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Peter. 4 in ins. by Petschenig and Hohl ; om. in P.

5 defuit God. Laurent, foil, by Peter; de P.

1 See also c. xxvi. 4 ; Gall., iv. 1-2 ; v. 6 ; ix. 1 ; He is also
mentioned in Epit., 32, 4. It is known from papyri that
L. Mussius Aemilianus and Aurelius Theodotos (3 8) were
prefects of Egypt, the former as late as Oct. 259, the latter in
August 262. Aemilianus would seem to have held central
Egypt (the Thebais) for Gallienus against Macrianus and
Quietus, who were acknowledged as emperors in lower Egypt
in 260. However, no genuine coins of his are known, and it is
unlikely that he ever assumed the imperial power ; therefore it




XXII. It is the wont of the people of Egypt that
like madmen and fools they are led by the most trivial
matters to become highly dangerous to the common-
wealth ; 2 for merely because a greeting was omitted,
or a place in the baths refused, or meat and vegetables
withheld, or on account of the boots of slaves or some
other such things, they have broken out into riots,
even to the point of becoming highly dangerous to
the state, so that troops have been armed to quell
them. With their wonted madness, accordingly, on
a certain occasion, when the slave of the chief magis-
trate 3 then governing Alexandria had been killed by
a soldier for asserting that his sandals were better
than the soldier's, a mob gathered together, and,
coming to the house of the general Aemiliaiius, it
assailed him with all the implements and the frenzy
usual in riots ; he was pelted with stones and attacked
with swords, and no kind of weapon used in a riot
was lacking. And so Aemilianus was constrained to
assume the imperial power, knowing well that he
would have to die in any event. To this step the
army in Egypt agreed, chiefly out of hatred for
Gallienus. He did not, indeed, lack energy for
administering public affairs. For he marched through
the district of Thebes and, in fact, the whole of

is hard to understand why he should have been arrested by order
of Gallienus ; see Milne in Journ. Egypt. Arch., ix. p. 80 f.

2 See also Firm., vii. 4.

3 On the curator rei publicae in the second century see note
to Marc., xi. 2. In the third century he became a regular
official, chosen by the local curia but ratified by the emperor
and charged with the general administration of the city with
control over the finances and the power to veto municipal



totamque Aegyptum peragravit et, quatenus potuit,
7 barbarorum gentes forti auctoritate summovit. Alex-
ander denique vel Alexandrinus (nam incertuin id
Squoque habetur) virtutum merito vocatus est. et
cum contra Indos pararet expeditionem, misso Theo-
doto duce Gallieno iubente dedit poenas, et 1 quidera
strangulatus in carcere captivorum veterum more per-

9 Tacendum esse 11011 credo quod, cum de 2 Aegypto
loquor, vetus suggessit historia, simul etiam Gallieni

10 factum. qui cum Theodoco vellet imperium procon-
sulare decernere, a sacerdotibus est probibitus, qui
dixerunt fasces consulares ingredi Alexandrian! non

11 licere. cuius rei etiam Ciceronem, cum contra Ga-
biiiium loquitur, meminisse satis novimus. denique

l^nunc 3 exstat memoria rei frequentatae. quare scire
oportet Herennium Celsum, vestrum parentem, cum*
consulatum cupit, hoc quod desiderat non licere.

13 fertur enim apud Memphim in aurea columna Aegyp-
tiis esse litteris scriptum tune demum Aegyptum
liberam fore cum in earn venissent Romani fasces et

14 praetexta Romanorum. quod apud Proculum gram-
maticum, doctissimum sui temporis virum, cum de
peregrinis regionibus loquitur, invenitur.

1 et Baehrens, Peter - ; sed P. 2 de 2, Peter ; om. in. P.

*nunc Petschenig, Peter ; non P. 4 cum ins. by Peter and

Hohl ; om. in P.

1 e.g., Juguitha and Veruingetorix, strangled in the Tullianum
at Borne.

8 Aulus Gabinius, who had restored Ptolemy Auletes to his
throne, was, on his return to Rome in 54, attacked by Cicero
in a speech now lost ; see Cassius Dio, xxxix. 62, 2.


Egypt, and to the best of his powers drove back the
barbarians with courage and firmness. Finally, he
won by his merits the name of Alexander, or else
Alexandrinus for this is considered uncertain. But
when he was making ready for a campaign against
the people of India, the general Theodotus was sent
against him by order of Gallienus, and so he suffered
punishment, for it is related that, like the captives ot
old, 1 he was strangled in prison.

Now, since I am speaking of Egypt, I think I must
not fail to relate what the history of former times has
suggested and, in connection therewith, a deed of
Gallienus. For when he wished to confer procon-
sular power on Theodotus, the priests forbade it,
saying that it was not lawful for the consular fasces
to be brought into Alexandria. This, we know well
enough, was mentioned by Cicero in his speech
against Gabinius, 2 and, in fact, it is still remembered
that this practice was maintained. Therefore, your 3
kinsman Herennius Celsus, 4 in seeking the consul-
ship, ought to know that what he desires is not law-
ful. For at Memphis, they say, it was written on
a golden column in Egyptian letters that Egypt would
at last regain its freedom when the Roman fasces and
the Roman bordered toga had been brought into the
land. This may be found in Proculus 5 the grammarian,
the most learned man of his time, in the place where
he tells of foreign countries.

3 On the person addressed see Vol. I., Intro., p. xiv.

4 Otherwise unknown.

'Possibly either Eutychius Proculus (Mare., ii. 3) or
Proklos, the author of a x^ (rTO / J -^ eia ypa-V-nariK-j cited by
Photios, but more probably, like the " inscription," fictitious.




XXIII. Optimus ducum Gallieni temporis, sed
2 Valeriano delectus, Saturninus fuit. hie quoque, cum

dissolutioiiem Gallieni, pernoctantis in publico, ferre
non posset et milites non exemplo imperatoris sui sed
suo regeret, ab exercitibus sumpsit imperium, vir pru-
dentiae singularis, gravitatis insignis, vitae amabilis,
Svictoriarum barbaris etiam ubique notarum. hie ea
die, qua est amictus a militibus peplo imperatorio,
contione adhibita dixisse fertur : " Commilitones,
bonum ducem perdidistis et malum principem fecistis."

4 denique cum multa strenue in imperio fecisset, quod
esset severior et gravior militibus ab iisdem ipsis a

5 quibus factus fuerat interemptus est. huius insigne
est quod convivio discumbere milites, ne inferiora
denudarentur, 1 cum sagis iussit, hieme gravibus,
aestate perlucidis.


XXIV. Interfecto Victorino et eius filio mater eius
Victoria sive Vitruvia Tetricum senatorem populi
Romani praesidatum in Gallia regentem ad imperium

1 denudarentur 2, Peter, Hohl ; nudarentur P.

1 Mentioned in Gall., ix. 1 and also in Firm., xi. 1, where
a careful distinction is made between him and the historical
Saturninus, a pretender of the time of Probus. In the lack of
any evidence for his existence he may be supposed to be merely
an invention of the biographer's.

2 C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus Augustus, according to his in-
scriptions and coins; see Cohen, vi. 2 pp. 91-115. His elevation
to power after the death of Victorinus is mentioned also in c. v.
3 and xxxi. 2, and Aur. Victor, Goes., 83, 14, and further details




XXIII. The best of the generals of the time of
Gallienus, though, in fact, he was chosen by Valerian,
was Saturninus. 1 He also, being unable to endure
the loose ways of Gallienus, who revelled all night in
public places, and preferring to command the soldiers
in his own way rather than in that of his emperor,
accepted the imperial power from the army. He was
a man unequalled in wisdom, outstanding in dignity,
lovable in his ways, and because of his victories well
known everywhere, even among the barbarians. On
the day on which the soldiers clothed him with the
imperial robe he called together an assembly, it is
related, and said : " Fellow-soldiers, you have lost
a good general and made a bad emperor." Finally,
after doing many vigorous deeds during his rule,
merely because he was too severe and too harsh to
the soldiers he was killed by those very men who
had made him emperor. He is famous for having
commanded the soldiers, when reclining at table, to
wear military cloaks in order that their lower limbs
might not be bared, heavy ones in winter and very
light ones in summer.


XXIV. After Victorinus 3 and his son were slain,
his mother Victoria (or Vitruvia) urged Tetricus, a
Roman senator then holding the governorship of

of his career are given by Butropius and Aurelius Victor. The
story concerning him is fairly consistent and in the main per-
haps correct, but he does not belong in the list of the pretenders
of the time of Gallienua, for he assumed the imperial power in
270 at the earliest.
8 See c. vi.



hortata, quod eius erat, ut plerique loquuntur, adfinis,
Augustum appellari fecit filiurnque eius Caesarem nun-

2 cupavit. et cum multa Tetricus feliciterque gessisset
diuque imperasset, ab Aureliano victus, cum militum
suorum impudentiam et procacitatem ferre non posset,
volens se gravissimo principi et severissimo dedit.

3 versus denique illius fertur, quern furtim l ad Aureli-
anum scripserat :

" Eripe me his, invicte, malis."

4 Quare cum Aurelianus nihil simplex neque mite aut
tranquillum facile cogitaret, senatorem populi Romani
eundemque consularem, qui iure praesidali omnes
Gallias rexerat, per triumphum duxit, eodem tempore
quo et Zenobiam Odaenathi uxorem cum filiis minori-

6 bus Odaenathi, Hereniiiano et Timolao. pudore
tamen victus vir nimium severus eum quern tri-
umphaverat correctorem totius Italiae fecit, id est
Campaniae, Samnii, Lucaniae, Bruttiorum, Apuliae,
Calabriae, Etruriae atque Umbriae, Piceni et Flam-
iniae omnisque annonariae regionis, ac Tetricum non
solum vivere, sed etiam in summa dignitate manere

1 furtim Peter; statim P, Hohl.

1 More correctly, Aquitania, according to Aur. Victor, Caes.
33, 14 and Eutropius, ix. 10 ; according to the latter he was ac-
claimed emperor by the soldiers at Bordeaux.

2 Apud Catalaunos (Chalons-sur-Marne) according to Eutro-
pius, ix. 13, 1 , who tells the same story of his surrender. Further
details are given by Aur. Victor, Cats., 35, 4-5.

3 Aeneid, vi. 365.

4 In 274 ; cf. c. xxx. 24-26 ; Aur., xxxii. 4 ; xxxiv. 2-3.

8 See c. xxvii.-xxviii.

6 Corrector Lucaniae, according to Aur., xxxix. 1 ; Aur.
Victor, Goes., 35, 5 ; Epit., 35, 7 ; Eutropius, ix. 13, 2. It



Gaul, 1 to take the imperial power, for the reason,
many relate, that he was her kinsman ; she then
caused him to be entitled Augustus and bestowed on
his son the nam^ of Caesar. But after Tetricus had
done many deeds with success and had ruled for a
long time he was defeated 2 by Aurelian, and, being
unable to bear the impudence and shamelessness of
his soldiers, he surrendered of his own free will to
this prince most harsh and severe. In fact, a quota-
tion of his is cited, which he secretly sent in writing
to Aurelian :

" Save me, O hero unconquered, from these my
misfortunes." 3

And so Aurelian, who did not readily plan aught
that was guileless or merciful or peaceful, led this
man, though he was a senator of the Roman people
and a consular and had ruled the provinces of Gaul
with a governor's powers, in his triumphal procession
at the same time 4 as Zeriobia, the wife of Odaenathus,
and the younger sons ,of Odaenathus, Herennianus
and Timolaus/' Aurelian, nevertheless, exceedingly
stern though he was, overcome by a sense of shame,
made Tetricus, whom lie had led in his triumph,
supervisor over the whole of Italy/' that is, over
Campania, Samnium, Lucania, Bruttium, Apulia,
Calabria, Etruria and Umbria, Picenum and the
Flaminian district, and the entire grain-bearing
region, and suffered him not only to retain his life

seems probable that this is the more correct version and that
the statement in the text is exaggerated, like that in 4, although
the earliest corrector of a district of Italy is found in an inscrip-
tion of 283-284 and occasional instances of correctores of all
Italy are found earlier; see Pauly-Wissowa, BeaiencycL, iv.
165 1 f.



passus est, cum ilium saepe collegam, nonnumquam
commilitonem, aliquando etiam imperatorem appel-


XXV. Hie puerulus a Victoria Caesar est appel-
latus, cum ilia mater castrorum ab exercitu nuncupata

2esset. qui et ipse cum patre per triumphum ductus
postea omnibus senatoriis honoribus functus est inli-
bato patrimonio, quod quidem ad suos posteros misit,

3 ut Arellius 1 Fuscus dicit, semper insignis. narrabat
avus meus sibi familiarem fuisse neque quemquam illi
ab Aureliano aut postea ab aliis principibus esse

4praelatum. Tetricorum domus hodieque exstat in
Monte Caelio inter duos lucos contra Iseum Metel-
linum, pulcherrima, in qua Aurelianus pictus est
utrique praetextam tribuens et senatoriam dignitatem,
accipiens ab his sceptrum, coronam, cycladem. pictura
est 2 de musivo, 3 quam cum dedicassent, Aurelianum
ipsum dicuntur duo Tetrici adhibuisse convivio.

1 Arellius Salm., Hohl; Dagellius P, susp. by Peter.
8 So Peter foil, by Hohl ; cydi picturiae P. * museo P,

Peter, Hohl.

1 C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus Caesar, according to his inscrip-
tions and coins ; see Cohen, vi. 2 pp. 118-129. According to Aur.,
xxxiv. 2 he was acclaimed imperator, and some of his coins bear
the title Augustus, but as none of these portrays him with the
laurel it is not probable that he ever had this title.

2 See note to c. xxi. 3.

8 The citation from the writer's father or grandfather, found
here and in Aur. t 43, 2 ; Firm., ix. 4 ; xv. 4 ; Car. xiii. 3 ; xiv. 1 ;



but also to remain in the highest position, calling him
frequently colleague, sometimes fellow-soldier, and
sometimes even emperor.


XXV. He, 1 when a little lad, received the name of
Caesar from Victoria when she herself had been en-
titled by the army Mother of the Camp. He was,
furthermore, led in triumph along with his father, but
later he enjoyed all the honours of a senator ; nor was
his inheritance diminished, and, indeed, he passed it
on to his descendants, and was ever, as Arellius Fus-
cus 2 reports, a man of distinction. My grandfather 3
used to declare that he was a friend of his own, and
that never was any one given preference over him
either by Aurelian or by any of the later emperors.
The house of the Tetrici is still standing to-day,
situated on the Caelian Hill between the two groves
and facing the Temple of Isis built by Metellus ; 4 and
a most beautiful one it is, and in it Aurelian is depicted
bestowing on both the Tetrici the bordered toga and
the rank of senator and receiving from them a sceptre,
a chaplet, and an embroidered robe. This picture is
in mosaic, and it is said that the two Tetrici, when
they dedicated it, invited Aurelian himself to a

xv. 1, is merely a device modelled after similar citations made
by Suetonius, Otho, x. 1 and Gal., xix. 3.

4 A temple of Isis stood on the northern side of the Caelian
Hill near the modern Via Labicana, and, although we know of
no connection between it and any Metellus, it may be the temple
which the author has in mind.




XXVI. Pudet iara persequi quanti sub Gallieno
fuerint tyranni vitio pestis illius,, si quidem erat in eo
ea luxuria ut rebelles plurimos mereretur et ea crude-

2litas ut iure timeretur. qua erat 1 et in Trebelliantim
factum in Isauria principem, ipsis Isauris sibi ducem
quaereiitibus. quern cum alii archipiratam vocassent,
ipse se imperatorem appellavit. moiietam etiara cudi

Siussit. palatium in arce Isauriae constituit. qui
quidem cum se in intima et tuta Isaurorum loca
munitus difficultatibus locorum et montibus contulisset,

4 aliquamdm apud Cilicas imperavit. sed per Gallieni
ducem Camsisoleum, natione Aegyptium, fratrem
Theodoti qui Aemilianum ceperat, ad campum de-

5ductus victus est et occisus. neque tamen postea
Isauri timore ne in eos Gallieiius saeviret, ad
aequalitatem perduci quavis principum humanitate

6 potuerunt. denique post Trebellianum pro barbaris
habentur ; etenim - in medio Romani nominis solo
regio eorum novo genere custodiarum quasi limes

7 im-luditur, locis defensa non hominibus. narn sunt
non statura decori, non virtute graves, non instructi

l qua erat Evssenhardt foil, by Hohl ; q-uare P, Z", Peter.
* etenim Petscheuig foil, by Hohl ; et cum P, 2, Peter.

1 Trebellianus is known only from this "vita," for the T>v-
fcllianus mentioned briefly in Eutropius, ix. 8, 1 is evidently an
error for Begalianus. It is hardly likely that this " archipirata "
ever assumed the purple.

- A mountainous district in southern Asia Minor, N.W. of
Cilicia, and notorious as the haunt of brigands.

3 No coins of his are known. It appears to have been a favourite
device of these biographers to increase the importance of pretenders
by asserting that they issued coins; cf. c. sxxi. 3; Firm., ii. 1.

Otherwise unknown. On Theodotus see c. xxii. S.



XXVI. I am by this time ashamed to tell how many
tyrants there were in the reign of Gallienus, all on
account of the vices of that pestiferous man, for such,
indeed, were his excesses that he deserved to have
many rebels rise up against him, and such his cruelty
that he was rightly regarded with fear. This cruelty
he showed also toward TrebelKanus, 1 who was made
ruler in Isauria 2 for the Isaurians desired a leader
for themselves. He, though others dubbed him arch-
pirate, gave himself the title of emperor. He even
gave orders to strike coins 3 and he set up an imperial
palace in a certain Isaurian stronghold. Then, when
he had betaken himself into the inmost and safest
parts of Isauria, where he was protected by the
natural difficulty of the ground and by the mountains,
he ruled for some time among the Cilicians. Camsi-
soleus, 4 however, Gallienus' general and an Egyptian
by race, the brother of that Theodotus who had cap-
tured Aemiliaiius, brought him down to the plains
and then defeated and slew him. Never afterwards,
however, was it possible to persuade the Isaurians,
fearing that Gallienus might vent his anger upon them,
to come down to the level ground, not even by any
offer of kindness on the part of the emperors. In
fact, since the time of Trebellianus they have been
considered barbarians ; for indeed their district,
though in the midst of lands belonging to the Romans,
is guarded by a novel kind of defence, comparable to
a frontier- wall, for it is protected not by men but by
the nature of the country. For the Isaurians are not of
noble stature or distinguished courage, not well pro-
vided with arms or wise in counsel, but they are kept



armis, non consiliis prudentes, sed hoc solo securi
quod in editis positi adiri nequeunt. quos quidem
divus Claudius paene ad hoc perduxerat ut a suis
semotos locis in Cilicia conlocaret, daturus uni ex
amicissimis omnem Isaurorum possessionem, ne quid
ex ea postea rebellionis oreretur.


XXVII. Odaenathus moriens duos parvulos reliquit,
Herennianum et fratrem eius Timolaum, quorum
nomine Zenobia usurpato sibi imperio diutius quam
feminam decuit rem publicam obtinuit, parvulos
Romani imperatoris habitu praeferens purpuratos
eosdemque adhibens contionibus, quas ilia viriliter
frequentavit, Didonem et Semiramidem et Cleopatram

2sui generis principem inter cetera praedicaiis. sed
de horum exitu incertum est ; multi enim dicunt eos
ab Aureliano interemptos, multi morte sua esse con-
sumptos, si quidem Zenobiae posteri etiam nunc
Romae inter nobiles manent. 1


XXVIII. De hoc ea putamus digna notione quae
2de fratre sunt dicta, unum tamen est quod eum a

1 manent, S, Hohl ; maneat P.

1 There is no mention of this in connection with Claudius, but
a similar measure was employed by Probus ; see Prob., xvi. 6.

2 Herennianus and Timolaus, mentioned in this series of vitae
as the sons of Odaenathus and Zenobia and as ruling with their
mother (Gall., xiii. 2 ; c. xxx. 2), are known from no other
source. The son of Odaenathus who succeeded him in 266-267,
and reigned jointly with Zenobia, was Vaballatbus Athenodorus ;



safe by this alone that, dwelling, as they do, on the
heights, no one can approach them. The Deified
Claudius did, it is true, almost persuade them to
leave their native lands and settle in Cilicia, 1 plan-
ning to give the entire possessions of the Isaurians to
one of his most loyal friends in order that never again
might a rebellion arise therein.


XXVII. Odaenathus, when he died, left two little
sons, Herennianus and his brother Timolaus, 2 in whose
name Zenobia seized the imperial power, holding the
government longer than was meet for a woman.
These boys she displayed clad in the purple robe of
a Roman emperor and she brought them to public
gatherings which she attended in the fashion of a
man, holding up, among other examples, Dido and
Semiramis, and Cleopatra, the founder of her family.*
The manner of their death, however, is uncertain;
for many maintain that they were killed by Aurelian,
and many that they died a natural death, since
Zenobia's descendants still remain among the nobles
of Rome.


XXVIII. With regard to him we consider only
those things to be worth knowing which have been
told concerning his brother. One thing there is,

see note to c. xxx. 2. Even the author of the vita of AureJian
(see xxxviii. 1) knew of him as his father's successor. If these
two princes existed at all, they were younger sons who never

3 See u. xxx. V.



fratre separat, quod tanti ftiit ardoris ad studia
Romana ut brevi consecutus quae insinuaverat gram-
maticus esse dicatur, potuisse quin etiam summum
Latinorum rhetorem facere.


XXIX. Occupatis partibus Gallicanis, orientalibus,
quin etiam Ponti, Thraciarum et Illyrici, dum Gallienus
popinatur et balneis ac lenonibus deputat vitam, Afri
quoque auctore Vibio Passieno, proconsule Africae, et
Fabio Pomponiano, duce limitis Libyci, Celsum im- |
peratorem appellaverunt peplo deae Caelestis ornatum.

2 hie privatus ex tribunis in Africa positus in agris suis
vivebat, sed ea iustitia et corporis raagnitudine ut

3 dignus videretur imperio. quare creatus per quamlam
mulierem, Gallienam nomine, consobrinam Gallieni,
septimo imperii die interemptus est atque adeo etiam

4 inter obscuros principes vix relatus est. corpus eius
a canibus consumptum est Siccensibus, qui Gallieno
fidem servaverant, perurgentibus, et novo iniuriae
genere imago in crucem sublata persultaiite vulgo,
quasi patibulo ipse Celsus videretur adfixus.

Mentioned nowhere else except in the spurious letter in
L, vii. 4, and probably an in veutiou of the biographer's.
Nothing is known of either Passienus or Pomponianus, or the
alleged murderess, whose existence Hubert Goltzius attempted
to prove by forging coins bearing the legend Licin. Galliena
Aug. ; see Eckhel, D.N., vii. p. 412 f.
^ See note to Pert., iv. 2.
3 Mod. el-Kef in western Tunisia.


however, which distinguishes him from his brother,
that is, that such was his eagerness for Roman studies
that in a short time, it is said, he made good the
statement of his teacher of letters, who had said that
he was in truth able to make him the greatest of
Latin rhetoricians.


XXIX. When the various parts of the empire were
seized, namely Gaul, the Orient, and even Pontus,
Thrace and lllyricum, and while Gallienus was spend-
ing his time in public-houses and giving up his life to
bathing and pimps, the Africans also, at the instance
of Vibius Passienus, the proconsul of Africa, and
Fabius Pomponianus, the general in command of the
Libyan frontier, created an emperor, namely Celsus, 1
decking him with the robe of the goddess Caelestis. 2
This man, a commoner and formerly a tribune
stationed in Africa, was then living on his own
estates, but such was his reputation for justice and
such the size of his body that he seemed worthy of
the imperial power. Therefore he was made emperor,

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