he gives
thanks to Ballista, showing that he himself had
received from him instruction in governing the state,
and expressing his pleasure that he had on his staff
no supernumerary tribune (that is, one unassigned to
some duty), no one in attendance who did not truly
perform some office, and no soldier who was not truly
a fighter.

This man, then, while resting in his tent was slain,
it is said, by a certain common soldier, in order to
gain the favour of Odaenathus and Gallienus. I,
however, have not been able to find out sufficiently
the truth concerning him, because the writers of his
time have related much about his prefecture but
little about his rule.


XIX. This man, 1 a warrior and at the same time
excelling in glory for his qualities as a citizen, was
holding the proconsulship of Achaea, an honour con-
ferred on him by Gallienus. Macrianus feared him
greatly, both because he had learned that he was
distinguished for his whole manner of life and because



vitae satis clarum iiorat, simul quod inimicurn sibi
esse invidia virtutum sciebat, misso Pisone, nobilis-
simae tune et consularis familiae viro, interfici prae-
Scepit. Valens diligentissime cavens et providens
neque aliter sibi posse subveniri aestimans sumpsit
imperium et brevi a militibus interemptus est.


XX. Et bene venit in mentem, ut, cum de hoc
Valente loquimur, etiam de illo Valente qui superiorum
principum temporibus interemptus est aliquid dicere-

2 mus. nam huius Valentis, qui sub Gallieno imperavit,
avunculus magnus fuisse perhibetur. alii tantum

Savunculum dicunt. sed par in ambobus fuit fortuna, 1
nam et ille, cum 2 paucis diebus Illyrico imperasset,
occisus est.


XXI. Hie a Macriano ad interficiendum Valentem
missus, ubi eum providum futurorum imperare cog-
novit, Thessaliam concessit atque illic paucis sibi
consentientibus sumpsit imperium Thessalicusque ap-
pellatus vi 3 interemptus est, vir summae sanctitatis

1 forma P. "cum om. in P ; ins. by Hohl ; before ille

in 2. 3 ui P ; om. by Peter and Hohl.

1 Probably Julius Yalens Liciniauus is meant, who pro-
claimed himself emperor in Rome during the absence of the
Emperor Decius in the war against the Goths in 250, but was
promptly put to death ; see Aur. Victor, Caes., 29, 3 ; E^it.,
29, 5. As the biographer himself admits in c. xxxi. 8, he has
no place among the rivals of Gallienus, and he is inserted
solely for the purpose of increasing the number of Ti/ranni.



he knew him to be his enemy out of hatred for his
virtues. He therefore despatched Piso, a member of
a family then most noble and, in fact, of consular
rank, with orders to put him to death. Valens,
however, who kept a most careful watch, foreseeing
the future and believing that there was no other
means of protecting himself, seized the imperial power
and soon was slain by the soldiers.


XX. It has fortunately occurred to us that, in
speaking of this Valens, we should make some men-
tion also of the Valens l who was killed in the time
of the earlier emperors. For he, it is said, was the
great-uncle of the Valens who seized the power under
Gallienus. Others, however, assert that he was only
his uncle. But the fate of them both was alike, for
he, too, was killed after he had ruled for a few days
in Illyricum.


XXI. This man ' 2 was despatched by Macrianus to
kill Valens, but on learning that he, foreseeing the
future, had declared himself emperor, he withdrew
into Thessaly ; there by consent of a few he assumed
the imperial power, taking the surname Thessalicus,
but was then slain by violence. He was a man of
the utmost righteousness and during his life- time he

2 Known also from c. xix. 2 and Gall., ii. 2-4, but un-
mentioned by any other author. - That Macrianus during his
march through the Balkan Peninsula (see c. xii. 12-14) sent
a force into Macedonia (Achaea) is not improbable ; but no
coins of Piso's are known, and the story of his assumption of
the power, like the " *enatu$ consultum " conferring honours
on a rebel (I), must be regarded as fiction.



et temporibus suis Frugi dictus et qui ex ilia Pisonum
familia ducere originem diceretur cui se Cicero nobili-
2tandi causa sociaverat. hie omnibus principibus ac-
ceptissimus fuit. ipse denique Valens. qui ad eum
percussores misisse perhibetur, dixisse dicitur non sibi
apud deos inferos constare rationem, quod, quamvis
hostem suum, Pisonem tamen iussisset occidi, virum
cuius similem Romana res publica non haberet.

3 Senatus consultum de Pisone factum ad noscendam
eius maiestatem libenter inserui : Die septimo kal.
luliarum cum esset nuntiatum Pisonem a Valente in-
teremptum, ipsum Valentem a suis occisum, Arellius
Fuscus, consularis primae sententiae, qui in locum

4 Valeriani successerat, ait : " Consul, consule." cumque
consultus esset, " Divinos ' inquit, " honores Pisoni
decerno, patres conscripti, Gallienum et Valerianum
et Saloninum imperatores nostros esse id probaturos 1
confido. neque enim melior vir quisquam fuit neque

Sconstantior." post quern ceteri consulti 2 statuam
inter triumphales et currus quadriiugos Pisoni decre-

6verunt. sed statua eius videtur, quadrigae autem,
quae decretae fuerant, quasi transferendae ad alium

7 locum 3 positae sunt nee adhuc redditae. nam in his
locis fuerunt in quibus Thermae Diocletianae sunt
exaedificatae, tarn aeterni nominis quam sacrati.

1 id probaturos Salm. ; imperaturos P. 2 citer consuU-nm
P. a locum ins. by Richter aud Hohl ; om. in P and 2

alibi Peter.

1 Cicero's daughter Tullia was married to C. Calpurnius Piso
Frugi. They were betrothed in 67 B.C. after Cicero had been
elected praetor.

2 On such " senatus consulta " see note to VaL, v. 3.

3 A writer of this name (if Salmasius' conjecture be correct)
is cited in c. xxv. 2, but he may well be fictitious. Also an



was given the name Frugi, and he was said to derive
his descent from that family of Pisos with which
Cicero had formed an alliance for the purpose of
entering the nobility. 1 He was highly esteemed by
all the emperors ; in fact, Valens himself, who is said
to have sent the assassins against him, declared, it is
told, that never could he render account to the gods
of the lower world for having given an order to
put Piso to death, albeit his enemy, for his like the
Roman commonwealth did not contain.

I have gladly inserted the senate's decree 2 which
was passed concerning Piso, in order that his honours
may be made known : On the seventh day before the
Kalends of July, when word had been brought that
Piso was slain by Valens and Valens himself by his
own soldiers, Arellius Fuscus, 3 the consular whose
right it was to give his opinion first, having succeeded
to the place of Valerian, said : "Consul, consult us."
And on being asked his opinion, he said, " I propose
divine honours for Piso, Conscript Fathers, and I
firmly believe that this will be approved by our
emperors, Gallienus, Valerian, and Saloninus ; for
never was there a better man or a braver." After
him the others also on being consulted voted Piso
a statue among the triumphant generals and also
a four-horse chariot. His statue is still to be seen,
but the chariot which they decreed was erected only
to be moved elsewhere, and it has not yet been brought
back. For it was set up in the place where the Bath
of Diocletian 4 was afterwards built, destined to have
a name as undying as it is revered.

Arellius Fuscus was proconsul of Asia in 274-275, according to
Aur., xl. 4.

4 Now the Museo Nazionale delle Terme.




XXII. Est 1 hoc familiare populi Aegyptiorum ut
velut 2 furiosi ac dementes de levissimis quib usque 3 ad

2summa rei publicae pericula perducantur ; saepe illi
ob neglectas salutationes, locum in balneis non con-
cessum, carnem et olera sequestrata, calceamenta
servilia et cetera talia usque ad summum rei publicae
periculum in 4 seditiones, ita ut armarentur contra eas

Sexercitus, pervenerunt. familiari ergo sibi furore,
cum quadam die cuiusdam servus curatoris, qui Alex-
antlriam tune regebat, militari ob hoc caesus esset
quod crepidas suas meliores esse quam militis diceret,
collecta multitude ad domum Aemiliani ducis venit
atque eum omni seditionum instrumento et furore
persecuta est ; ictus est lapidibus, petitus est ferro,

4 nee defuit 5 ullum seditionis telum. qua re coactus
Aemilianus sumpsit imperium, cum sciret sibi unde-

Scumque pereundum. consenserunt ei Aegyptiacus

Cexercitus, maxime in Gallieni odium, nee eius ad
regendam rem publicam vigor defuit, nam Thebaidem

1 est Peter ; et P. " uelut Baehrens, Peter 3 ; nel P, 27.

9 quibusq^le Editio Princ. ; quibus usque P; quibusque usque

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