H. D. (Henry Duff) Traill.

Social England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) online

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writing and speaking Greek. Writing to Bullinger in her
fifteenth year, she concludes, " As I am now beginning to
learn Hebrew, if you will point out some way of pursuing
this study to the greatest
advantage, you will confer
on me a very great obliga-
tion " Somerset's daughters
also were well educated, and
corresponded with the young
king in Latin. But more
startling than the learning 1

o O

of Mary, Elizabeth, or Lady
Jane was the infant progress
of Hooper's daughter Rachel.
Hooper married at the end
of the year 1546. In Decem-
ber, 1540, writing to his
German friends about his
little daughter, he says, " Of

all other languages she best understands the Latin"; and in
the following February, " Our little Rachel is making progress
both in body and mind. She understands the English, German,




French and Latin languages very tolerably, and especially the

Many great ladies, however, enjoyed no such good tutorship,
but were handed over to a lady's maid to learn manners and
nothing else. In Mrs. Everett Green's " Letters of Illustrious
Ladies " there is an amusing letter Avritten from one lady to
another giving a " character " of a servant who had had an
unhappy love-affair. She is recommended as suitable to wait


(Picture Gallery, Bodleian, Oxfonl.)

on her ladyship's daughters, to bring them up well and teach
them right good manners ; " or to keep your plate or your
napery she can do very well, or any other service." It was
perhaps under such a teacher that Elizabeth Duchess of Xorfolk
attained her marvellous spelling. Her letter to her brother,
Lord Stafford (after 1547) runs thus :

'' Brordor I pra you to ssaud me my ness dorety by kass I kno liar
kou dessess se sal not Jake hass long hass I leffe and lie wold be liord by
me at hor lialess I kyng lie be hone kyiie tlia ffaless drab and kouk and
uat ben I hade hadehar to iny coutt'ert."

K "S

& ..j

H *~.

X "*




Mrs. Green appends the following key as the best rendering
she can offer : -

" Brother, I pray you to send me my niece Dorothy, because I know
her conditions she shall not lack as loii,i>' as I live, an you would be
heard by me at (all), or else 1 think you be own kin to the false drab
and cook: had it not been. I had had her to my comfort."

An Act of Edward YI.'s first Parliament (cap. 12) allowed
" benefit of clergy " to be extended, for a first offence, to peers
who could not read.

It may well have been owing to the harshness of parents
in early years that the letters of the period are so full of
complaints of widowed mothers against the ingratitude and
cruelty of their grown-up children. Cromwell's correspondence
contains many letters from ladies endeavouring to recover their
" stuff," their lands, rents, and servants' wages from the greedy
clutches of the eldest son. But it was not a time when
sentiment and emotion made themselves felt. People who were
accustomed to see cruel executions and burnings almost as
often as pageants, could view most events with coolness. The
execution of Somerset was able to cause only a passing thrill,
though all London had shouted with joy when it was thought
that he was to escape. When Hooper burned, the place round
about, the houses and the boughs of the trees were " replenished
with people." At the stake a box supposed to contain the
queen's pardon w r as offered to him, and he cried, " If 3-011 love
my soul, away with it ! If you love my soul, away with it ! "
He asked to burn in his doublet and hose, but that was not
allowed. Then, being in his shirt, he took a "point' from
his hose himself, and trussed his shirt between his legs, where
he had a pound of gunpowder in a bladder, and under each
arm the like quantity. A hoop of iron bound him round the
middle. He was well seen of all the people, being tall and
standing on a high stool. When the reeds were cast up, he
received two bundles of them in his hands, kissed them, and
put them under either arm, and showed with his hands how
the rest should be bestowed, and pointed to the place where
any did lack. The fire was slow in kindling, dying out three
times, and the faggots were too few; the breaking of the
gunpowder bladders did him small good. He cried, "Lord



Jesus, receive my spirit," till he was black in the mouth and
his tongue so swollen that he could not speak ; yet his lips went
till they were shrunk to the gums. He knocked his breast
with his hands till one of his arms fell off, and then knocked
still with the other until by renewing of the nrc his strength
was gone. Thus was he three-quarters of an hour or more
in the fire. Foxe's description adds other hideous details of
an exquisitely painful kind. Such sufferings the crowd came
to witness, with reverence and sympathy for the sufferer
perhaps, yet calmly and coolly. To analyse the workings oi
the hearts of men and women within the Tudor period is, and
it is perhaps to be hoped will remain, the most difficult of
historical undertakings.



(Foxe's "Book of Martyrs," ed. 15


AC TH01tITIE8. 1 509-15 17.


The contemporary Tudor Chroniclers, Hall and Holiushed. with Polydore Vergil's
Ilis/nria Anglica, Grafton's Chronicle and Stovv's Annuls, are siijiplemeuted by con-
temporary biography in Cavendish's H'o/m // and Roper's Lift -of sir Thomas More, "by
the diaries of Edward VI. and Machyu, Wriothesley's <'hronicle (Camdeii Society),
La timer's Pennons, and by Lord Herbert of Cherbury's History of Jlenry VIII. Many
important documents will be found in Strype's collection, in Foxe's Acts ami Mmia-
mei/tts, in Burnet's History uf the Reformation (ed. Pocock), in several of the volumes
of the Camden Society and Parker Society, and Ellis's Original 1. liters. But, above
all, the history of the time must be sought in the copious ami invaluable Calendars
to the State Papers ; to which must be added the Parliamentary Records (including
the Privy Council Records as well as the Journals both of Lords and Commons), and
the Statutes of the Realm. Of modern works, besides the general histories, such
as Bright, Green, Lingard, Hallam, Ranke, etc., there are more special histories,
such as Brewer's Jlenry /'///., Fronde's History <>f England 1.529-1588, Busch,
England under the Tudors, Friedmann's Anne JSoleijn, and religious histories of the
English Reformation by Bhint, Dixou, and Beard. See. also Stubbs's Lecture* "it
Medieral and Modern History, and Gneist, Constitutional History uf England.


Religion. Contemporary sources, sec above. To the modern histories of the
Reformation mentioned may be added that of Aubrey Moore, and Perry, History of
the Church of England, vol. ii. On the dissolution of the monasteries, one of the best
modern works available is F. A. Gasquet's Henri/ VIII. find the English Monasteries.
The original sources on which it is based include the records of the Augmentation
Office, the Chapter House Books, the Treasurer's Rolls, Ministers' Accounts, and
Suppression Papers. Some of the letters relating to the Dissolution are printed in
Letters Relating to tin- Suppression of tlie Monasteries (Camdeu Society). Many
documents are noted in the various volumes of James Gairduer's Calendar of State
I'a/ters, Foreign ami Itomesf/,-, uf Henry VIII., and the Abbotsford Club has printed
a volume relating to the spoils of the religious houses; cf. also Gilbert Child's Church
and Mate under the Tudors; Cutts's Dictionary of tin' Church of England.

Warfare. There is no book dealing specially with English military affairs in this
peiiod, but readers will find some interesting notes in Grose's M^tlitary Antiqni/iis
(1801) and Hewitt's Anns and Armour. In the account of Flodden, the interesting
monograph of Mr. Bates of Langley Castle (privately printed) has been followed.

Xaral History, 1509-1603. Burchett, Xaral History ; Mouson, Rural Tracts ;
Letters and Despatches of Charles, Lord Howard of Effingham ; MSS. (various) in
the Pepysiau Collection ; Derrick, Memoirs of the Royal Xary ; Charnock, Marine
Architecture: Duhamel du Monceau, Elcmcnx ff." r Architecture Xarale ; Pepys,
Miscellanies; various papers in " Archagologia," and in Gold's Xaral Chronicle,
1799-1818; Falconer, Marine Dictionary; the works of John Davis and other
Elizabethan navigators; Strada, De Bello Jit /,/,,-,, ; Ledianl, Xaral History ; Colliber
c,,/n,nna Tiostrata ; Letters and Papers relating to the French war, 1513 (Xavy Records

K.r /duration. Hakluyt's Collection of Voyages, etc.; Harrisse, Discovery of Xorth
America; Fox Bourne, English Sunmn under t lie 7'in/ors ; cf. also Purchas's Pilgrims,
and some of the publications of the Hakluyt Society, e.g. Xo. 7, Hakluyt's own work,
Ihri-rs Voyages Touching the Discovery of America.

History of Education. Ascham, The Schoh master, ed. Mayor, 1873; Nicholas
Carlisle, A Cone/*/- /twri/ifio/i of the Endowed (Irammar Srhools in England nail Jl'ales,
2 vols., 1818; Gabriel Compayre, History of Pedagogy, ed. W. H. Payne, 1888: Sir
T. Elyott, The Book named the Govcrnour, ed. Croft, 2 vols., 1883 ; J. B. Mullinger,


History of the University of Cambridge, Vol. II., 1884; A. F. Leach, English Schools at
the Reformation.

Literature. There are few text-books for the literature of the period 1509-1559,
except near its end. The fullest treatment is in Henry Morley's English Writers,
Vols. VII. and VIII. Some reference will, of course, be found in general manuals.
Most of the authors named are accessible in modern editions, Hawes (who was
imperfectly edited for the Percy Societ}'), being in worst case.

Scottish Literature. B. ten Brink, Geschichte der Englischen Littcratur, Bd. II.,
Th. II.; Alois Brandl, " Mittelenglische Litteratur," in Paul's Grmidriss 'fir
Germanischen Philologie, Bd. II., Abth. I., Lief. 6 (1892); H. Morley, English Writer*,
Vols. VI. and VII. ; Dr. J. A. Murray, The Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scot-
land, Phil. Soc. Transactions, 1870-72; Schipper, Englische Metrik ; Diet, of Nat.
Biography, articles by T. Bayne on Douglas, and by M. Mackay on Lindsay; Gawiu
Douglas, Poetical Works, ed. J. Small, 4 vols., Edinburgh, 1874; Sir David Lindsay,
Works, ed. J. Small and J. A. H. Murray, E.E.T.S., 1863, &c. (5 parts) ; Lindsay,
Poetical Works, ed. D. Laing, 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1879.

Music. There are general histories by Dr. Burney (4 vols., 1776-1789), Sir John
Hawkins (5 vols., 1776), Dr. Busby (2 vols., 1819), and W. S. Eockstro (1886). See
also A. W. Ambros, Gcscltichte der Musik (4 vols., 1868), and C. E. H. Coussemaker.
Histoire de V Harmonic du Moyen Age (Paris, 1832) ; and articles in Grove's Dictionary
of Music and Musicians, and the Encyclopaedia Britannica. The material on which
these works are based is, of course, greatly scattered.

Agriculture. Ashley, Economic History, Vol. I., part 2, chapter on "The Agrarian
Revolution," and the authorities there given ; Statutes of the Eealm, temp. Hen. VIII.
and Edward VI. ; Cunningham, English Industry and Commerce ; Frou.de, History
of Em/ land : article on "The Commission of 1517" in the Proceedings of the Koyal
Historical Society, 1892. Also Craw-ley's works and Four Supplications, Bryukelow,
Complaint of Roderick Mors ; Starkey's Dialogue, ed. J. M. Cowper (all pub. for Early
English Text Society) ; Discourse of the Commonweal of England, ed. by Miss Lamond.

Commerce and Industry. Statutes of the Realm, Calendar of State Papers, Letters
and Papers, Domestic and Foreign (ed. Brewer), Rymer's Fcedera ; Harrison,
Description of Britain ; More, Utopia ; Latimer, Sermons ; England in the Time of
Henry VIII. (E.E.T.S.) ; A Brief Conceit of English Policye, by W. S. (1581) ;
Supplication of Poore Commons (1546); Fronde, History of England; Rogers, History
of Agriculture and Prices ; Cunningham, English Industry and Commerce ; Walker,
Money ; Humboldt, Essai Pohtique sur la Xourelle Espagne (1811); Jacobs, History of
the Precious Metals ; Williamson, Foreign Commerce of England under the Tudors.

Toicn Life. Thorold Rogers, Six Centuries of Work and Wages ; Ashley's Economic
History, chapters on the woollen trade; Cunningham (see above); Liber Albus~
(ed. Riley) ; Historic Towns Series, especially Boase, History of Of ford ; Riige, '
Zeitalter der Entdeclnmgen ; C. Walford, The English Fair ; the Antiquary magazine;
county histories, e.g., Hasted's Kent; Merewether and Stephens, Hixtory of the
Boroughs and Municipal Corporations of the United Kingdom (1835) ; Gairduer, Paston
Letters ; and the works of Gasquet, Gairdner, and Brewer mentioned above.

Medical Science and Public Health. Freind, History of Physic from the Time of
Galen to the Sixteenth Century (2 vols., 1726) ; J. F. South, Memorials of the Craft
of Surgery in England, ed. by Power, iiitrod. by Sir J. Paget. Public Health.
Creighton, History of Epidemics in Britain ; Sir John Simon, English Sanitary

Social Life, 1509-1558. Fairholt, Costume in England, ed. Dillon ; Fairholt,
Satirical Songs on Costume, Percy Society; The Commonweal of this Realm of
England, ed. E. L. Lamond ; Stow, London ; J. G. Nichols, London Pageants ;
Royal Household Ordinances, pub. by Society of Antiquaries; Household Book of /In
Duke of Northumberland ; the Babecs Book and other treatises on Manners and Morals
in the Olden Time, collected by F. J. Furuivall for the Early English Text Society ;



Tusser, l-'n'i Hundred Points of Good JlH*/>nn/trir ; Fitzherbert, Hula i>/' Si
lioki' af /tttx/itni/lrie; first published l.">2;} ; Nicholas, 1'rin/ 1'nrxe /.'.// -nxi-x of
Il> a i-ii /"///., Hall, Cln-tin li-li' ; Machyn, Jiinri/ (Caniden Society); Mrs. Everett
Green's Letters of Illiixtrumx Luil/rn , Lhiroht''* Inn Jtcconh ; Churchwardens'
Accounts (a useful list of those printed is in the Eni/listi Hixlnrii-al Hn-iew,
1899, p. 3J35 scq., giving the dates covered by the extracts); Memorial Brasses, <.//.
tin isc figured iu Boutell's Monumental Ilrttwx and Cotmau's Jirunxi-x uf Xnrfdlk ;
Stevenson, Nottiiii/liam J{<TOI-((H ; T. Wj-ight, Ilixtiirij of Dniin-xtic Mmim-rx in/if
x< ntiiiii-Htii, and Chester J'/III/M ; Nichols, J/r ///<;/>* of Kdu-tn-il VI. (Koxburgh Club);
Latinier, Hermans (Parker Society) ; Siieyd, Itnliun Relation (Camdeti Society) ;
Bawdon Brown, Cfinxtinnni^x 1'oitr Yearn; Brewer, Henri/ I'll I.; Prefaces to
State Papers (Kecord Commission) ; Sir H. Ellis, Letters, First and Second Series ;
Zurich Letters (Parker Society) ; English Historical Review, 1892, pp. 270 xry.


(Beauchamp Tower, London.)



THE NEW FORCES. 1547-1558.

THE last reign had swept away so much of the old constitution, A. L.
political as well as ecclesiastical, and had undermined so much, T^'
that the question naturally arises, What kept things together of Ed "
after it ? What prevented the interval between Henry YIII.'s
death and Elizabeth's accession from being a time of mere
destruction, a fatal breach with the past ? There were, even as
it was, violent changes in one direction provoking a violent
reaction in the opposite direction. But that the continuity
of political and in a great degree of religious institutions was not
wholly sundered, that the English Reformation was not such a
violent dislocation from the country's past as was the French
Revolution, is due to assignable causes. The first of these was
the balance of parties deliberately set up by the late king's will.
Wriothesley and Gardiner, backed by the older nobles, were
some check on the burning zeal of the Seymours, the Dudleys,
and Cranmer. The second cause was that the characteristic of
the Tudor rulers was their careful conservation of leara! and


political forms, and in no one Avas this characteristic more
marked than in King Henry VIII. He may indeed be said
actually to have strengthened the outer shell, as it were, of the
constitution, profoundly as he perverted its inner life and
working. But the chief weight may be attributed to a third
cause the tenacious hold which this ancient constitution had
now acquired, striking its roots deep into national thought and
institutions of every kind ; and (it must be added) there was to
match it a conservatism as strong in the popular spirit, and as
instinctive a sense of the historic past.

The first act of the young king's uncle, head of the new The
Government, was to get himself made Duke of Somerset and somerset.
Protector. His next was to attempt, by an invasion of Scotland,
to force the Scots to carry out the marriage treaty arranged in




1543 between Edward and Mary the infant Queen of Scots.
He won the battle of Pinkie, the immediate effect of which was
to revive the French influence in Scotland, to destroy at a
blow all the work of Henry's years of firm but patient dip-
lomacy, to lead to Mary's being taken to France, married to
the Dauphin, and set up as Catholic rival to Elizabeth. The
ulterior effects of this fatal victory were still more far-reaching ;
the rising of the North in 1569, the Ridolti and Babington
and Throckmorton plots, and the Armada ; and further, the
divergence of the Scotch and English Reformations, the
refusal of the two nations to accept union in 1003, the hatreds


which found expression at Dunbar and Worcester. It Avas a
typical instance of Somerset's policy. He seems to have
meant it for a continuation of that of Henry VIII. But for
constitutional and ritual changes he attempted doctrinal ; for
an accurate insight into the heart of the people he substituted
a weak popularity-hunting ; everything was hurried on at a
revolutionary pace. Time was on the Reformers' side : yet in
the three years between the first and the second Prayer-books
of Edward VI. the country was expected to have prepared
itself for a far greater measure of religious change than the
twenty years since Wolsey had yet effected. Somerset again
forgot, as Wolsey himself, as Cromwell, had forgotten, that
he was only a minister. His probably sincere Protestantism,
his expressed sympathy for the poor, have made modern
writers too kind to his memory. At any rate, no terms can be
too severe for the crew of hankies who formed his colleagues,



who completed the plunder of the chantries and guilds,
and further debased the coinage (p. 349) ; who divided the
spoil of three of the new bishoprics ; who embezzled, plotted
and misgoverned in the name of a purer faith and as a protest
atrainst the errors of Rome. No evidence can be more


damning against them than the stern language of the best

O o O O

men of their own party, Latimer, Knox, Lever. Northumber-

rh to: Walker it CockerM.

(National Portrait Gallery.)

land, Somerset's successor, had not even his redeeming
measure of sincerity. The military reputation which he had
won by the suppression of Kett's rebellion in Norfolk (p. 294)
was eclipsed by the enforced surrender of Boulogne to the
French. His personal character was revealed by his gratu-
itous persecution of the Princess Mary, by the vindictive
haste with which he urged on the most subversive and
spoliatory side of Protestantism, above all by the insane



egotism of the attempt to set Lady 'lane Grey on the throne.
She was heiress of the Suffolk line, but excluded expressly by
the will of Henry VIII. ; and Edward VI. had no legal power
to devise the crown. Nor was there a moment's chance that the
nation would thus lightly reject both Mary and Elizabeth, and
with them cast away its only hope of freedom from dynastic strife.
However, the mere idea of a crown for his son's wife led him into
this suicidal course ; he bullied the Council and the London
citizens into a hollow acquiescence ; but his futile scheme col-
lapsed in eleven days, and Northumberland's recantation on the
scaffold deprives him even of the excuse of religious fanaticism.
Amid this rout of incapables, rogues, zealots, and hypocrites,
stands the silent, friendless, pathetic figure of the young king.
AVe cannot but look eagerly to see if there are any signs to tell
us what manner of ruler he would have made. " When he should
come of age he would hang up a score of these knaves," said an
outspoken Warwickshire gentleman, haled before the Council for
such words. In his diary, opposite the names of his chief
advisers, are entered, significantly enough, without word of
comment, certain sums they were charged with having mis-
appropriated. It is clear that he was inclined to further
religious changes ; also that he took interest in the new
foundations of hospitals and schools (pp. 268, 328). But we
can hardly say more than that he was a studious, well-taught
boy, precocious but self-absorbed, and with the Tudor instincts
already marked in him.

SMITH ^ HE usna l view of Mary's brief reign is mistaken in two respects.

The Reign It exaggerates the amount of reaction from the reign pre-
ceding, and it misconceives the nature of the impression
made by " Bloody Mary's " persecutions. The feeling in 1553
was in favour, not of reaction properly so called, but of return
to a strong middle position. In her proclamation the queen
discountenanced all religious disputings either way. In her,
first, writs she used the title " Head of the Church." Cranmer
Hooper, Latimer, were not molested at first, nor until they
almost courted arrest. The Parliament, it is true, annulled the
statutes of the late reign, but this was ostensibly because they
had been passed in a minority. It repealed all Treason Acts
since the 25 Edward III, and all Pnemunire Acts since 1529



The whole idea was to return to the state of things left by
Henry VIII., with the exception of the hated Six Articles
(of 1539). That the nation had by no means lost its head in
Catholic reaction is seen by the curious way in which a
parliament of Catholics hesitated and haggled over the
restoration of the two Catholic champions, the Duke of
Norfolk and Bishop Timstal. The fact was as the clergy
told' Pole, and as Pole told the Pope the central consideration
in the English mind was not the Mass or the Bishop of Rome's


authority, but the abbey lands. What guarantee was there to
be for the sacred claims of vested interests ?

AYyatt's rebellion was ominous, for Kent was ever the causes
advance guard of disaffection ; and but for Kent's hastiness the Reaction,
rising would have been joined by the Midlands, the South-west,
and Wales. It stung Mary into a mood of more open reaction,
and it sealed the fate of the Dudleys and Greys, a fate which,
but for Philip's politic care, Elizabeth would have shared.
There was a bitter national jealousy against the Spanish
marriage, despite the great bribe that to a child of the mar-
riage should go the Netherlands. There was a still wider
European jealousy against female sovereigns, and Knox's
; ' Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of
NYomen" was not the only book on the subject. There was
at home a rising Parliamentary spirit, one sign of which is the
occurrence of several privilege cases ; another sign was the
Lords' rejection of the Heresy Bill. Thus when the English
people were received back by solemn absolution into the




bosom of the Catholic Church, Pole had to be very careful to
disclaim any idea either of reopening the question of forfeited
Church lands or of challenging the distinctly ancient powers
of the Crown over the Church. The dispute over " annates "


(From the picture 'by Titian, liii permission of the Right Hon. Lord
slriinddl of irardour.)

makes it clear that Parliament had no wish at all to restore
them to the Pope, and little eagerness to confer them on the
Crown. When the loAver clergy petitioned against the Mort-
main Laws they showed that they alone failed to realise the
temper of the nation.



The persecutions began in 1555 with Hooper, who was The
unpopular for his attitude on the " vestments " question, and his
being the intermediary of the foreign Reformers. The long
delay in Cranmer's case till March, 1556 was probably caused

Online LibraryH. D. (Henry Duff) TraillSocial England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) → online text (page 25 of 68)