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Jaiiuij?-y-Ma\\ 1935


Published by




Januart. No. 1

Antarctic Exploration Cover

The Age of Iron Frontispiece

Witchcraft Among the Zulus Carl von Hoffman 3

Iron Thomas T. Read 17

A Trailside Tenderfoot William H. Carh 27

Nebraska— Fifteen Million Years Ago Edwin C. Colbert 37

Keeping Time Frederick Hellweg 47

A Summer Home in Main Street Herbert S. Ahdell 02

Machu Picchu - Wendell C. Bennett K4

The Ellsworth Antarctic Expedition 77

Science in the Field and in the Laboratory 81

Reviews of New Books 88

No. 2

Rif Tribesmen of North Africa Cover

Daughters of the Rif ; Frontispiece

The People of the Rif Carleton S. Coon 9.3

Winter in Yellowstone Wendell and Lucie Chapman 107

The Netsuke of Japan Herbert P. Whitlock 121

Holland Defeats the Sea Harold Ward 132

Five Hundred Fathoms Deep Otis Barton 144

Microscopes for Amateurs Julian D. Corrington 146

Down Among the Smokies F. R. Dickinson 138

A Unicorn's Horn Dorothy L. Edwards 168

Science in the Field and in the Laboratory 170

Reviews of New Books 177

March, No. 3

A Tsimshian Chief of British Columbia Cover

Indians of Southern Alaska Frontispiece

The Indians of the Northwest Cost Ronald L. Olson 183

Spring in the Garden Carol H . Woodward 198

Submarine Power Plants Christopher W. Coates 209

The Mountains of Glacier Park Carroll Lane Fenton 213

The Story of Silk Donald D. Leonard 221

The Elk of Jackson Hole Olaus J. Murie 237

The Dodo of Mauritius Dorothy L. Edwards 248

Below the Border ■ Alfred M. Bailey 2.W

George D. Pratt (1867—1935') Madison Grant 260

Science in the Field and in the Laboratory 262

Reviews of New Books 267

April, No. 4

A Submarine Design in Tiles Cover

Aristocrats of Abyssinia Frontispiece

Transplanting a Coral Reef Roy Waldo Miner 273

The Ethiopians and Their Stronghold Wilfred H, Osgood 286

Jos6 Frank M. Chapman 299

In Quest of the Giant Panda Dean S.\ge, Jr. 309

■"Streamlining — Old and New Harold Ward .3G1

Nesting Days Alfred M. Bailey 331

Building a Super-Giant Rhinoceros William K. Gregory 340

Trailside "Talking" Pools William H. Carr .344

Science in the Field and in the Laboratory 3.'>2

Reviews of New Books 339

May, No: 5

Stone Monuments on Easter Island . .Cover

Wild Life in a City Park Frontispiece

A Modern Picture Book Zoo 363

Mystery Island of the Pacific H. L, Shapiro 363

American Date Gardens Emmy Matt Rush 378

The Petrified Forest Wendell and Lucie Chapman 382

Conservation Expands in Africa Mary L. Jobe Akeley'^ 394

Fortune and Misfortune in Antarctica Lincoln Ellsworth 397

Wild Animals of the Hudson Highlands 405

5000 Y'ears of Exploration Harold Ward 411

Alligators of Georgia Ch.irles Newton Elliott- 416

Insect Giants C. H . Curr.\n 426

Nature's Sea Serpent William K. Gregory ' 431

Science in the Field and in the Laboratory 438

Reviews of New Books 441



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f'lul), 203


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Bear Mounlniii I'l ;iilM.I.> M.iBcmiiB, 27-3U; 84; 344-351
Beliiw TiiK HiiKi.Kii, MIr.d .\I. Hiiiley, IllustnitccI, 250-25!)
Hcnncit, Wcnclrll (': MihIiil I'i.i-liu, 04-70

Dodo, 2 lS-240

Lake .Mallinn \U-Utf.v. 110

I'urplc iiiarliim, 02-i;:i

Rotiischild i-olloctioii, 354-355

Sanctuary, New York City, 175

Spring, 331-339
Book ReviewB:

Adam*s Ancestors, 207

American Bird Biographies, 177

American Eagle, The, 80-90

Art oj Walking, The. 209

Bejore the Dawn of IlistiTn. L'lix

Bird Stamps of All r„in,in, s, 1 14

Confessions of a Sri,i,li.-<l, SN

Dynamics of Population, 178

Exploring with the Microscope, 179-180

Field Book of Insects, 207-208

Fog, 89

Guide to Bird Songs, A, 444

Ifalf Mile Down, 88-89

Holiday Shore, 443

Homes and Habits of Wild Animals, 300

Identification of the Commercial Timbers of the L'nitcd

States, 443

Infants of the Zoo, 441-442

Introduction to Human Anatomy, 177-178

James Johnstone Memorial Volume, The, 359

Men, Mirrors, and Stars, 443

Musical Instruments of the Native Races of South Africa,

The, 3.59

Nature Education: A Selected Bibliography, 209

Nature of a Bird's World, The.iil

New York Walk Book, 269

Prelimiiiary Note on the Reptiles of China, A, ISO

Sails Over Ice, 179

Scientist in the Early Republic, A, 177

Through Space and Time, 178-179

Talking Leaves, 90

Tropical Fishes and Home Aquaria, 442

Tropical Fishes for the Home, 442

Unrolling the Map, 411-415

White Headed Eagle, The, 300

Wild Flowers, 90

Britton herbarium, 357

Date gardens, 378-381

Flower calendar, 440

Horticultural Society of New York. 80

Spring flowers, 198-208

Sugar palm, 86

Tropical plants, 203-204
Broadcasts, American Museum, 85; 171
Building a Supek-Oiant Bhingceros, William K. Gregory.

Illustrated. 340-343
Bulletin, American Museum, 87; 180; 270; 358

Cair. William 11: A. Trailside Tenderfoot, 27-30; Trailside

•■Talking" Pools, 344-:551
Chapman, Frank M: Josf', 299-308
Chapman, Wendell and Lucie: Winter in Y'ellowstoiie, 107-120 ;

The Petrified Forest. 382-393
Coates, C. W; Submarine Power Plants, 209-212


[ CapilalH and .Smalt t'apitati

Colbert, ICdwin C: Ncbnuikn— KiftM-n Million ^ ear^ Ago,

CoNMKiiVATioN Exi'ANUH IN ArmcA, Mary U. Jobe .\k**ley.

IIIuBtratcd. 394-300
Coon, Curk-ton S: The Pi-ople of the Hif. 93-100
Corrinirioii. Juliun D: MiiTo«*oj>#*B for AniHtfurw, 14(1-1.57
Currun, C. H; InBect GinnlB. I2(i-4:t0

DnviBon. F. Trubee, 355

DickinBon. F. 11: Down AnioNK the (jmokir-B, 1.5K- I«7

Dingle. i;dwar<l von Sicbold. 205

Dono oi^ .MAUlilTltx, TllK, Dorothy I,. Kdoarde, IlluBtrated.

2 IK 249
Down .\MONfj thk Smokikb. F. II. Diekiiu^on, IlluHlrated,



Aniericnn MuBCuni, 85; 171-172; 2U2; 3.W-354

Bird walks. 3.5-»

Children'B .Science Fair, 353

.VIuBeuni ti'Hchintf tecliniquea. 353

JaniCB Arlhut l,.-.lurcB, 350
Edwards, I).. mil. \ I. \ rnicorn'B Horn, )08-ltlB: The Dodo of

.Mnurili.i>. -'is -M:.
El.K OF .Iai KBcj.N lloi.t,. Thk. t)lauit J. Murie, IlluBtmted.

i;lliolt, Churlen Newton: AlliKutoni of Georiria. 410-125
Ellsworth Antarctic Expedition. The. 77-80
lOllsworth. Lincoln: Fortune and Misfortune in Antarrtirn

Ethioi'Ians and TllKlK STHONniioLD, TiiK. Wilfred H. Osgood,

Illustrated. 280-298

American .\Iu.scuiii— Sinclair. 438

Crocker. S.Mith Sea, 170

Ellsworlh Aiitiir. II.-, 77-80; S2; 202; 3.52; 397-401

llassler. We^t Iii.lic,. 202: 439

Morden, I'iiiili.', 1711: 43s ^

Sage. \\ C...I fliiiia, SI ; 1711; :ill9-:i20; 3.i2

Schwarz-lluiitingt.iii. Colombia, 2«2

Snyder. C:inadiaii, 81-.S2; 439

Templeton Crocker. 352: 305-377

"N'ernay-Hopwood, Chiudwin. 170

Fenton. Carroll Lane: The Mountain.- of Glacier Park. 213-220

Deep sea, 144-145

Mufjilops cyanellus, 350

Garfish, 431H137

Pacific, flying, 356

Stalk-eved, 355

Subtropical, 264

Tropical. 204
Five Hindred Fathoms Deep, Otis Barton, Illustrated,

5000 Years of Exploration, Harold Ward. Illustrated.


Illustrated, 397-104

Antarctic, 82; 352

Baluchitherium, 340-343

Dinosaurs, 83-84

Nebraska, 37-46

Proboscidean tusk, S4; 357

Germann, John C, 84

Grant, Madison: George D. Pratt (1867-1935), 260-261
Gregory, William K: Building a Super-Giant Rhinoceros,
340-343; Nature's Sea Serpent, 431-437

Hellweg, Frederick: Keeping Time, 47-61

Hempstead skeleton, 174-175

Holland Defeats the Sea, Harold Ward, Illustrated, 132-143


Ronald L. Olson, IIlu

Indians of the Northwi

trated, 183-197
In Quest of the Giant Panda, Dean Sage, Jr., Illustrated,

Insect Giants, C. H. Curraii. Illustrated. 426-430
Iron, Thomas T. Read, Illustrated, 17-20

Jo.sE. Frank M. Chapman, Illustrated, 299-30S

Keki-ino Timk, Frederick Hellweg, lUustrateil, 47-01

Leonard. Donald D: The Story of Silk, 221-230
Lindbergh, Charles A., 174



Machu Picchu, Wendell C. Bennett, Illustrated, (J4-7(i

Coati, 299-308

Elephant group, 355

Elk, .Tackson Hole, 237-247

Giant Panda, 309-320

Hudson Highlands, 405-410




Whale exhibit, 172

Early migration to America, 356

Easter Island Inhabitants, 365-377

Ethiopians, 286-298

Indians, Northwest Coast, 183-107

Rif tribes, 93-106

Zulus, 3-16
Mann, Paul B., 334
•' Meshie, " 86

MiciwscopES FOR Amateurs, Julian D. Corrington, Illus-
trated, 146-157
Miller, Roswell, 355; 440

Miner, Roy Waldo: Transplanting a Coral Reef, 273-285
Modern Picture Book Zoo, A, 362-364
Morgan gem collection. 173
Mountains of Glacier Park, The, Carroll Lane Fenton,

Illustrated, 213-220
Muric, Olaus J: The Elk of Jackson Hole, 237-247
^Iystery Island of the Pacific, H. L. .Shapiro, Illustrated,


National Parks:

Glacier, 213-220

Yellowstone, 107-120
Nature's Sea Serpent, WiUiai

Nebraska— Fifteen Million Yi

Illustrated, 37-46
Nelson, N, C, 173

Nesting Days, Alfred M. Bailey, Illustrated, 331-339
Netsuke of Japan, The, Herbert P. Whitlock, Illustrated,

Noble, G. Kingsley, 440
Novitates, 87; 180; 270; 357-358; 444

Olson, Ronald L: The Indians of the Northwest Coast, 183-197
Osborn, Henry Fairfield, 264-265

Osgood, Wilfred H: The Ethiopian.? and Their Stronghold,

People of the Rir, The, Carleton S. Coon, Illustrated, 93-106
Perkins Memorial Drive, 84-85

Petrified Forest, The, Wendell and Lucie Chapman, Il-
lustrated, 382-393

Gregory, Illustrated,
0, Edwin C. Colbert,

Phipps, John H., 264

Pinkley, George, 357

Proboscidea Memoir, 85-86: 264-265

Pratt, George D., 260-261

Reail, Thomas T: Iron, 17-26

Reptiles and amphibians, American Museum, 440

Rif Tribesmen of North Africa, Cover Design, February

Roosevelt Memorial, 83

Rotifer jaws, 173

Rush, Emmy Matt: American Date Gardens, 378-381

.Sage, Dean Jr: In Quest of the Giant Panda, 309-320
.Shapiro, H. L: Mystery Island of the Pacific, 365-377
Silk, 221-236
Societies: _

American Game Conference, 264
Asiatic Society of Bengal, 173
Spring in the Gaiiden, Carol H. Woodward, Illustrated,

Stone Monuments on Easter Island, Cover Design, May; 438
Story of Silk, The, Donald D. Leonard, Illustrated, 221-236
Streamlining — Old and New, Harold Ward, Illustrated,

Submarine Design in Tiles, A, Cover Design, April
Sdb.marine Power Plants, C. W. Coates, Illustrated, 209-212
Summer Home on xMain Street, A, Herbert S. Ardoll, Il-
lustrated, 62-63

Tbailside "Talking" Pools, William H. Carr, Illustrated,

Trailside Tenderfoot, A, William H. Carr, Illustrated, 27-36
Transplanting a Coral Reef, Roy Waldo Miner, Illustrated,

Tsimshian Chief of British Columbia, A, Cover Design, March

Unicorn's Horn, A, Dorothy L, Edwards, Illustrated, 168-169

von Hoffman, Carl : Witchcraft Among the Zulus, 3-16

Ward, Harold: Holland Defeats the Sea, 132-143; Streamlin-
ing—Old and New, 321-330; 5000 Years ot Exploration,
Whitlock, Herbert P: The Netsuke of Japan, 121-131
Wild Animals of the Hudson Highlands, 405-410
Winter in Yellowstone, Wendell and Lucie Chapman, Il-
lustrated, 107-120
Witchcraft Among the Zulus, Carl von Hoffman, Illus-
trated, 3-16
Woodward, Carol H: Spring in the Garden, 19S-20S

Zuidor Zee, 132-143


The Journal of the American Museum of J^atural History


Volume XXXV, No. 1 January, 1935

Antarctic Exploration (In-rr

From a Painting by Lynn Bogue Hunt (See Pages 77-80;

The Age of Iron ... Iniilispifce

Witchcraft Among the Zulus Carl von Hoffman 3

How Belief in the Supernatural Influences a Primitive People

Iron Thomas T. Read 17

The Story Behind One of the World's Greatest Industries

A Trailside Tenderfoot William H. Carr 27

A Cigar. maker's Experiences at the Trailside Museum on the Hudson River

Nebraska — Fifteen Million Years Ago Edwin C. Colbert 37

"Big Game Fields" of the Miocene

Keeping Time Frederick Hellweg 47

The Intricate Studies and Equipment Upon Which the Accuracy of Our Timepieces Is Based

A Summer Home in Main Street Herbert S. Ardell 62

Purple Martins in an Urban Bird House

Machu Picchu Wendell C. Bennett 64

A Famous Inca Ruin Cleared by the Peruvian Government in Celebration of the Discovery of Peru

The Ellsworth Antarctic Expedition 77

The Difficulties Besetting the Present Attempt to Cross the South Polar Continent

Science in the Field and in the Laboratory 81

Current Events in the World of Natural Sciences

Reviews of New Books 88

Recent Publications for Those Interested in Nature

Hawthorne Daniel A. Katherine Berger

Editor Associate Editor

Natural History — Publication Office, 10 Ferry Street, Concord, New Hampshire
Subscriptions should be addressed to The Treasurer, The American Museum of Natural History, 77th Street and Central
Park West, New York, N. Y. Natural History is sent to aU members of the American Museum as one of the privileges
of membership, $2.10 of the annual amount received from each membership being applied to the year's subscription to the
magazine. George L. Alpers, Advertising Manager, Advertising Office, The American Museum of Natural History,
77th Street and Central Park West, New York, N. Y. Copyright, 1935, by The American Museum of Natural History,

New York

The Age
of Iron

Courtesy of the U. S. Steel Corporation

Within the past hundred years the smelting of iron and
the production of steel have grown into one of man'
kind's major activities. Where formerly iron and steel
were very widely used, but in small quantities, they
are now produced in gigantic quantities and used
everywhere. The converter shown in this photO'
graph is transforming iron into steel

(See " Iron," Page IV)


January, 1935

Witchcraft Among the Zulus

So firmly do the Zulus believe in the supernatural power of
witches and witch'doctors, that witchcraft seems to play an
actual as well as an imaginary part in their everyday Hves

by Carl von Hoffman

Copyrighted Photographs by the Author

THOUGH long acquainted with white
men, and influenced in countless ways
by civilization, the Zulu still clings to
his belief in the supernatural powers of
witches and witch-doctors, who play a large
part in the life of Zululand.

One who has lived with these folk can
understand the spell of their sphit world.
The semi-tropical sun throws bright high-
lights and casts deep shadows. The distant
vistas are filled with mirages. There is the
danger of snakes and lurking beasts, and the
spell cast by mystifying nights. The effect
of all this is so strong that even the wliite
man may find it difficult at times to keep his

It is a perfect setting for the native with
his world of spirits, good and evil — a world
largely controlled by hovering ancestors
and adverse spirits. The closeness of primi-
tive existence to nature gives a supernatural
meaning to almost every detail of Hfe. Any
elephant or hon may be an embodied spirit,
while the venomous snake is regarded as a
reincarnated ancestor, to be worsliiped and
protected as such. Even the shadows cast
at night by trees conjure up to the native
mind a world of treacherous spirits seeking
to destroy him. Thus his main occupation is
the appeasement of his ancestral and other
spirits. Disease, misfortune, and death are
attributed to them, and to those who invoke
such spirits by witchcraft.

In Zulu the word Abalakati means witch,
and the word Ungoma signifies a witch-
doctor, but to the native mind there is a
world of difference between them. The
wdtch-doctor functions as a distinguished
member of the community, the witch as an
outlaw. Both deal in the occult, but the
witch invokes evil spirits for his designs,
while the witch-doctor drives them away.

The role of the mtch-doctor is that of
guardian against witches and evil spirits.
He tells the Adllagers how to fulfill their
destiny, and he cures by dri\'ing the malig-
nant spirit out of the sick body. He divines
the cause of people's troubles and smells out
forbidden deeds. As a dealer in the occult
he can bring good or bad luck, or death.
From the wliite man's viewpoint he is also a
sinister power who brings about ritual
murder, but to the native he remains an
oracle whose findings and omens are almost

The witch invokes adverse spirits and
deals in black magic. He deals in things
evil, and he casts spells which bring mis-
fortune, disease, and death. A witch will
come in handy when a native wants protec-
tion or revenge, but he is also a dispenser of
charms, and as such carries on a lively, if
underhand, trade with the natives. He sells
them advice, medicines, and love potions,
and tells fortimes. But any dealings with
the witch are somewhat risky, since a person
otherwise iimocent may fall under the spell of
the witch and may become suspected of

A Zulu chief and
his retinue. The
fourth figure from
the right is the
chief's official
while the woman,
second from the
right, is a witch,
influential but
nevertheless un-
official except in
time of war, when
she is called upon
to bewitch the

A Zulu wearing
the skin of a buz-
zard, which the
wearer beheves
has certain magic
forces that tend to
make the owner
more influential or

A Zulu bride with
her father. She car-
ries a spear, a danc'
ing shield, and a
stick, and is veiled
to hide her from ad-
verse spirits. The
bladders of sacrificed
sheep or goats that
she wears in her hair
are a sign that sacri-
fices have been made
to her ancestral

A phonograph —
white man's "medi-
cine" or magic — con-
tains, so the Zulu be-
lieves, the resurrected
body of a human be-
ing shrunken by mag-
ic to miniature si2;e,
but still able to speak.
The natives are mys-
tified as to what the
unfortunate creature
feeds on



practicing witchcraft himself. The natives
may laugh at the witch when he comes in to
the kraal to tell fortunes, but they go in awe
and even fear when they seek him out for
some hidden purpose. The witch for his
part plies his trade under cover of darkness,
for detection may mean his end.

Professional and Casifal Witches

There are all sorts of witches of both
sexes, but practically all fall into two main
categories: the professional and the casual.
When a Zulu speaks of a witch, he is think-
ing of a professional witch, of a person who
spends his time in black magic and whose
services can be had at a price. This person
may live openly as a typical native, occu-
pied with the usual daily village routine.
There is the usual family life, although in the
case of the male witch there may be more
wives because he can afford to buy more.
Sometimes a reputed witch had to be pointed
out to me, since he couldn't be picked out of
a crowd, but more often he stood out by his
eccentric hair-dress or by the extra number
of ornaments tied about his body. Other
witches are recluses, living apart from the
villagers, often pretending poverty or posing
as beggars. The witch belongs to no guild
such as that of the witch-doctors, but the
craft is usually handed down as a family

The casual witch is a common event. He
may be any person accused through malice
or hearsay, or a person who has committed
an act of witchcraft for some personal
reason. Every Zulu man, woman, or child
lives in constant fear of being accused of
witchcraft. Anything that deviates from
the normal routine of life is attributed to
evil spirits or witchcraft, and the native
constantly goes about with the words witch
and bewitched on his mind, although he is
very reluctant to utter the words. But the
words come out too often, and tragedy

Typical of what goes on continually is the
case of an old woman in the Impangei
district. At the white trader's post where I

spent the night I heard that the natives up
the hill were out in the bush looking for a
witch. The next day I got the details.
Two old women had been quarrehng over
some tobacco, and afterward the aggrieved
one was heard to mutter something about
the other being an old witch . Some time later
she took sick with a cold and let it be known
she had been bewitched. When asked who
had bewitched her, she accused the other
woman. The sick woman died, probably of
pneumonia, but to the natives all evidence
pointed to witchcraft. The accused woman,
knowing what was in store for her, cleared
out into the bush. Had she remained, she
would have been tried before a witch-doctor
and probably put to death. That she ran
away was sufficient proof to the natives that
she was guilty. As for the old woman, death
was more or less certain whether at the
hands of the natives or by prowling beasts of
the bush.

The professional witch operates in devious
ways. Much of this is through suggestion,
with a great play on local superstitions. If a
Zulu, on awakening, finds something smeared
on his neck, he knows that a witch has
marked him for death. More common is the
placing of sticks, fetishes, or medicines in
the doorway of a marked man. In such cases
fear and brooding by the victim often lead to
death. He may run to the witch-doctor,
who may help him with potions that ward
off the evil influence, or may divine the guilty
witch and in that way put a stop to the in-
fluence. The fear of being possessed makes
the native suspicious of any unusual act.

The White Man's Magic

On one of my early trips to Zululand I en-
tertained a chief with the usual conjuring
tricks, and among other things I made a coin
disappear and then produced it again from
off the bare leg of a native. The effect was
quite unexpected. The native was fright-
ened and grave doubts were raised among the
rest as to whether he was bewitched and his
soul enslaved by an evil force. It took some
explanation to reassure them that the white

Wova, a chief of
the Zulu tribe,
seated in his kraal.
The huts are con-
structed of bent
twigs supported
by two center
poles, and the
walls are thatched
with grass, bound
together with bark

A consultant.
This Zulu
native, having
presented a
gift to the
witch in whom
he has faith,
has seated him-
self in order to
await her
pleasure before
relating his

A bride (on the right)
taking her ritualistic
bath before her marriage.
The Zulu bride is always
purchased for thirteen
cattle, and both before
and after the ceremony
the local witch'doctor is
apt to play an important
part, his purpose being
to drive away adverse
spirits or to keep others

Rites and

A Zulu chief points with his war
club, or knob'kerrie, to the distant
hills, where the spirits of the dead
"impis" or regiments sway in the
moonlight with the cornstalks

Fear is constantly felt
that food and drink may
have been subjected to
witchcraft, or may actu-
ally be poisoned. Every
chief, therefore, is con-
stantly on the alert for
these dangers, and em-
ploys an official tester —
one of whom is shown
drinking from the chiefs
bowl before the chief
himself indulges


The dancing brides-
maids sweep the air
with their brooms,
war clubs, and spears
in order to drive off
any evil spirits that
may have designs
upon the bride



man's magic could not affect a Zulu. Once
assured, the native asked for the coin, since

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