H. B. (Henry Bathurst) Hanna.

The second Afghan war, 1878-79-80 : its causes, its conduct and its consequences (Volume 2) online

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to guarantee and protect all persons of whatever degree from any
punishment or molestation on that account.

Article 3.

His Highness the Amir of Afghanistan and its dependencies agrees
to conduct his relations with Foreign States, in accordance with the
advice and wishes of the British Government. His Highness the
Amir will enter into no engagements with Foreign States, and will
not take up arms against any Foreign State, except with the con-
currence of the British Government. On these conditions the British


Government will support the Amir against any foreign aggression
with money, arms, or troops, to be employed in whatsoever manner
the British Government may judge best for this purpose. Should
British troops at any time enter Afghanistan for the purpose of
repelling foreign aggression, they will return to their stations in British
territory as soon as the object for which they entered has been

Article 4.

With a view to the maintenance of the direct and intimate relations
now established between the British Government and His Highness
the Amir of Afghanistan and for the better protection of the frontiers
of His Highness' dominion, it is agreed that a British Representative
shall reside at Kabul, with a suitable escort in a place of residence
appropriate to his rank and dignity. It is also agreed that the British
Government shall have the right to depute British Agents with
suitable escorts to the Afghan frontiers, whensoever this may be
considered necessary by the British Government in the interests of
both States, on the occurrence of any important external fact. His
Highness the Amu- of Afghanistan may on his part depute an Agent
to reside at the Court of His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor-
General of India, and at such other places in British India as may
be similarly agreed upon.

Article 5.
His Highness the Amir of Afghanistan and its dependencies
guarantees the personal safety and honourable treatment of British
Agents within his jurisdiction ; and the British Government on its
part undertakes that its Agents shall never m any way interfere with
the internal administration of His Highness' dommions.

Article 6.

His Highness the Amir of Afghanistan and its dependencies under-
takes, on behalf of himself and his successors, to offer no impediment
to British subjects peacefully trading within his dominions so long
as they do so with the permission of the British Government, and in
accordance with such arrangements as may be mutually agreed upon
from time to time between the two Governments,

Article 7.

In order that the passage of trade between the territories of the
British Government and of His Highness the Amir of Afghanistan,
may be open and uninterrupted, His Highness the Amir of Afghanistan
agrees to use his best endeavours to ensure the protection of traders
and to facilitate the transit of goods along the well-known customary


roads of Afghanistan. These roads shall be improved and maintained
in such manner as the two Governments may decide to be most
expedient for the general convenience of traffic, and under such
financial arrangements as may be mutually determined upon between
them. The arrangements made for the maintenance and security
of tlie aforesaid roads, for the settlement of the duties to be levied
upon merchandize carried over these roads, and for the general
protection and development of trade with and through the dominions
of His Highness, wiU be stated in a separate Commercial Treaty, to
be concluded within one year, due regard being given to the state of the

Article 8.

With a view to facilitate communications between the allied
Governments and to aid and develop intercourse and commercial
relations between the two countries, it is hereby agreed that a line of
telegraph from Kurram to Kabul shall be constructed by and at the
cost of the British Government, and the Amir of Afghanistan hereby
undertakes to provide for the protection of this telegraph line.

Article 9.

In consideration of the renewal of a friendly alliance between
the two States which has been attested and secured by the foregoing
Articles, the British Government restores to His Highness the Amir
of Afghanistan and its dependencies the towns of Kandahar and
Jellalabad, with all the territory now in possession of the British
armies, excepting the districts of Kurram, Pishin, and Sibi. His
Highness the Amir of Afghanistan and its dependencies agrees on
his part that the districts of Kurram and Pishin and Sibi, according
to the limits defined in the schedule annexed, shall remain under
the protection and administrative control of the British Government :
that is to say, the aforesaid districts shall be treated as assigned
districts, and shall not be considered as permanently severed from
the limits of the Afghan kingdom. The revenues of these districts,
after deducting the charges of civil administration shall be paid
to His Highness the Amir.

The British Government will retain in its own hands the control
of the Khyber and Michni Passes, which lie between the Peshawar
and JeUalabad Districts, and of all relations with the independent
tribes of the territory directly connected with these Passes.

Article 10.

For the further support of His Highness the Amir in the recovery
and maintenance of his legitimate authority, and in consideration
of the efficient fulfilment in their entirety of the engagements stipulated


by the foregoing Articles, the British Government agrees to pay to
His Highness the Amir and to his successors an annual subsidy of
six lakhs of Rupees.

Done at Gandamak, this 26th day of May 1879, corresponding
with the 4th day of the month of Jamadi-us-sani 1296, A.H.

(Sd.) N. CAVAGNARI, Major,

Poltl. Officer on Special Duty.

This Treaty was ratified by His Excellency the Viceroy and
Governor-General of India, at Simla, on Friday, this 30th day of
May 1879.

(Sd.) A. C. LYALL,

Secry. to the Govt, of India, Foreign Dept.


The Times.—" Now that opinion in regard to Indian frontier policy has imder-
gone a marked change, Colonel 11. B. Hanna's careful study of the events which
led up to the Second Afghan War is distinctly opportime. . . • From first to
last, the book will well repay study by every one who cares to miderstand how
wars can be made — and avoided."

The Observer.—" We know of no one better qualified to deal with events in
Afghanistan than Colonel H. B. Hanna."

Pall Mall G.vzette.— " Colonel Hanna's tremendous care, completeness
and clearness, with his intense conviction, make him a very powerful writer."

Athen^um.— " The ability with whicli his case is presented is considerable,
and it is probabl that in his inahi line his view is a well-fomided one."

MoRNiNCx Leader.—" Colonel Hanna is peculiarly well fitted to handle the
multiplicity of questions — political, military, financial, and social — that arise in
connection with the Second Afghan War."

Manchester Guardian. — " Colonel Hanna calls his book, of which the first
volume has now been pubHshed, The Second Afghan War ; but its scope is wider
than the title. . . . The present vokune justifies the hope that the work when
completed will possess the highest political value. Colonel Hamia brings to his
task a mind imbued with Liberal principles, as well as an almost imrivalled know-
ledge of the frontier-problem in its military and political aspects."

Leeds Mercury.—" Colonel Hanna's work promises to be the standard
authority on the history of the Second Afghan War. It is written with con-
spicuous abihty, and with a manifest desire to state the truth, the whole truth,
and nothing but the truth, regarding one of the most senseless wars of aggres-
sion recorded in the annals of the British Empu-e."

Advocate of India.—" Colonel Hanna shows clearly and forcibly, and with
the aid of vmimpeachable authorities, that on the brmk of war the army was
foimd thoroughly incapable of effectvial warfare."

United Service IMagazine.- " This is a remarkable, an excellent, and a most
mterestmgly instructive work ; and the second volume when it appears will be
eagerly seized upon by all readers of that which has now been published. . . .
The volume before us is a most masterly exposition of the subject with which
it deals, and cannot be too strongly recommended."

Manchester Courier. — " The present volmno ends at the moment of the
advance, and \\e shall therefore look eagerly for the continuation of the story.
If it is continued in the same exhaustive and judicial manner as it has commenced,
Colonel Hamia will have made a notable and valuable contribution to modern
Indian history."

Investers' Review. — " Nothmg is set down in it haphazard, nothing from
mere impulse or passion. It is a calm and almost colom-less . . . narrative of
facts based upon documents accessible to all."

Glasgow Herald.—" The author writes with a very thorough knowledge
of the subject ; that his facts are marshalled with remarkable skill, and that his
argumentation is exceptionally vigorous. These qualities mark his book as a

353 ^x


valuable contribution towards the adequate vmderstanding of a question which
has not yet lost its importance." , , ., ^

Western Mail, Caediff.— " Colonel Hanna tells his story in a style that
makes interesting reading, whilst the sideUghts are of a character that one would
not miss willingly. As it is, we think there should be a hearty welcome for the
volume issued because of its general interest."

The Abmy and Navy Gazette.—" Colonel Hanna's book, the first volmne
of which was published on Thm-sday last, has come opportunely. It fau-ly
shows that we have, as regards Afghan affairs, consistently done what we ought
not to have done, and left midone or left misaid many things that belonged

to our peace." . ,,

The Literary World.—" A work like Colonel Hanna s appeals specially
to the student, particularly to the poUtical and military student."

Sheffield Daily Telegraph.—" All who take an earnest and continuous
interest in British operations on the North-West Indian Frontier . . . will do
well to get Colonel Hanna's book."

Western Mercury.—" This bulky volume is a crushmg and remorseless
exposm-e of the ' Forward PoUcy.' Colonel Hanna . . . has, in addition to
miUtary knowledge, tireless industry and a firm grip of facts."

Public Opinion.—" We heartily recommend this very able history of events
that have proved so costly to England in lives and money. The work is well
written, and should be widely read."

Newcastle Leader.— " Such a task as Colonel Hanna has undertaken
requires not only the faculty of the historian, but the special training of the
soldier for its effective treatment ; and Colonel Hanna has both this historic
abiUty and this special training."

The Champion, Bombay.—" Colonel Hanna has akeady won his spurs as a
writer and publicist of no mean renown, on questions relating to the Afghan
and North-West Frontier politics, and he has well been described by one leadmg
London joiu-nal as ' pecuharly fitted to handle the multipUcity of questions—
pohtical, social and military— m connection with the Second Afghan War,'
and by another as bringmg to his task ' care, clearness, completeness and con-
viction.' W^e entirely concur in these views."

The World.—" The first volume ... is now published, and contains a
full and interesting account of the various events which led to the genesis and
growth of the Forward PoUcy, and so to the outbreak of the war, which the next
volume is to chronicle." , . r ^i

Liverpool Post.—" Especially valuable is Colonel Hanna s analysis of the
circmnstanccs attending the Russian Mission to Kabul, mider General Stohetoff,
which have been put forward by apologists of Lord Lytton and the Beaconsfield
Government as an ample justification of the Afghan War."

No. I. Can Russia Invade India ?
No. II. India's Scientific Frontier.
No. III. Backwards or Forwards ?

Manchester Guardian.—" Colonel Hanna has given in a comparatively
small space, and with admirable clearness, such a conspectus of recent frontier


policy in India as can hardly be foimd elsewhere, and such a demonstration of its
real meaning and too probable consequences as should have an effect, even at
this eleventh hour, on every mmd not obstimitely closed against conviction."

Saturday Review. — " These problems are all of the highest interest and
importance ; they dominate om' foreign policy both in Europe and Asia ; while
for our Indian Empire, their proper interpretation and decision involve the
gravest issues of prosperity and safety, bankruptcy and ruin."

The Scotsman. — " Colonel Hanna's Indian Problem, Bachwards or Forwards,
is quite as remarkable as his first and second for its strength of conviction, thor-
ough knowledge of his subject, and force of reasoning. There seems to the
inexpert reader no escape. He not only advances an opinion, but proves it
ahnost hke a proposition in Evichd."

The Daily Graphic. — " Colonel Hanna has certainly collected a striking num-
ber of weighty utterances in favciu' of his main contention. That contention,
briefly stated, is, that the Indian Govermnent ought never to have advanced
beyond the Indian Frontier at the foot of the mountains, and ought, as speedily
as possible, to retire to that frontier."

Broad Arrow. — " Colonel Hamia may be satisfied that he has accomplished
excellent and enduring work."

Abchibald Const.ujle and Co., 2 Whitehall Gardens, S.W.
Sold by all Booksellers.



Abdullah Jan, Death of— Effect on

Shere AH, 111
Achakzais! — Raids on Kandahar Field

Force Conimunications, 317
Afghan Army —

Ali Masjid Garrison — Strength,

Morale, etc., 10
Peiwar Mountain Operations —

Number and Quality of
Troops, 70, 82, 91
Reconstitution by YaUub Khan —
Spirit and Temper m Jan.
1879, 194
Afridis —

Ali Masjid — Attack on advanced

Posts, etc., 34
Bazar Expeditions, .lee that title
Hostile Attitude— Danger to Khy-
ber Line of Communications,
280, 321
Kandahar Field Force, Pathans
ser\'ing with — Afridi Deser-
tions, 125
Zakka Khel, see tliat title
Ahmed Khel — Submission, 312
Ali Khel—

Kuram Field Force —
Advance, 308, 310
Withdrawal on Conclusion of
Peace, 313
Limit of British Administration in

Kuram District, 342
Native Labourers, Reduction of
Pay — Strike threatened, 312
and note 1
Survov Operations, 311
Ali Masjid, Taking of (Browne's
Division) —
Afghan Dispositions — Natural Sur-
roundings of Ali Masjid, etc., 8
Afghan C4arrison, Strengtli of, 10
Afridi Attack on Advanced Posts, 34
Appleyard left in Command, 30
Casualties, 21, 22


Ali :\rasjid {continued)—

Etal de Situation on night of

November 21st, 14, 15
Evacuation by Afghans, 15
Froiit Attack —

Artillery Duel — British Ammu-
nition running out, 11, 12
Assault Postponed — Apple-

yard's Brigade already partly
in Action, Losses, etc., 12
Cavagnari's, JNIajor, Opinion as to
Need for immediate Assault,
11, 20
Dispositions for Attack, 10
Order of Advance, 7, 8
Fugitives and Prisoners, Fate of,

Hospital Arrangements, 14, note 1
Lytton's, Lord, Order to attack on

21st. 22, 24
Position of Sir S. Browne after
Capture — Resemblance to
Pollock's Position at Pesha-
war in 1841, 29
Shere All's Account of Action, 149
Sickness due to Water of Khyber

River, 30
Turning INlovement —

Concealment neither possible nor
nseful— FutiUty of Night
March, 25
Inadequate Time allowed by

Viceroy's Order, 23, 24
jMacpherson's Brigade, 5, G

March on November 22nd, Ex-
collont boliaviour of Men, 20
Transport Dinioulties duo to the
use of Bullocks instead of
Mules, 1
Responsibility resting with
Staff, 20
Tytler's Brigade —

Composition and Equipment

of Force, 1, 2
Difficulties of the March, 1, 2



Ali Masjid (continued) —
Turning j\Iovement (continued) —
Ty tier's Brigade (contimied) —
Jenkins' Descent on Kata Kush-
tia — Prisoners captured on
22nd, etc., 16, 19
Mohmand Hostility — Change in
Original Plan, 5, G, 19
Waterfield's, Col. R. G., Letter to
Sir S. Browne on night of
21st November, 27
Alizais — Attack on Rear-guard of
Force retiring from Helmand,
Amirs of Afghanistan, see Shere AH and

Yakub Khan
Appleyard's Brigade— Ali Masjid

Operations, 10, 12, 34
Argandab and Arghesan Valleys, In-
vestigation of Resources, 252
ArgandabRiver — Fords.etc, 262, note 1
Azmatulla, Ghilzai chief — Disturbances
in Lagman Valley, 194, 282


Baggage, Disposition of in traversing
a Defile — Gen. Ty tier's Mis-
take on return March from
Bazar, 55
Baghao, Action at, 324
Casualties, 325

Officers mentioned in Despatch, 325
Bajauris— Alliance with Mohmands
for Attack on Browne's
Division reported, 181, 191
Baluchis —

Characteristics, 121, note 1
Hill Transport for Stewart's Divi-
sion —
Failure to supply Camels at

Dadar, 119
Price charged, etc., 120
Plundering Stewart's Convoys, 120
Barnes, Major O.— Kara Dakka Affair,

Basawal, Browne's Advance to, 35
Battye, Major Wigram —
Killed at Futtehabad, 291
Night March to Sapri, 25
Bazar Expeditions against Zakka
Khel (Maude)—

Conducted on right Prin-
ciples as Military Opera-
tions, 186
First Expedition —
Casualties, 54

Cavagnari's,';Major, Recommenda-
tion, 47

Bazar Expeditions (continued) —
First Expedition (continued) —
Effect on Afridis, 173
Exposure, Results to Troops, 52,

note 2
Lack of Information as to Road,

etc., 48, 49
Malikdin Khel—
Assistance rendered by, 47, 48, 53
Nomadic portion mistaken for
enemy, one man shot. Re-
paration, etc., 54
Night March, Reasons for, etc.,
. 48, 49
Pathans serving with Kandahar

Field Force, Effect on, 125
Terms imposed as condition of
Condoning Offences, 51
Khwas Khan's Duplicity —
Terms refused, 52
Tytler's, Gen., Coluinn, 50

Return March, 52— Mistake in
disposition of Baggage, 55
Villages and Forts destroyed, 52,53
Humanity Shown, 189
Inadequate Grounds for Expedi-
tions, 187
Political Officers and Military Com-
manders, Relations between
— Object lesson in dangers of
Divided Authority, 186
Second Expedition —

Bara. proposed Invasion of —
Risk of a General Rising, 178
Cavagnari's, Major, Opinion, 178
Definite Instructions from
Headquarters, Gen. Maude's
Request for, 179 — Reply, 182
Neighbouring Tribes coming
to Assistance of Zakka Khel,
177, 180
Quartermaster-General's Circu-
lar directing Avoidance of
unnecessary Collisions with
the Tribes, 178
Tytler's Column, Recall neces-
sitating Abandonment of
Scheme, 181
Bukha Pass Recoimaissance, 177,

Casualties, 183

Conduct of Officers and Men —
Lieut. Hart's Gallantry, etc.,
Dispositions — Communications to

Headquarters, 175
Exposure, Sickness resulting from,
183, note 2



Bazar Expeditions {contintied) —
Second Expedition (continued) —

Suggested by Col. C. M. Mac-
gregor and approved by Major
Cavagnari, 174
Supplies, Deficiency in, 180
Terms of Settlement, 182
Time-Limit imposed from Head-
quarters, 175
Ty tier's Column, Unsupported

Advance arranged by Cavag-
nari with Sir S. Bro\\nie, 185
Villages fired by their Inhabi-
tants, 177
Biddulph's Division— Gen. Biddulph's
Independent Command —
Commissariat Difficulties, Lack of
Commissariat Officers,etc.,109
Kakar Country, Reconnaissance,

111, 115
Khojak Pass selected for Advance

— Passage of Pass, etc, 114
Nominal Advance into Afghan

Territory, 109
Pishin, Advance into, 110
Reconnaissances of Khojak, Rogani

and Gwaja Passes, 112
Superior Officers, Deficiency in —
Arrival of Generals Palliser,
Lacy and Nuttall, 114
for Biddulph's Division of Kandahar
Field Force, see titles Kan-
dahar Field Force and Hel-
mand Expedition
Bombay Division guarding Kandahar
Field Force Communications,
Constitution, 121, 122
Summary of Duties, 131
Boroughs, Svirgeon, C. E. E. — Gallan-
try at Kushk-i-Nakhud, Un-
deserved Rebuke, 271
Breaking up small Force into insignifi-
cant Detachments, Vicious
System, 43, 60, 83, lOG, 274,
British Agents, Admission to Afghani-
Conditions of Peace laid down by
Lord Lytton, 337
Acceptance of Condition — Stipu-
lation that only one British
Officer should reside in
Afghanistan, 337
Exaggerated Importance attached to
policy by Ministerialists, 140
Kabul, Dangerous Attitude of Com-
mon People, 339, 340

British Agents (continued) —

Shere All's Refusal to receive
Mission —
Misrepresentation of Facts by
Ministerialists in England,
etc., 136, 139
Refusal Justified by Events, 157
Browne's Division — Peshawar Valley
Field Force —
Cavagnari, Major, Sir S. Browne's

Relations with, 185, note 1
Dakka, Occupation of, 30
Dispositions after occupying Dakka,
Reorganization of Force, etc.,
Forward Movement after Capture of
Ali Masjid undertaken in
Accordance with instructions
and in ignorance of Policy
which was to increase enor-
mously the magnitude of his
Task, '29
Gandamak, Occupation of, 278, 280,

Jellalabad, Occupation of, 42, 43, 45
Kabul Advance on— Sn S. Bro^nme s
'scheme demonstrating im-
possibility of Advance, 278
Khyber Tribes, Threatening Atti-
tude, 191, 194
Mohmands and Bajauris, rumours
of impending Attack necessi-
tating recall of Ty tier's
Column from Bazar, 181
Survey Parties, Hostilities pro-
voked by, 195
Lagman Valley Rising— 10th Hus-
sars Disaster, etc., 282, 284,
Line of Communications— Danger

from Tribesmen, 280, 338
Reinforcements requested, 36
Sickness among Troops— 14th Sikhs

ordered back to India, 162
jor particular Operations, see their
Bruce, Mr. — Aid given to Gen. Bid-
dulph in Retirement from
Kandahar, 323

Causes of the War —

British Agents— Shere All's refusal
to receive a British Mission,
etc., 136, 139, 140
Cavagnari's, Maj., Explanation to Af-
ghan chiefs at Jellalabad, 171



Causes of the War (continued) —

Cranbrook's, Lord, Secret Despatch
pubhshed November 21 —
Misstatement and Conceal-
ment of Facts, etc., 135
Cavagnari, Major, Political Officer in
the Khyber —
Ali Mas,]' id — Advocation of immedi-
ate Assault, 11, 20
Appointment, Reasons for — Superior
Qualifications of Mr. Macnabb
Arrangements with Khyber Clans,
50, 168
Futility of, 1G9, 188
Bazar Expeditions advocated, 47,
Bara, proposed Invasion of —
Opinion as to risk of a general
Afridi Rising, 178
Browne. Sir S., Relations with, 185,

note 1
Causes of the War — Explanation to
Afghan Chiefs at Jellalabad,
Charges against Shere Ali,
etc., 171
Mohmand Punitive Expedition,

Reasons for desiring, 172
Peace Negotiations at Gandamak,

Punitive Expeditions, Special Temp-
tations to, 1 70
Cholera Outbreak at Hurdwar and

Jhelum, 331, 339
Church of England— Attitude of Bish-
ops and Clergy towards the
War, 134, 135, note 1
Clarke, Gen. Andrew — Scheme for
Railway Connecting the Indus
with the Bolan, 161
Clyde, Lord — Humanity to Non-Com-
batants in Suppression of
Indian Mutiny, 216
Cobbe, Gen. — Peiwar Kotal, 64, 60
Collis, Major, 209, 221
Commander-in-Clu'ef, see Haines, Sir F.
Commissariat Difficulties —

Basawal, Advance to, in hope of
obtaining Local Svipplies, 35
Biddulpli's Division — Lack of Com-

missai'iat Officers, etc., 109
Dakka, Sir S. Browne's DifficuUies
— Tribesmen's AttaclvS on
Convoys, etc., 34
Helmand Expedition, 263, 266
Jellalabad, Occiipation of — Reason
for Forward Movement, etc.,
42. 45

Commissariat Difficulties (continued) —
Kandahar Field Force, 245, 249,
251, 246, note 2, 256, note I,
Km-am Field Force, 304
Conducting a Campaign at a Distance,
Futility of— Ali Masjid, Sir S.
Bro\^aae's plan all but wrecked
by the Viceroy's Order, 22
Cook, Capt. — Gallantry at Spin Gawai,
Victoria Cross Award, 131, riote 1
Cost of the War, Charging on Indian
Revenues —
Fawcett's, Mr., Amendment de-
feated, 138
Protest by Members of Indian

Council, 142, note 2
Piiljlic Works, Administrative Im-
provements, etc., Reduction
in Expenditure on, 159, 345
Cranbrook, Lord — Secretary of State
for India —
Illegal Treatment of Indian Council
in regard to Augmentation
of the Indian Army, 141, 142
Secret Despatch published on

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