H. D. (Henry Duff) Traill.

Social England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) online

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SOCIAL ENGLAND

v.3



27011




NY



PUBLIC LIBRARY THE BRANCH L BRARIES



3 3333 08885 5776



BOOK IS POT? P,
USE OKLY A



970 /



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PORTRAIT OF HENRY VIII.
(Hampton Court Palace.)



liapiece.



SOCIAL ENGLAND



3V Kcrorii of tire progress oE the

IN RELIGION, LAWS, LEARNING, ARTS, INDUSTRY, COMMERCE,
SCIENCE, LITERATURE AND MANNERS, FROM THE EARLIEST
TIMES TO THE PRESENT DAY



EDITED BY

H. D. TRAILL, D.C.L.

SOMETIME FELLOW OF ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, OXFORD

AND

J. S. MANN, M.A.

SOMETIME FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, OXFORD



VOLUME III



NEW YoRiv:^G;.P PU1\\1'M"S SONS

/',-,.
LONDON: CASSELL AND COMPLY, '.LIMITED






First Edition June 1894.

Reprinted October 1894, 1897.

Illustrated Edition, 1902.



ill






CON T E N T S .



PAGE

NOTES ON ILLUSTRATIONS . . .... . . ix

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS . . xlix

PREFATORY NOTE . . . li



CHAPTER IX.

THE OLD ORDER CHANGED. 1500-1517.

THE RF.IGN OF HENRY VIII. (A. L. Smith) ....

THE CONSTITUTION UNDER HENRY VIII. (A. Hassall)

THE COMING OF THE REFORMATION (Charles Raymond Beazley).

THE NEW ERA IN CHURCH AND STATE (A. L. Smith) . . 43

THE SEVERANCE FROM ROME (Charles Raymond Beazley) . . 58

THE DISSOLUTION OF THE MONASTERIES (/''. A. Gasquet) . . 62

THE SEVERANCE AND THE REACTION (Charles Raymond Beazley} 77

THE BALANCE OF CLASSES ALTERED (A. Hassall)

THE ART OF WAR (C. W. C. Oman). ... .90

THE NAVY UNDER HEXRY VIII. ( W. Laird Clowes) . . 102

THE NEW LEARNING (J. Bass Mullinger) . . . .112

LITERATURE (George Saint&bury) . , . . . .129

SCOTTISH LITERATURE (H. Frank Heath] . . . . . 1-tl

MUSIC UNDER THE EARLIER TUDORS (W. S. Rockstro) . .147

AGRICULTURE (W. J. Corbett) . . . . . . .150

COMMERCE AND CURRENCY (J. E. Sijmes} . . . . .156

TOWN LIFE UNDER THE EARLIER TUDORS (C. R. L. Fletcher) . 174
PUBLIC HEALTH (Charles Creighton) . . , 190

SOCIAL LIFE, 1509-1558 (Mary Bateau) ... .201

AUTHORITIES, 1509-1547 ....... 248



co.y /'/; .Y vs.

CHAPTER X.

Till-: NEW !<>! id-:*. 1.M7 l.-,-38.



THE RKIGN OF KDU \I;D VI. (A. L. Smith) ....

Tin. KKHJN- OF MARY (A. L. Smith) . .....

Tin; CiirRCH UNDER EDWARD VI. (Charles Raymond Beazlry) .

THE CATHOLIC REACTION (Charles Raymond Beazley)

Tine ENGLISH BIBLE (E. Gordon Duff] .....

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ART OF WAR (C. W. C. Om.n)

.M \RITIME WAUI-AKK AND COMMERCE ( W. Laird Clowes) .

Ti; \VEL AND EXPLORATION, 151 '2-1558 (Charles Raymond Beazley) '

THE EDUCATIONAL REACTION (J. Bass Mullinger) . . . '<

ARCHITECTURE AND ART, 1509-1558 (Reginald Hughes] . . (

THE RURAL UNREST ( W. J. Corbelt) ...... ^

THE ECONOMIC CRISIS (/. E. Syincs) ...... ^

THE PROBLEM OF PAUPERISM ( jr. A. S. llewins) . . . c

PUBLIC HEALTH (Charles Creightoii) ...... J

THE KINGDOM OF SCOTLAND. 1124-15G1 (James Cohille] . . 2

IRELAND AND ENGLAND, 1169-1558 (P. W. Joyce) . . .3

AUTHORITIES, 15J 7-1558 . . -i

CHAPTER XL

THE NEW ORDER. 1558-1584.

ENGLAND AND EUROPE (A. IlassaU) ...... 4

THE STATE AND THE CHURCH (Charles Raymond Beazley} . 4:

AUCIHTKCTI-RE AND ART (Reginald Hughes) .... 4-

THE OCCULT SCIENCES (Robert Steele) . . . . . 4-

THE BEGINNINGS OF NATURAL SCIENCE (T. Whittaker) . . 4"

THE LITERATURE OF EDUCATION (George Saintsbury}. . . !"

Tine EARLY ELIZADKTIIAN DRAMA (f,'ri>i-i/i- Si nlxbury] . . 46
IVVRLY ELIZABETHAN- POETRY (Ucorgc, $(tints!,n ri/) . . .46

THE TRANSFORMATION OF THK LAND (/?. E. Prothero] . . 47

Tin: ECONOMIC REVIVAL (J. E. Byrnes) ..... 4s

THK HEALTH AND <!I;O\\TH OF LONDON (Charles Creightori) . 50

ELIZABKTHAN SOCIETY (George Saintsbury). .... 51:



CONTENTS. vii

PAGE

MANNERS AND COSTUME (M. Bateson). ..... 523

SCOTLAND, 1561-1603 (James Colville) 547

DISTURBED IRELAND (7 J . W. Joyce) ...... 562

AUTHORITIES, 1558-1584 ....... 565



CHAPTER XII.

THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND. 1581-1G03.

ENGLAND AND EUROPE (A. Hassall) ...... 568

THE ARMADA ( W. Laird Clowes) ...... 570

THE RESULTS OF THE VICTORY (A. Hassall) .... 575

THE ENGLISH IN IRELAND (P. W. Joyce) ..... 580

PURITANISM AND NONCONFORMITY (John- Brown) . . . 586

THE RELIGIOUS STRUGGLE (Charles Raymond Beazley) . . 593

RELIGION AND LITERATURE ( W. H. Hutton) .... G10

THE ELIZABETHAN ARMY (C. W. C. Oman) . . . .620

THE ELIZABETHAN NAVY ( IT. Laird Cloives) .... 630

EXPLORATION UNDER ELIZABETH (Charles Raymond Beazley) . 654

"NATURAL SCIENCE (T. Whittaker) . . , . . .697

Music UNDER ELIZABETH ( W. S. Rockslro). .... 698

ELIZABETHAN LITERATURE (George Saintsbury) .... 702

THE AGRICULTURAL COUNTER-REVOLUTION (R. E. ProtJiero) , 728

THE PROGRESS OF COMMERCE (J. E. Symes) .... 736

V/THE POOR LAWS OF ELIZABETH (W. A. S. lieu-ins) . . . 750

PUBLIC HEALTH (Charles Creicfhton) ...... 763

SOCIAL, LIFE (Mary Bateson) . . . . . . .771

AUTHORITIES, 1584-1603 788

INDEX 789



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

VOLUME III.



PAGE

PORTRAIT OF HENRY VIII., HAMPTON COURT . . . Frontispiece

Attributed by different authorities to Holbein, Girolamo da Treviso,
Janet, and other artists ; probably painted in 1536. See E. Law,
Git-itlti to Hampton Court, p. 54.

GROAT OP HENRY VIII., STRUCK AT TOURNAY 2

Henry VIII. held Tournay from September, 1513, to February, 1519.
The name is on the reverse. The coin is of the same type as the
English groat of his first issue, which bears Henry VII. 's portrait.
Grueber, Catalogue- of English Coins in British Museum, p. 84.

RING OF JAMES IV. (given him by Anne of Bretagne) .... 3

SWORD OF JAMES IV., CAPTURED AT FLODDEN 3

" James is said to have clad several men in the same dress as him-
self, that he might not be known and might take the place of an
ordinary combatant. It was variously rumoured in Scotland that he
had survived, that he had been treacherously slain after the battle,
and that he had gone to the Holy Land. But his body was
recognised, and the sword, dagger, and ring at the Heralds' College
attest his death " (^Eneas Mackay. in the Dictionary of Nat. Binr/.').

THE ANGLO-FRENCH ENTENTE OF 1514 4

From a French MS. account of the reception of Mary Tudor
in Paris and the devices displayed in her honour by the guilds
and civic authorities of the city. This was shown at the Porte St.
Denis, on the draAvbridge by which the Princess was to enter
the city. The four winds, " Subsolanus " or Southern, Boreas. Auster,
and Zephyrus, are wafting the ship onward ; it is steered by Paris
(the city, not the Trojan hero), and cai-ries Bacchus with, his vine-
branch and Ceres with her sheaf, and represents the city of Paris,
in the granaries of which there are corn and wine in abundance.
Honour, with the arms of France, is above ; the two men holding
darts are guarding the honour of the ship. In the rigging are
sailors "singing musically" the following verse:

Noble dame, bien soyez venue en France:

Par toy unions en plaisir et en joye ;
Ffrancoys Anylais unicnt a leur plaisance ;

Louange a dieu du bien qui vous envoye.

During a lalt before this device a chosen speaker addressed the

Princess with a verse of welcome, and she then entered the city

and was received by the civic, authorities. The above account is
taken frorr. the original MS.

HENRY VIII. ON HIS WAT TO THE FIELD OF THE CLOTH OF GOLD . 5

In this contemporary painting, once attributed erroneously to
Holbein, ' every incident of the interview between the two Sovereigns



x NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

is depicted with the most minute and elaborate historical accuracy."
On ilir IcTi hand is shown the arrival of the English cavalcade, in
the foreground is the chief part of the procession, with The King
prominent, Wolsey hy his side, and tin- .Marquis of horsrt ill front
with the sword ut' State : on i lie right is the plain .if Ardres, studded
wit.'i bents; in the foreground the famous temporary palace, put
together in a few weeks ; outside its gate are two gold fountains
spurt in;; wine: tutlie right the lists; lower down, the kitchens,
with dinner going on in a tent: in the upper left-hand corner, the
artificial dragon or salamander that appeared in th,> sky when mass
was lii-ing sung by the Cardinal and Bishops. Cf. Law, (,'u/i/n
to Jlanijiton Court, and our text, p. 3l->(!.

CARDINAL WOLSEY 7

This portrait, reproduced from the photograph in the National
1 'urtrait Gallery of the contemporary drawing by Jacques Le Boucq
of Artois, preserved in the library at Arras, is said to show Wolsey
at an earlier age than his other portraits, and without the wart
on his nose represented in some of them. Cf. Gairdner, in the
liii-tinini ry i\f .\ntional Biography.

REMAINS OF WOLSEY'S PALACE, ESHER 9

SEAL OF HENRY VIII. 11

Used i'rom his accession to 1532. Closely resembles that of Henry
VII., but has a lion rampant added on the obverse.

SEAL OF WOLSEY, AS ARCHBISHOP OF YORK 13

Its date is I."i24 ; St. Peter and St. Paul, in niche, carved in the
Italian style ; the Cardinal's hat is also shown over the shield.

THE OLD GUILDHALL, LAVENHAM, SUFFOLK 17

Lavenham (" Lanham " in Stow's Chronicle) was one of the chief
seats of the cloth manufacture, and the tax referred to had con-
strained the employers to discharge many of their men, whence
the revolt.

SIGNATURE OF WOLSEY 21

He signs as Cardinal and Archbishop of York.
THE POPULAR CREED 23

From a Spanish book of devotions of about 14.">0. but given here
because it might easily be interpreted as embodying the crude popular
conception that salvation could be purchased by offerings, against
which the Reformers protested, much as Plato in the licpuUic had
denounced the Orphic priests of his own time. The priest is saying
masses for the souls of the dead ; on the left is Paradise, on the
right Purgatory, out of which the souls rise as the masses are
said ; in the background, Hell ; kneeling at the altar, a grandee,
apparently hoping to purchase his own salvation by the offering
of a church.

THE DANCE or DEATH 25

From a Flemish Book of Hours of great beauty; late loth cent.
"ST. LOY A HORSE LEECH" 27

St. Loy, more properly St. Kloi or Eligius, Bishop of Noyon in
the seventh century, began life as a goldsmith, and is the 'patron
of that craft, as well as of veterinary surgeons and smiths. His



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xi

PAGE

title to the veneration, of the two last-named trades rests on
the leg-end that, having occasion to shoe a horse, he took off
the leg and restored it safe and sound. This miracle, which
has escaped his friend and biographer St. Owen, Archbishop of
Rouen, is depicted in a German MS. of prayers to saints (Egerton
859, fifteenth century) in the British Museum, and in the stone
carving 1 here shown (from Wincanton Church, Somerset), which
has evidently suffered at the hands of Protestant iconoclasts.

PORTION OP THE PROCLAMATION AGAINST THE TRANSLATION OK THE

BIBLE 31

ARCHBISHOP WARHAM 35

PALACE GATEWAY. CAWOOD. NEAR YORK 39

A palace of the Archbishop of York existed here from Old English
times ; it was mostly destroyed during the Civil Wars. The gate-
house is said to have been built between 1325 and 1350.

ANNE BOLEYN 41

According to Woltmann (Holbein, Bunnett's trans, p. 384) this
picture is comparatively recent, but may have been copied from an
original portrait. It is commonly ascribed to Holbein, incorrectly
according to Sir G. Scharf and Waagen. The portraits usually
published as those of Anne Boleyii are mostly taken from one
at Berlin, which represents someone else ; Woltmann, 'ibid.

BULL OP POPE CLEMENT VII. AGAINST HENRY VIII.'s DIVORCE . . 45

HENRY VIII., PRINCESS MARY, AND WILL SOMERS, AFTER HOLBEIN . 49

At Al thorp ; cf. Waagen, Treasures of Art in England, III., 456.

FOUNTAINS ABBEY 51

A Cistercian house, founded in 1132 by monks who withdrew from
Rievaulx in consequence of a relaxation of the rules, and put them-
selves under Bernard of Clairvaux.

TITLE PAGE OF THE GREAT BIBLE. 1539 53

Henry VIII., a coarsely executed portrait, is giving out Bibles
to bishops and warriors ; on his right Cranmer is distributing to
priests ; and on his left, Cromwell, to laymen. Below is a priest,
preaching from 1 Tim. ii. 1, and the congregation are shouting
"Vivat Rex." In the lower corner is a prison, possibly for ultra-
Protestants (sec text, p. 78).

TOMB OF SIR RICHARD HERBERT. ABERGAVENNY CHURCH ... 55

Sir Richard Herbert was father of William Herbert, first Earl
of Pembroke of the second creation, who by his marriage with the
sister of Catherine Parr was brother-in-law of Henry VIII. ; and was
illegitimate son of William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke of the first
creation, who died in 14(39. The Herberts had been established in
south-eastern Wales from the thirteenth century.

SECOND AND THIRD SEALS OF HENRY VIII 57

As the second seal (1532-1541) is the last royal seal which shows
Gothic architecture, and the third (1542-1567) the first which
exhibits that of the Renaissance, the year 1541 may be taken as
the approximate date of the change in national taste in building.
The third seal, it will be iio'ed, describes the king as ' supreme
head on earth of the Church of England and Ireland."



xii NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE
HENRY \Tn. AT HIS Dl-.ViiTHiNS . .

From his own Psalter, with notes in his l,;i:;.|\vriting.

PAGE FKO.M Tin; INSTITUTION OF A CHRISTIAN .MAN" <>1

The body of the work is in the handwriting of a secretary, the
correct ; ni i- are in that, i>f ihe Kin-' himself.

CHAPEL NEAR LYMPNE, KF.NT, IN \vinrn TIN: -HOLY MAID" PROPHESIED 63

Elizabeth Barton, the "Holy .Maid of Kent," when in service at
Aldington, about i.~iL'~>. developed religious mania during recovery
from an illness. Her master. ., sicward of one of Archbishop Warham's
estates, together with tin- parish priest, supposed her to lie inspired,
ami W;n ham himself shared the belief. When she recovered, the
steward treated her as one of his family, and she was tempted to
keep up her character as prophetess. By Warham's order, two monks
from Christ Church. Canterbury, were sent to report on her con-
dition, and one of them, named Booking- instructed her to prophesy
adversely to the Protestants. He then announced that she would
perform a miracle, and on the day appointed she was taken to the
chapel, shown and laid before the image of the Virgin. She there
fell into a trance, and a "voice speaking within her belly" preached
the duty of htaring mass, confessing, going on pilgrimage, etc.
She was then removed to St. Sepulchre's priory at Canterbury, and,
with Booking as her confessor, was established as a prophetess.
She strongly opposed Henry VIII. 's divorce from Queen, Catherine,
and predicted that he would die within a month after his second
marriage. When the prediction was not fulfilled, she declared that
he was no longer king in the sight of God ; she was therefore
arrested, and confessing her imposture was executed with her ac-
complices at Tyburn in 1534. Srr Mr. S. L. Lee's article on her
in the Dictionary i>f National Bioyr(t]_>li ij.

THE CARTHUSIANS IN PRISON 65

From a print showing the sufferings of Roman Catholic priests
under Henry VIII., dated Rome, l.Vi.">, and preserved in the British
Museum. The Priors of three Carthusian Houses, named Houghton,
Lawrence, and Webster, are shown in one compartment being
drawn on hurdles to the place of their execution : the section given
shows Humphrey Middlemore, the vicarius or deputy of the prior,
William of Mewe, the procurator, and Sebastian Xewdegate, senior
monk, who were kept in chains " in a filthy dungeon " without
intermission for fourteen days, and subsequently hanged, with the
aggravations of that punishment customary in the execution of
State prisoners until a much later date.

THE CLOISTERS, CHARTERHOUSE, LONDON 67

The Carthusians were confined here before their execution.

CHALICE OF ST. ALBANS ABBEY G9

At the Dissolution of the greater abbeys this chalice came into
the possession of Sir Thomes Pope, one of the Commissioners, who
afterwards presented it to Trinity College. Oxford, which he founded
on the site of Durham College.

RUINS OF FOUR FAMOUS ABBEYS 71

Kirksted, between Lincoln and Boston, a Cistercian house, founded
]13'J : Whalley Abbey, near Clitheroe. Lancashire, was also Cistercian ;
the ruins comprise a gatehouse and part of the church, built in IL".H;.
Colchester (Augustinian) was founded temp Henry I. ; the last abbot



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xiii

PAGE

was hanged outside the gate. Barlings Abbey (Premonstratensian).
founded frwp. Henry II., is near Lincoln ; the last prior was hanged
for his share in the Pilgrimage of Grace.

THE ABBEY GATE AT BEADING .75

Reading- Abbey (Benedictine) was founded before the Norman
Conquest and refounded by Henry I., who was buried here, as also
his daughter Maud, and her grandson William, eldest son of Henry II.
In its great hall, part of which is still standing, many Parliaments
were held, and Edward IV. was married to Elizabeth Woodville ;
in its church John of Gaunt was married. The morals of its inmates
at the Reformation were in the worst possible repute. Henry VIII.
converted it into a palace, and it was almost destroyed in the Civil
Wars between Charles I. and the Parliament. The gateway here
shown fell down in 1861 and was restored by Sir Gilbert Scott.

PROCLAMATION AGAINST ANABAPTISTS 79

JOHN RUSSELL, FIRST EARL OF BEDFORD 85

The Russells were a Dorsetshire family, who were well established
early in the fifteenth century. John Russell seems to have owed
his start in life to the Archduke Philip, who. when cast on the
English coast near Weymouth, was entertained by a connection of
Russell, who introduced the youth, then about twenty, to him. The
Archduke took him to Court, and he was given an appointment by
Henry VIII. and became a favourite with his son.

BRASS OF SIR THOMAS BOLEYN 87

Sir Thomas Boleyn's grandfather was Lord Mayor of London in
1457, and bought the manor of Blickling, Norfolk, from Sir John
Fastolfe. Sir Thomas himself purchased Hever Castle in Kent (lately
a good deal restored), and died there in 1639. He had been created
Earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde ten years previously.

GATES OF BOULOGNE, CAPTURED UNDER HENRY VIII 91

These gates, captured in 1544. were given by the king to Thomas
Hardres, who erected them at his house, Hardres Coui't, Kent. After
the death of the last male representative of the famih', in 1764, the
house passed to his wife's heirs. The gates were presented bj T one
of them to a Mr. Godfrey Faussett, who, however, did not remove
them. When the house was sold, the purchaser, not knowing
of the gift and being no antiquary, disposed of them to the
local blacksmith, who destroyed them for the sake of the iron they
contained. They were afterwards drawn from memory by Mrs.
Taylor, of Bifrons, the last representative of the Hardres family
who had lived in the house ; her sketch was reproduced in Arnliaio-
lofjin Cantiitna, Vol. IV., from which our illustration is taken, to-
gether with the substance of the above note.

Ax ENGLISH ARMY ABOUT 1540 93

This shows the normal order of th." sixteenth century, with a
" vaward. '" (vanguard), "main battle."' and ''rear-ward." In each
division, it will be noted, the billmen are flanked with bowmen,
while there are a few arquebusiers on the wings. This picture
and the coloured plate are from a collection of drawings of the
sixteenth century in the Cotton collection.

SOLDIERS OF THE TUDOR PERIOD. I to face 94

A BATTLE SCENE (see above, note on p. 02) 95



xiv NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

PACK

SOLDIERS OP THE TUDOR PERIOD (for the MS. see note on p. 93) . '.7

THE BATTLEFIELD or FLODDE.V TO-DAY ... ... 1)9

A view of Branxton llidge 'in the middle distance) looking south-
ward. as seen from thr direction of Coldstivani Station. Stanley's
position was at Branxton village, when; the ridge dips on the left.
Piper's Hill, where (lie Scots centre and reserve were finally defeated,
is on the right, below the nearer end of the trees on the distant hill.

VIEW FROM RYE, SHOWING POSITION OF CAMBER CASTLE . . . 101

In the marshes, between Rye and Winchelsea, now a long way
from the sea, which is on the spectator's left.



EMBARKATION OF HENRY VIII. IN THE GKF.AT HARRY. 1520 . . . 105

The view is taken from the south-west of Dover Harbour; the
Gri'iit Iliirry is just leaving. The king is on the main deck, attired
in crimson, with a cloak of cloth of gold. The picture is contem-
porary, and attributed to Vincent Volpe.

PORTION OF THE PDMP OF THE J/.i/.-r ROSE ...... 106

LONGBOWS FROM THE J/.;/.T HOSE ........ 107

THOMAS HOWARD, THIRD DUKE OF NORFOLK ..... 110

Lord High Admiral in 1 ;Jl 3 ; helped to suppress the rising of the
unemployed cloth workers in Suffolk in 1.1 2 3. and Sir Thomas
Wyatt's rebellion ; uncle of Catherine Howard. This portrait (by
Holbein) is at Norfolk House.

ERASMUS, BY HOLBEIN ...... ... 113

This portrait, which is in the Salon Carre at the Louvre, has a
cipher inscription on the back stating that it once belonged to
Charles I. of England, who presented it to Louis XIII. of France
in return for Leonardo's St. John. .A similar portrait, with a simpler
background, is at Basle ; this latter and a portrait of Longford
Castle, near Salisbury, afford two main types of the portraits of
Erasmus (Woltmann, Hans Holli-in. trans. Bunnett, p. 188 -wy.).
Woltmann lays special stress on the masterly execution of the hands.

ALMSBOX AT HARBLEDOWN, KENT ........ 115

The hospital was founded by Lanfranc in 1084 ; some of the
Becket and other relics preserved in it are shown at Vol. I., p. .131.
As travellers passed, one of the inmates would run out, sprinkle them
with holy water and offer Becket's shoe to be kissed, expecting a
coin in return. This happened to Erasmus and Colet. Erasmus,
Colloquies, trans, by Nichols. 1875, p. 53. This box probably
received Erasmus's contribution.

DEAN COLET, BY HOLBEIN (at Windsor Castle) ..... 116

EDWARD VI.'s AUTOGRAPH ......... 117

In a copy of the Institutio Principis Cln-ixtiuni of Erasmus, pre-
sented to Edward VI. when prince. He himself wrote the passage
from Cicero, Uc ^l mid/in (xiii. 44), on the inside of the cover, possibly
as an expression of the sentiments with which he looked forward to
succeeding to the crown ; his tutor (probably) wrote the explanation
below. Thomas Baker, the antiquary, SII!>M ipieiitly gave the hook to
the College, and transcribed the two passages on the opposite flyleaf
thai they might be more easily read. "To me'' (says the speaker
in Cicero) "it is a matter of no less concern what the condition
of the State may/ be after my death, than what it is to-day."



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xv

PAGI".

PLATE BEQUEATHED BY. BISHOP Fox TO C.C.C., OXFORD . . . lli>

The crosier, paten, and chalice, with two rings (episcopal with
sapphire, signet with pelican) certainly belonged to the Bishop :
the gold spoons, if not his. are but little later. Corpus Christi,
like other colleges, gave up its plate to Charles I., bitt has more
plate anterior to his time than most ; a very natural explanation
is that the more elaborately wrought articles were redeemed by
a money payment, as the king wanted bullion, not workmanship.
Fowler, History of Corpus Christ I College (Oxf. Hist. Sos.), P- 20U.

RELICS OF SIR THOMAS MORE, STONYHURST COLLEGE . . 125

The hat (pileus) was given to the Jesuit College at Brussels in
1654 by the rector of the college of Koermond, in Holland, which
had received it from Godfrey Gilekens, Chancellor of the Supreme
Court of Guelderland, who used to wear it in court on the anni-
versary of More's execution. The sodality crucifix, which bears
a Greek inscription stating that it is a relic of St. Thomas the
Apostle, and apparently contains relics of St. Charles Borromeo of
Milan, was given, with the two seals, George, cameo, and cap men-
tioned below, by More's last descendant (Father Thomas More, a
Jesuit) to the Sodality (or religious brotherhood) of Our Blessed
Lady in the English College at St. Omer in 1755. Of the seals,
one. of silver, bears an inscription indicating that it was used by
More in his official capacity as sub-treasurer ; the crest is a Moor's
head, the handle a fleur-de-lis. Another seal, of cornelian, with
the handle consisting of two crucifixes, may have belonged to his
grandson Thomas More. The George (not the decoration of the
Order of the Garter, of which More was not a member) has on
the obverse St. George and the dragon in gold and enamel, on the
reverse Christ stripped and surrounded with the instruments of
His passion. : -The cameo bears the Virgin Mary's head. The



Online LibraryH. D. (Henry Duff) TraillSocial England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 68)