H. D. (Henry Duff) Traill.

Social England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) online

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pouncet box, which has a silver lid, was given by More's sister to
a priest, and presented to the Jesuits of Stonyhurst by Father James
Parker, who died in 1822 ; the silver reliquary, with crystal on both
sides, contains a bone, and has an inscription indicating that it
belonged to More. The other gold crucifix is beautifully enamelled.
For the photographs we are indebted to Father Cortie, S.J., and
for the description to the Stonyhurst Magazine for Feb., 1887.

WOODCUT FROM ASCHAM'S "SCHOLEMASTER," 1571 . . . 127

A tree growing out of an effigy on a tomb, with the motto, " Etsi
mors indies accelerat post funera virtus vivet tamen" (though death
hastens on daily, yet virtue will live 011 after the burial).

A BUCOLIC POET (from Jascuy's edition of Lyndsay, Paris, 1556) . . 13Q
SKELTON. FROM HIS " GARLANDE OF LAUREL " (ed. Faukes, 1523) . 131

A BIBLIOPHILE 134

The mere book 1 collector : he describes himself thus

" Still am I besy bokes assemblyng-e,
For to have plenty it is a pleasant thynge
In my conceyt and to have them aye in honde,
But what they mene do I not understonde."

Barclay's " Ship of Fools " is an adaptation, rather than a trans-
lation, of the li Narrensohiff " of Sebastian Brandt. ' the most popular
book of bhe later Middle Ages," and one of the literary preparatives
for the Reformation. A good account of it is given in Max Muller's
Chips from a German Workshop.



xvi NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

THE MORE FAMILY. ri:oM THE SKKTCII BY HOLBKIX AT BASLE. . 137

On the spectator's extreme hTi is Elizabeth Damaea, daughter
cf Sir Thomas MI i re. aged 21 : next is Margaret, (Jiga, wife of
Clement." I'elhiw student ;md relative of his daughters." aged 22;
below, John Mure, father of Sir Thomas au'ed 7H. and next him
Sir Thomas .More, aired 50. I let ween the two men is Anna (JrU.-e-ria
(Cresacre), betrot.lied to John More, aged 15; next to her, John More,
son of Sir Tin. mas aged !'.: below. Henry Patenson, son-in-law of
Thomas .More. aged 4u : by the sideboard. Alicia, wife of Sir Thomas
More, aired 57 : be]o..v her. .Margaret Roper and Caeeilia Ileronia,
daughters of Sir Thomas .More, aged respectively 'J2 and 20. The
mimes and ages will be seen appended to the figures, iu Latin. The
draw iii"; was made in London in 15:;:i.

TlTLi: PAGE TO ASCHAM'S " TOXOPHILUS," 1571 . 139

Illustrating the defence of England against Rome and heresy,
France and Scotland, by the Bible and the longbow.

Sn; THOMAS WYATT THE ELDER ... ... HI

DUXKELD CATHEDRAL 145

The cathedral dates principally from the fifteenth century, but
parts date back to the twelfth, and it stands on the site of one of
the oldest churches in Scotland. The choir serves as the parish
church. The ruined nave is here shown.

LYNDSAY AS LYON KIXG-AT-ARMS (from Jascuy's ed., Paris,' 1556) . . 147

HENRY VIII. AS A MUSICIAN , 148

From the Psalter executed for him, from which an illustration is
given on p. !>5. He is playing the harp, with his jester. Will Somers,
in attendance. Like the illustration in Vol. II., p. 3G2, this is placed
at Psalm liii.

SONG COMPOSED BY HENRY VIII .149

From a MS. book of music (see text, p. 150), which once belonged
to Henry VIII., and contains (out of a total of 112 pieces) eighteen
songs and ballads and fifteen instrumental pieces bearing his name.
Others are also ascribed to him from internal evidence. They were
written in the first six years of his reign. One. attributed also
to the king, and entitled ' Grene groweth the Holly," contains
this couplet

" As the holly jrroweth groin? and never chang-eth hue,
. v " i'.m I constant to my lady true."

But it is fair to add that it was written in 1516. The book is
described by W. Chappel. Areliaologia, xli.

TKNAXT PAYIXG RENT 151

The frontispiece to Sir Anthony Fitzherbert's "Boke of Surveying,"
printed by Thomas I'ynson, and dated July loth, 1523, in the colophon

at the end.

AGRICULTURAL LABOURERS , 154

Shepherds, Faustus and Amyntas by name, who discourse some-
what after the manner of their Virgiliaii prototypes on the relative
merits of country and town life. Barclay's fourth and fifth Eclogues
are imitations of those of Joannes Baptista Mantuanus.

PLOUGHING AN Ori:.\ FIELD

The balk, or ba between the strip shown and the next is

visible in the foreground. Cf. note on Vol. II., p. 135.



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xvii

PAGE

CHARTER GRANTED BY HENRY VIII. TO TRINITY HOUSE . . . 157
From an illuminated MS. at Trinity House.

POET'S CORNER : A BIT OF OLD MANCHESTER ...... 160

Long Millgate : one of the houses bears the date 1623, but it is
believed to be for the most part much older. Ashworth, Sketches
of Old Manchester and Salford, 1878.

UTOPIA REVEALED ........... 161



The supposed discoverer. Raphael Hythlorlay (Jn/f-Jifi'rfr/r'Ux. dissector
of trifles), telling- his story to More and his friends. From the
Basle edition of 1516.

VIEW op THE ISLAND OP UTOPIA ..... . 163

Except for the insertion of the city of Amaurote and the river
Anyrler, it cannot be said that the artist has attempted to follow
More's description. ( Utopia. Book ii.) The island is described by
More as shaped like the new moon, and enclosing an inland sea.

MONEYERS AT WORK ........... 165

THE FIELD OF THE CLOTH OF GOLD. ... . . 167

From reliefs round the inner court of the Hotel Bourgtheroulde,
Rouen, a splendid private house of the sixteenth century. They
are very nearly contemporary, and are described by Xodier, Vin/nr/e
Pittoresqwe dans Vancienne * France (Normandie), Vol. II., p. 81.
Possibly, as Nodier thinks. Francis I. stayed in the house.

BRASS OF THOMAS POWNDER, XOTARY, AND HIS WIFE .... 173

St. Mary Quay, Ipswich : an exceptionally fine engraved brass,
which is said to sho\v traces of Flemish influence.

A CITIZEN ...... . . . .177

OSENEY ABBEY AND ITS LAST ABBOT .... . 179

In the south aisle of the Cathedral, Christ Church, Oxford, above
the tomb of the last Abbot. King, who became the first Bishop of
Oxford. The background is said to be the best existing repre-
sentation of Oseney Abbey. The glass was taken down and pre-
served by one of the Bishop's family during the Commonwealth,
and put up again at the Restoration,

OLD BRISTOL HIGH CROSS ..... .... 182

Originally erected in 1373, reconstructed in 1633 ; taken down in
1703, and removed five years later to Stourhead Park, Wilts ; care-
fully restored in 1895.

THE GREAT BED OF WARE ... ..... 185

Formerly at an inn at Ware, and now at the Rye House Hotel,
Broxbourne, Herts. It held twelve persons.

SIGNAL FOR CHESTER FAIR ......... 186

A wooden hand, hung up when the fair was about to open ; now
in the Mayer Museum, Liverpool.

FORESTALLER IN THE PILLORY ...... . . 187

From a print published in 1746 by the Society of Antiquaries,
and taken ''from the original table [of weights and measures in
the reign of Henry VII.], formerly in the Treasury of the King's

6



xviii .VnV/v'.s' TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

Exchequer at Westminster, and now preserved in the MS. library
of the late Karl of Oxford." which became the Ilarlcian collection,
now in the British Museum. The original is lost.

FIREPLACE or JOHN VEYSEY 190

From his house at Cambridge, 1538 ; shows the arms of the
Grocers' Company.

A SICK-BED 193

Appended to verses " Of them that be diseased and sick and are
impatient and inobedient to the physician." (See above, on p. 134.)

BILL OF MORTALITY, ABOUT 1512 195

Part of a list of deaths from the Plague and oder dyseases " in
London from November 16th to November 23rd, probably in 1512 ;
preserved in a collection of letters and papers relating to the early
Tudor period, in the British Museum.

SIR WILLIAM BUTTS (after Holbein ; painted when he was 59). . . 197

HENRY VIII, PRESENTING THE CHARTER TO THE COMPANY OF

BARBER SURGEONS 199

This picture contains portraits of Chambers, Butts, and other
leading surgeons of the time. It is 10 ft. 2 in. by 3 ft. 11 in.

CHARLES BRANDON, DUKE OF SUFFOLK (artist unknown ) . . . 202

HENRY VIII.'s FOOT ARMOUR 204

" It is a complete suit for fighting on foot in the lists, and comfort
and ability to move about have been sacrificed to perfect protection.
It weighs about 93 lb.. and is composed of 235 separate pieces of
metal." W. J. Loftie, Official Guide to the Tomer of London.

JOUSTS AT WESTMINSTER, FEBRUARY 13TH, 1510 ! . . . to face 204

" In honour of the Queen Katharine upon the birth of their eldest
son, Prince Henry." The four knights were the king (Cceur Loyal),
the Earl of Devon (Bon Vouloir), Sir Thomas Knyvett (Vaillant
Desir). and Sir Edward Xevill (Joyeux Penser). They are described
in Hall's Chronicle and by Holinshed under the year 1510. The
infant Prince unhappily died nine days afterwards. These drawings,
published in Vetusta Moiii/mmta, I., are here photographed directly
from the original roll preserved at the College of Arms.

HENRY VIII.'s TILTING ARMOUR . 205

Given to Henry VIII. by the Emperor Maximilian, and engraved
with roses, pomegranates, portcullises, and other badges of Henry
VIII. and Katherine of Aragon ; this was made by Conrad Seusen-
hofer. of Augsburg. The horse's armour is thought to have been
made in England by one of Henry's German armourers. Among
the engravings on it are scenes from the life of St. George and
Si- Barbara. Traces of the silver coating of the armour still remain.
Loftie, Official Guide to the Tower of London, p. 24.

M i SICAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY .... 207

The recorder or whistle flute (Nos. 1. 2, 3 ; Hamlet, Act III., scene 3)
\vas mad' 1 in various sizes for playing in "consorts" of four or six
part*. They ranged from the highest treble (5^ inches long) to the
conwa bass (11 feet long). In the deeper flutes a curved brass crook
brought the finger holes within the performer's reach. The pipe and
tabor were generally played by the same person, the whistle pipe,



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xix

PAGE

with only three holes but nearly two octaves in compass, being held
in the left hand, while the tabor was slung from the left arm and
played by the riyht hand with a drumstick. The hornpipe (No.
5). a rustic clarinet, the Welsh j)ih//orn. gave its name to the dance.
The shawm (Xo. 6). perhaps the ancestor of the oboe (Lat. calamus),
is played with a double reed. The pommer (Xo. 7), a deep-
pitched variety of the shawm, had. like the flutes, complete sets
for ''consorts." The brass pommer is now superseded by the bassoon.
The cromhorn. or krnmhorn (8, 9), whence the organ stop cremona,
is played with a double reed concealed within a wooden cup, and so
is akin to the bagpipe. The cornets, much used in the sixteenth
century, have a small cup-shaped mouthpiece something like that
of the modern cornet, but the wooden tube of the instrument is
pierced with holes like a flute. It is an error to suppose that it
was played like a reed. These instruments, and others to be
shown hereafter, belong to the remarkable collection of the Rev.
F. W. G-alpin. of Hatfield Broad Oak, Essex, by whose courtesy
we are enabled to reproduce them. They have been described by
W. Lynd, Ancient Musical Instruments (James Clarke & Co., 1897).

A POPULAR PAGEANT 209

A restoration of the pageant of the Smiths' Company of Coventry,
executed by David Jee for Thomas Sharp's Dissertation, nit, the
Paf/eants or Dramatic Mi/xtrrics ancieittly performed at Coventry,
1825. The waggon is stationed near the Cross, in the Cross-cheaping,
the houses being restored from examples extant at the date of the
drawing ; the armed guard round it is inserted on the authority
of an item in the accounts of expenditure on the pageant for 1 4fi9.
On the ground are seated the persons who drew the vehicle from
station to station ; in the foreground are three minstrels and a
carpenter, who is also mentioned in the accounts. The Smiths'
pageant was concerned with the Passion, and Pilate is here repre-
sented washing his hands. Beside the principal figure will be
seen Annas and Caiaphas in mitres. The vanes, crest, streamer,
embattlement, and curved boards for the top of the pageant are
charged for in various extant accounts. Frequently the waggon
had two stories, the lower serving as a dressing room, but the
construction of the upper story or '' scaffold " is uncertain. Sharp,
op. cit., pp. 17-22, from, which the above is condensed.

IRON FIREBACK OP 1550 (cf.. Vol. II., p. 552, note) . . . .211
With the device of the salamander and date.

HEXRY HOWARD, EARL op SURREY 213

Formerly attributed to Holbein, but now ascribed conjecturally
to Guillim Stretes, from whom Edward VI. is known to have bought
a picture of the Earl in 1551.

"PALMER, PEDLAR, AND POTICARY" 214

From an interlude, printed between 15-13 and 15 4 7 (possibly 1544)
by William Myddelton, by John Heywood, playwright and epigram-
matist, who was ' beloved and rewarded by Henry VIII. for his
musical talents, ready wit, and perhaps his buffooneries," and who
was one of the few people able to make Queen Mary laugh. The
Palmer recites his pilgrimages ; the Pardoner ridicules him for going
so far when he might have bought a pardon at home ; the Apothe-
cary introduces himself as necessary to the Pardoner's business ; and
the Pedlar acts as judge in a contest in lying, which results in a tie.
In spite of all this. Heywood was a Romanist at heart (r note on
p. 23S). Warton. Eiiijlixh Poetry, ed. Hazlitt, IV., p. 87 ; A. W. Ward,
Dramatic Literature, I., 244.



xx NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAOE

AN INTERIOR 21 *

From the first ami only edition of John Ileywood's Spnlcr an/7 i-li-
(.svv /iiixt, note on p. L':is). a dreary (and lengthy") epical allegory
which historiiins of literature have confessed themselves unable to
get through. The figure seems to be the poet, whose window a
fly enters '' through the lattice " a proof that the use of glass was
not yer \\-t-ll established: it is presently entangled in a cobweb.
Warton, History of Kitijlixli I'ortri/, ed. Hazlitt, IV., p. 87.

KATHARINE PARR (probably by an English artist) . . . .215

Acquired by the National Gallery in, 1897.

JANE SEYMOUR, BY HOLBEIN 217

Probably painted in 1537. and said to resemble a figure of this
queen in a portrait group destroyed in the fire at Whitehall in
Iti'JS. of which a copy, made for Charles II.. exists at Hampton
Court. The original sketch for this picture is at Windsor Castle.

BRASSES SHOWING COSTUME OP THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY . . .210

PRINCESS MARY AT THE AGE OF TWENTY-EIGHT 221

On panel, 27 in. by 21 in., painted in 1544 by Joannes Corvus.

A SALT CELLAR OP 1518 222

Of the hour-glass form ; " six-sided, with raised lobes alternately
ornamented and plain." Of. Cripps, <>/<! /;// //.s7/ Plate, p. 272 seq.

THE RICHMOND CUP . . 223

Presented to the Armourers' Company in 1557 by John Richmond ;
13 in. high, weight 51 oz. , " its style speaks for itself, and recalls the
simple Inn elegant make of the hour-glass salts of about the same
date.'' Cripps, Old Eiujlish Plate, pp. 303, 305.

HUGH LATIMER (1555 ; artist unknown) ... . 224

LATIMER READING BEFORE EDWARD VI. 225

According to Foxe, "he preached actively throughout Edward VI.'s
reign, for the most part every Sunday twice," and especially before
the king at the Court, "in the same place of the inward garden [at
Whitehall] which was before applied to lascivious use and counly
pastimes." Foxe, Acts and Mvnumfiitx. Townsend's ed., VII., p. 4(13.

THE CORONATION PROCESSION OF EDWARD VI 227

From the series of historical pictures executed probably by
Theodore Bernard}, about 155n, for Sir Anthony Browne, of Cowdray
House. Sussex. They were reproduced in Vit;n.t<t Mi^nnncnta, Vol.1.
The originals perished when the house was burnt down in 17'.'3.
Of. A. J. C. Hare. Sussex, p. 208.

MAXSTOKI: CASTLE. WARWICKSHIRE 230

.Much of the building dates from the fourteenth century ; the
dwelling-house was rebuilt in the seventeenth.

KIMBOLTON CASTLE, HUNTINGDONSHIRE 231

The estate was part of the dowry of Katharine of Arag'on. who
lived here after her divorce : at her death it reverted to the king,
who sold it. The building was restored by Sir John Vanbrugh for
the Earl (afterwards the first Duke) of Manchester, in 1707.



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xxi

PAGF.

HAMPTON COURT AS IT WAS UNDER HENRY VIII. .... 232
From a drawing 1 by Hollar, reproduced in Vcttista Momtmenta, I.

SOME FEATURES or TUDOR PALACES . 233

Reproduced from drawings published in Vet-usta Monttmenta, Vcls.
I. and II. Richmond Palace is from a drawing belonging to the
Earl of Cardigan, published in 1765 (Vet. Hon., II., plate xxiii.);
Placentia or Greenwich, from a drawing in the possession of Dr.
Ducarel at that date. The others will be found in Vet. Man., I.

MUSICIANS (see note to illustration on p. 62) 235

DECANTER ; LEATHER JACKS 237

The decanter has a crest (a griffin's head on a coronet) and the
letters I. I. in relief. The jacks are beer-jugs of a familiar
medieval type.

HOUSEMAID OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY (*ee above, note on p. 214) . 238

The flies in the allegory are supposed to signify the Catholics, and
the spiders the Protestants. Queen Mary being the maid, executing
with her broom (the civil sword) the commands of her master Christ
and her mistress the Church. Warton, Hist, of English Poetry,
ed. Hazlitt, IV., p. 86, note.

Two LITTLE BOYS (part of the family of Thomas Maycock) . . . 239

SEAL OF BURY SCHOOL . , 242

Christ, surrounded by the disciples, blessing a little child,' with
the verse Mark x. 13 below in Latin, and an encircling inscription
stating that this is the seal of the Free Grammar School of King
Edward VI. of Bury St. Edmunds.

SEAL OF POCKLINGTON SCHOOL 243

John Doweman. Archdeacon of Suffolk, the founder, praying at
a desk marked with his initials, before the Christ-child, the Virgin
and Child, and St. Nicholas of Myra, the patron of children, on
whose left are the three children whom he restored to life when
their flesh was set before him in the form of bacon by a nefarious
innkeeper. The encircling inscription states that this is the common
seal of the Brotherhood of Jesus, Mary, and St. Nicholas of
Pocklington.

LADY JANE GREY 244

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 245

The " Organ Portative," the smallest form of pipe organ, was
carried by a strap over the shoulder and could be played at the
same time, the left hand working the bellows at the back. The
' Bible Regal " is contained in a book-shaped case which, if reversed
and attached at the back of the instrument, forms a bellows. The
Treble Lute is remarkable for the sharp bend given to its head,
which is turned back to render the instrument more compact and
to give the strings a firmer bearing on the nut. The Psaltery and
the Dulcimer of this period are very similar in outline, but in the
former the strings are plucked by the fingers or a quill plectrum,
in the latter they are struck by small hammers. The Rebec, a
three-stringed popular fiddle, was probably among the instruments
used by the musicians in Jfuwen and Jt/lict, act iv., scene 5.

WHEN HOOPER BURNED 247

See Foxe, Acts and Monuments, ed. Townsend, Vol. III., p. 658.



xxii NOTKX TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

SCULPTURE COM MF.MU RATING THE BROTHERS ]>ri>u;r .... 250

From tln> r.caiichamp Tower in the Town- of London, which wa-
used as :i Stair prison during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries,
and cuntains many inscriptions commemorating illustrious prisoners
The four brothers arc Ambrose (created Karl of Warwick ill 15(51),
Guilford (beheaded in I")")!. Lady Jane Grey's husband). Rohert
(created Earl oi Leicester in l.",i;::). and Henry, killed at the siege
of St. (^uentin, 1558. The carving is by an elder brother. John, who
died in 1554. Ambrose is commemorated by the wreath of roses.
Robert by an oak (robur). Guilford by gillyflowers, and Henry
by honeysuckle. The bear and the ragged staff are, of course,
Warwick emblems.

MEDAL ('o.\i MKUORATING THE CESSION OF BOULOGNE .... 252

Henry II. of Franco had vainly attempted to capture the town,
but it was ceded to him in 1550 for 400,000 crowns. On the obverse
is his bust ; on the reverse, Perseus rescuing Andromeda, with the
words flebs air<) jurjx a>/ 'i s {Deux ex machina,). Medfillio Illustrations
of KinjlixJi Ilixhu-ji in the British Museum, I., p. 58.



EDWARD VI., AFTER HOLBEIN 253

MEDAL COMMEMORATING THE RESTORATION OF ROMANISM . . 255

On the obverse. Pope Julius III. in his robes : on the reverse,
the Pope raising suppliant England, with Philip and Mary.
Cardinal Pole and Charles V. The date is 1554.

CARDINAL POLE ...... 256

A small picture on panel, ascribed to Titian, " showing somewhat
careworn features and small blue-grey eyes."

SCARBOROUGH CASTLE 258

Built about 1127. Piers Gaveston was besieged here and forced
to capitulate. During Wyatt's rebellion it was held by the Earl of
Stafford, and it was twice besieged in the Civil Wars, and partly
blown up on the second occasion, in K!4X.

CHANTRY CHAPEL OF THE THREE KINGS, BRISTOL .... 261

Founded in 1504 by John Foster, mayor in 1481. in honour of God
and the ' Three Kings of Cologne." He endowed a priest to say
masses for his soul and the souls of his relatives for twelve years
only ; a limit which probably saved the chapel from secularisation.

BISHOP GARDINER (by Holbein) 263

< Gardiner kept the Mastership of Trinity Hall till his death, saying
that. if all his palaces were blown down by iniquity, he would creep
honestly into that shell."

MEDAL COMMEMORATING THE STATE OF ENGLAND, 1555 . . . 265

On the obverse, a half-length figure of Mary ; on the reverse,
Mary seated, personifying Peace, stretching out palm and olive
branches over a group of suppliants, and applying a torch to a pile
of arms ; a storm is depicted, which is about to clear. The inscrip-
tion is Gecis </' .,.<. timiilix f/uies (to the blind, sight; to the fear-
ful, peace). The cube near Mary signifies stability, the scales justice.
The design has been supposed to refer to the suppression of Wyatt's
rebellion and the restoration of Catholicism, but is probably of more
general application. Mcdallic Illustrations, I., p. 72.



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xxiii

PAGE

TITLE-PAGE TO THE FIRST PRATER BOOK OP EDWARD VI. . . . 207

This bnok is much nearer medieval usage than the Second Prayer
Book, which is strongly Protestant, or the Elizabethan Prayer Books,
which are a kind of compromise between their two predecessors.
Among' its characteristic features may be mentioned the shortness
of the Morning 1 and Evening 1 Prayer, which begin with the Lord's
Prayer (still called the Paternoster), omitting- the Absolution and
all that now precedes it ; a ' ; high " sacramentarian doctrine ; the
use of exorcism and unction in baptism, and the reference to a
"chrism" or white vesture of the baptised; a form of lay baptism
in cases of iirgency ; optional unction in the Visitation of the Sick ;
and some explicit references to the Apocrypha in the Marriage Service
and elsewhere.

EDWARD VI. PRESENTING BRIDEWELL TO THE CITIZENS OF LONDON . 269

A MEMORIAL 272

In the Beaucharnp Tower, at the Tower of London ; probably
referring to Lady Jane Grey, and carved either by Lord Guilford
Dudley or his brother ; see note on p. 250.

ALLINGTON CASTLE, NEAR MAIDSTONE 273

The birthplace of Sir Thomas Wyatt the elder (whose father had
purchased it), and the meeting- place of the associates of his son
in the rebellion.

STEEL BAND THAT FASTENED CRANMER TO THE STAKE . . . 277

THE BURNING OP LATIMER AND KIDLET 279

Ridley appealed to the Vice-Chancellor (who is shown promising
to remember his suit) to prevent Bonner, his successor, from cancel-
ling certain leases of the property of the see to " divers poor men,"
given by him when bishop. The burning- probably took place in
the town ditch, now occupied by Broad Street ; the supposed site is
marked by a cross in the pavement.

SIR JOHN CHEKE 281

"COVERDALE'S TOWER," PAIGNTON 285

Fourteenth century ; part of the palace of the Bishops of Exeter,
which Coverdale was the last of them to occupy before it was
dismantled.

GATHERING MANNA, FROM THE G-REAT BIBLE 286

SOLOMON'S TEMPLE, FROM THE BISHOPS' BIBLE 287

The illustrations in this Bible are less decorative and more aimed
at instruction than those of its predecessors, and even suggest a
modern " Teachers' Bible " or " Polyglot."

HENRY VIII.'s BREECHLOADING MUSKET 289

The breech mechanism resembles that of a Snider rifle : cf. Loftie,
v (luidc to the Tinoei; p. 27. The musket is a heavier piece than
the harquebus, and is fired from a rest (see illustration, p. 292).



Online LibraryH. D. (Henry Duff) TraillSocial England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) → online text (page 2 of 68)