H. D. (Henry Duff) Traill.

Social England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) online

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From her accession, Mary, as a convinced Ultramontane,
is set upon formal reunion with Rome ; but that reunion is
not accomplished till Pole, on November 30, 1554, as Papal
Legate, restores the kneeling Parliament, representing the
nation, " to the communion of Holy Church."

In the Queen's private chapel and at her coronation
(October 1, 1553) the Latin Mass is at once restored : in her
Proclamation of August IS in the same year, the "devilish
terms of Papist, Heretic, and such like " are forbidden, along
with " private interpretation of God's Word after men's own
brains " ; but the official restoration of the older Religious



Statutes is only to the last year of Henry VIII. to 1546-7.
But in the next year, Mary and Pole go back behind the
Reformation Parliament, and proclaim orthodoxy according
to the standard of 1529. The two dates are signs of the
twofold spirit and leadership of the Catholic Reaction.

During the earlier Ministry of " Wily Winchester," the church
Royal style of Supreme Head of the English Church is crown
retained ; there is no organised persecution ; and the Pope
is officially ignored. In the Royal Injunctions of March,
1554, the Queen retains the same claims as her father to
Spiritual Headship, and, quite after his manner, re-enforces
the letter and spirit of the Six Articles of 1539.

We may thus distinguish a more Roman Sovereign, a less
Roman Minister and Parliament, a non-Roman aristocracy
and middle class agreed in supporting the Queen's title and
the Old Religion, understood in a somewhat elastic sense. 1

Naturally the question of Mary's personal position called
for the first attention ; and in the second session of the
Queen's First Parliament, Cranmer's sentence against the
Queen's mother was annulled, but without reference to the
Pope. The Tudor succession was re-established by disregard-
ing all the changes, the storms, and the disinheritings of
Henry's fitful reign. Then quickly followed the repeal of various
Religious Acts of Edward VI. for receiving Communion in
both kinds, for the abolition of Conge d'elire, for abolishing
images, for abrogating certain Holy Days, for legalising clerical
marriage, for Uniformity of Worship, and for the use of the
English Ordinal. The same Parliament passed two acts
against Disturbers of Preachers and Unlawful Assemblies,
and finally attainted of treason Cranmer, the Dudleys, and
five others, of whom three had been already executed.

Thus far, Mary's First Parliament had legally restored the

\J v

Settlement of Henry VIII. : the Queen's Injunctions enforced
the same with penalties, and provided (in No. 15) that bishops
might " supply the thing wanted in them before " to those
ordained by the Edwardian Ordinal of 1550, and " admit them

1 At the end of the reign Convocation was reviewing the " Institution of
a Christian Man," preparing for a new translation of the New Testament,
establishing schools at cathedrals, petitioning for the Homilies, Catechism, and
Primer in English. (Convocation of January, 1558, under Pole.)


'/'///: NEW FOltCES.


A Protes-
tant Re -

to minister." 1 Convocation, meantime, thinned out by the
deprivation of the married clergy and the flight of the
Ultra-Protestants, was entirely reactionary. Henry VIII. had
governed the Clerical Parliament by terror : Edward, Marv,
and Elizabeth got their way in eliminating adversaries. Now
it instantly anathematised Poynet's Catechism, which in its last
session it had formally approved, and reasserted the Doctrine
of the Real Presence.

When Mary's Second Parliament met on April 2, 1554,
the marriage with Philip of Spain was announced from the
throne as impending, and was at once met with the pre-
caution of the Act for Securing the Royal Power. Philip was
to have the title of king but no hand in the government,
and, in case of Mary's death, could not succeed her. But

popular feeling was not satisfied
with Gardiner's fencings; a semi-
nationalist, semi-Protestant revolt
broke out in Kent, the Midlands,
and Devonshire under Sir Thomas
Wyatt, the Duke of Suffolk, and Sir
Peter Carew. 2 Again the reaction
overleaped itself like the Pilgrim-
age of (.irace, a really national
movement failed to disturb the deeper feeling of love of order
and strong government w r hich had made Henry king and
kept him king against all odds. The rebellion provoked the
instant deaths of Lady Jane Grey and her husband on Feb-
ruary 12, 1554, of her father and Wyatt ten days later, and
led to the beginnings of the Persecution.

But Mary's political and religious resentments were stimu-
lated by three other events of the same year (1554). On
July 25th she was married at Winchester to Philip, " the son
of Charles the Emperor," the leader-designate of Catholic
Sovereigns; on November 24th Pole entered London as Papal
Legate; and on November 80th the Legate absolved the nation,
and restored it to the Roman Catholic world. Between

' I.i'.. those consecrated by the old form were to re-ordain, as far as neces-
sary, those ordained only by the English rite.

- < t'. account in Fronde, v.. 321, note, of a Protestant outrage committed

lv T!U- <;il>l><t>~. the friends of the Carews.


(Tom i' "/ J.inidun.)



Anabaptists, were most numerous in London, Kent, Essex, and
East Anglia.

In the diocese of London perished one hundred and
twenty-eight ; in that of Canterbury, fifty-five ; in that of
Norwich, to which the Queen had given her first promises
of tolerance, forty-six ; in no other did the numbers ex-
ceed seven - - not even in Oxford, where the three chiefs
were burnt and the great controversies held. In Lincoln,
Durham, Carlisle, Wells, Hereford, and Worcester there were
no " martyrisings."

Again, Gardiner who was opposed both to the Spanish Attitude
match and to the Heresy Act of 1554, who fell into the Bisbops.
background after the landing of Philip in July and of Pole in
November of that year, and who died 011 November 12, 1555
was too thorough an Englishman, as Pole was too gentle a
Christian, to be forward in the judicial massacres, of which he
only saw the beginning. During his ascendancy, no heretic
was burned in England 1 ; till his death no heretic was burned
in Winchester diocese ; and he never sat on a Heresy Com-
mission save once as Chancellor in the cases of Rogers and


Hooper. Pole's Reformation leanings, like Contarini's, were
no secret, and John Foxe himself admits that he was not
of the " cruel and bloody sort of Papists." Even Bonner, the
fierce, revengeful, contemptuous judge glad to have his old
enemies, who had deprived and harassed him, at his mercy-
was something of the English gentleman, not wholly lost in
the priestly zealot. He tried to save William Hunter of
Brentwood ; he was reprimanded for his lenity in other cases
by the Privy Council. He defends himself by letter in a tone
of discontented indifference to the whole business.

In fact, the general result is that the Bishops followed and Tlie
did not prompt the will of their hard-ruled Queen, whose
half-Spanish blood explains and suggests much. She felt
towards Protestants as her mother had felt ; and months
after every one of her English Court had sickened of the
butchery, she pressed on as she had threatened in 1553
to the end. Had she borne a son to Philip as she hoped,
we might have seen a curious forecast of the Revolution of
1688. As it was, men waited for her approaching death,

1 Up to July, 155-i.



sure of a better successor, as they would have waited for
Mary II. to succeed James 11., it' his unlucky son had not
been born to frighten Englishmen with a possible eternity ot
Jesuit rule.

But though neither Gardiner nor Pole was a born perse-
cutor, they represented different policies, different religious
conditions. The one aimed simply at undoing the recent
Protestantising movement ; the other presided over the definite
return to the Roman obedience. Pole wished to see the full
medieval system back again, and in that wish he did not
stick, as his nature would have led him, at the revival
(January, 1555) of the Heresy Laws of Richard II, Henry IV.,
and Henry V. At this moment the Loyalist and Catholic
parties in the majority seemed alike set on severities.

Cranmer, as the head of the Protestant opposition, had
been, of course, attainted on the (Queen's accession ; the new
injunctions had fallen upon the married and other Edwardian
bishops, who held their sees by letters patent during good
behaviour. Tunstall, Gardiner, JBonner, Heath and Day de-
prived in the late reign were restored to Durham, Winchester,
London, York, and Chichester. Twelve anti-Roman prelates
Vvere displaced. At the beginning of the reign all foreign
refugees had been ordered to leave the realm within four-and-
twenty days on pain of imprisonment and loss of goods; and
some 800 emigrants, with 200 of their English disciples, are
said to have fled. Safely on the Continent, like Pole under
Henry VIII., these men helped by their furious writings to
bring down vengeance upon their friends. "That outrageous
pamphlet of Knox's " 1 gave the signal for persecution. Per-
haps there was something besides power and opportunity which
changed Mary's temper from the tone of her first procla-
mation to that of her last years. On her accession, " though
not hiding the religion which God and the world knoweth she
hath ever professed from her infancy .... she minded not to
compel any her subjects thereunto, until such lime as further
order by common assent should be taken thereunto." The
Protestant threats of murder and rebellion from Zurich and

1 " A Faithfull Admonition to the Professours of God's Truth in England,"
l.">54. The quotation is from a letter to Calvin from various English refugees at
Frankfort ; Parker Society. " Original Letters of the English Reformers." 1 p. 7(>0.



Geneva 1 ; Knox's war-cry, that no idolater and no woman may
rule God's people, for "in the midst of thy brethren shalt
thou choose thy king, and not from among thy sisters " ; the
insults offered at the restoration of the Latin Mass in the
larger towns and the more excited country districts, bore their
fruit in the musters of Smithfield. Where Latimer had sent
images, the Queen now sent men, to be burned.

The gloomy record of these latter years (1555-58), from


(Aslimolean Museum, Oxford.)

the Spanish marriage and reconciliation with Rome to the Typical
death of Pole and his Q.ueen, is lighted up by the heroism of
the Marian Martyrs. Whatever of controversial virulence
and unscrupulous misrule had disgraced the Protestant as-
cendancy, was forgotten in the good end made by the
nobler spirits of the party, and not least by many of the
humbler sufferers. It will be enough to take a few instances


a bishop, a preacher, a scholar, a labourer, and a woman to

3 One Ross, or Rose, was said also, in England, to have prayed publicly for
the Queen's death.

278 '/'///<: NEW FOKCKX.


show wnat a stand was made by English society, even by the
English poor, against the return to Rome. Hugh Latimer,
Rowland Taylor, Rose Allen, William Hunter, and Sir John
Cheke such men and women tell us how deep the social gulf
was fixed between a free nation and the Roman-Spanish ideal,
as Philip and his chaplains, Da Castro, De Soto, and Villa Garcia
Latimer. understood it. Latimer was the first and greatest of the
eminent victims. The one leader of the extreme Protestants
at the Court of Henry who had kept a manly freedom, who had
" discharged his conscience and framed his doctrine according
to his audience," and whose teaching had championed the
better side of the Edwardian Reformation, now refused to flee.
Though a " sore bruised man, about threescore and seven years
of age, yet still at his work, winter and summer, about 2 of
the clock every morning," he was " as willing to go to London
at this present as ever to any place, doubting not that God,
who had made him worthy to preach before two Princes, would
enable him to Avitness to the third, either to comfort or
discomfort eternally.'"' And so, getting rid of faithful John
Careless, the weaver of Coventry, who, like a true friend,
would have died for him if so he could have saved him,
Latimer went up before the Council, passing that Smith-field
which, he grimly said, had long groaned for him. Committed
once again to the Tower, where he had spent the last seven
years of Henry's reign, he joked with the Lieutenant. " If
he did not guard him better, he would escape .... He
thought he would burn, but he was like to starve for cold."
Again brought before the Council, he twitted the Bishop of
Gloucester with garbling Scripture and " clipping of God's
coin." He refused all compromise upon the Sacrifice or
Presence in the Mass it was only spiritual the sacrifice
of the Cross was "perfect, and required never again to be
done, and God the Father was pacified with that only omni-
sufficient and most painful sacrifice of that sweet slain Lamb,
Christ our Lord." Systematic theology he refused to dis-
cuss. " You look for learning at my hands, which have gone
so long to the school of oblivion the bare walls my libra ry-
and now you let me loose to come and answer to Articles."
He was sent to burn at Oxford, Avhere he cheered the feebler
spirit of Ridley " Be of good cheer and play the man ; we shall




this day light such a candle as shall never be put out " " and
so ended." " Three things," says his chaplain, " he did specially
pray. First, for grace to stand till death. Second, that God
would restore the Gospel to England once again ; and these
words, 'once again, once again,' he did so inculcate and beat
into the ears of the Lord God, as though he had seen God
before him and spake face to face. Third, he prayed for the


(Foxc's "Cook of Martyrs," 1563.)

life of the Lady Elizabeth, whom with tears he desired for a
comfort to this comfortless England."

Latimer was a yeoman's son, and his death was a challenge
to his class, the backbone of English life. In him, " a courtier,
yet honest," Mary struck not at heresy, men thought, so much
as at manhood : his matchless popular eloquence was most felt
in his death. While Ridley had grasped at the See of Durham
on the eve of his fall, the ex-Bishop of Worcester, the con-
fidant of Edward, would not be drawn from his preaching;
and at the last he "received the flame as if embracing it, and
stroking his face with his hands, bathed them in the fire,







crying out vehemently in his own English tone, 'Father in
Heaven, receive my soul."

All that is noblest in the Protestant martyrs comes out in
" downright Father Hugh " ; but Rowland Taylor's death
showed the quieter virtues of a man like Chaucer's " Parson
of a town" who had never mixed in politics, and had no
interest but "Christe's lore." Burnt to death in his own
parish of Hadleigh he stood without crying or moving, with
his hands folded, till one named Soyce struck him on
the head with a halbert, and he fell down dead in the fire.
" D. Taylor, in defending that was good, at this plus left his
blode," was carved soon after on a rough black stone that
marked the site.

In Sir John Cheke, the tutor of Edward VI., the model of
young Milton, who conformed and so was " restored to liberty,
but never to contentment," we have the best type of scholarly
Protestant, marked by the royal policy for death or insult.
As he recanted, he was only compelled to sit on the bench
with Bonner and judge the Essex heretics. The disgrace
sickened him of life: in 1557. at the age of 43, he was dead.
No one case marks more clearly the special point of the
Marian persecution its systematic attack on men of light
and leading. It was not the number but the quality of
its victims that so stirred Englishmen. Cranmer, Latirner,
Hooper, Ridley, Cheke, Philpotts, Ferrar, Bradford, Bland,
and Taylor it was the degrading and burning of such
men that recalled, in a more odious shape, the terror of
Thomas Cromwell.

But the stories of Rose Allen, or Alice Benden, or William
Hunter, are evidence of the deep, if not wide, hold of Pro-
testant belief among the common people. Their obstinacy
was invincible, the magistrates reported. In fact, no perse-
cution which, like this, merely dealt with the leaders or
typical groups of a great resistance, could be successful.
Extermination was the only hope of Mary's policy. Year by
year the Protestant minority increased, while the hearts of
even " rank Papists " grew cold. One feeling of utter dis-
gust and hatred of the Government, its burnings and its
blunderings, its loss of Calais and of (iuines, its failure to
fight cither Avith enemies or with heretics swept over the



people. The mob shouted Amen to the prayers of the last
Smithfield victims. The Queen, barren, deserted by her
husband, conscious of the intense loathing of her people,
whom she believed herself to be saving from national per-
dition, without support in Council or among the bishops, still


(From the picture by Holbein, by permission of his Grace the
Duke of Manchester.)

pressed on. Pole, distrusted and suspended by the Pope, left
alone with the Queen his cousin, gloomily threw himself into
the massacre to prove his orthodoxy. Thus Bonner, who
would have saved young Hunter, was forced to send him back Hunter.
to die at Brentwood. He was only nineteen, and he feared that
he might flinch : " Good people, pray for me, and despatch me
quickly." " Pray for thee," cried some around, " I will no more



pray for the<> than a dog!" As the taints were lighted, he
threw the psalter, which he had kept by him, into his brother's
hands. " Think on the holy sufferings of Christ," cried the
brother, " and be not afraid." " I am not afraid," answered the
dying boy.

Rose Li] ce him, Rose Allen, of Colchester, thought ' ; the more it

burned the less it felt," At the time of her arrest her judge
had held her hand in a candle-name till the sinews cracked.
She had a pitcher in the other hand, and "might have laid
him on the lace with it," but did not; only when released for
a time, took up in her burnt hand a cup of drink to her mother
bedridden above stairs. Next day she suffered.

At the last, men and women were driven in batches to the
stake ; thirteen were burnt together at StratforcUle-Bow. Smith-
field seemed like a human shambles : it was more than could
be borne. Only the death of the Queen prevented a rising of
all England ; and her persecution, her " bloody ' memory,
was at the root of the English feeling which has lasted to
our own century and caused so much harshness in England,
and still more in Ireland, to loyal fellow-citizens Rather Turk
than Pope. 1

E GORDON THOUGH we have evidence that there was a desire for the


The Scriptures in English at an early date, we cannot show any

English version of importance before that issued by John Wycliffe in
the fourteenth century, and revised by John Purvey about the
year 1388. This version was, we can see, widely read, for we
have still in existence numerous manuscripts more or less
finely illuminated (Vol. II, p. 231). Printing was introduced
into' England in 1477 (Vol. II., p. 718), but religious troubles
prevented any attempt being made to print a Bible ; to have
clone so would have involved the printer in serious difficulties
with the ecclesiastical authorities, if not with the temporal :
and our printers were too cautious to run any risks. It is
from abroad, therefore, that the earliest version of the English
Scriptures comes.

In 1525 Tindale's New Testament appeared, the first portion

1 It is perhaps worth noting that through a quartan fever in the last. month
of the year l.V>s, thirteen bishops and many clergy died, clearing away some
of the strongest reactionaries.



of the Scriptures printed in English. Tindale (or Tyndale) 1 Tindaie's
was born in Gloucestershire about 1484, and educated at

Oxford, though he afterwards moved to Cambridge. After
some years' work in England as a tutor and a chaplain, he
migrated to the Continent, with an annuity of 10 per annum
from his patron Humphrey Monmonth, for the purpose of
completing the translation of the New Testament. This work
having been finished at Hamburg, Tindale passed on to
Cologne and consigned it to Quentall to print, When the
work had proceeded as far as the middle of St. Luke's Gospel
a raid seems to have been made on the printing office, and
Tindale, taking such sheets as were printed, fled with his
assistant Joye to Worms. Here the work was entrusted to
Peter Schoffer, grandson of the celebrated printer of Mainz,
who printed an edition in small octavo, which was finished in

This first translation met with little favour amongst the
English bishops, and Tunstall, then Bishop of London, preached
against it at St. Paul's Cross. So numerous were its errors,
that ife was considered wise to buy up and destroy all the
copies that could be found. This injudicious proceeding
encouraged Tindale to continue printing, and the opposition
of the ecclesiastical authorities only increased the demand.
From Antwerp numerous editions were sent over, badly printed
and carelessly corrected, one at least being edited by Tindaie's
old companion, George Joye. In 1535 Tindale had become so
troublesome, that pressure was brought to bear upon the Court
of Brussels, and an order was issued for his imprisonment.
On Friday, October 16, 1536, he was put to death, and his
body burnt, no effort having been made in England to save
his life.

In 1533, owing probably to the advocacy of Cromwell and The First
Sir Thomas More, Convocation passed a decree that the Scrip-
tures should be translated into the vulgar tongue; and at the
end of 1534 " begged that his Majesty would vouchsafe to
decree that the Scriptures should be translated into the vulgar
tongue by some honest and learned men, to be nominated by
the king." As the outcome of this movement, the first com-
plete edition of the English Bible was issued in October, 1535.
1 He himself;, and the best early authorities, wrote " Tindale."



It was translated from the German and Latin versions by
Miles Coverdale, and the expenses connected with it were paid
by Cromwell. It does not seem, however, to have given entire
satisfaction, for we again find Convocation petitioning the
king that the Bible might be " by learned men faithfully and
purely translated into the English tongue." In 1587 another
version, known now as Matthew's Bible, was published " with
the king's most gracious license." It was made up partly of
Tindale's and partly of Coverdale's translations, with some
revisions by John Rogers, and is chiefly remarkable for the
quaintness of the side-notes.

The Great Coverdale had, in the meanwhile, been engaged on a new
translation, assisted by several eminent scholars, and this was
finished in 1538. In order that it might be printed in the
best possible style, permission was obtained from Francis I.
to have it printed in France, and it was entrusted to the
hands of Regnault, an eminent Parisian printer. It soon
became apparent that vigorous efforts were being made to
persuade Francis to withdraw the licence he had given ; and
it was, therefore, considered the wisest course that each portion
as it issued from the press .should be conveyed to a place of
safety. This was accomplished by the help of Bonner, after-
wards Bishop of London, who was then engaged on a political
mission to France, and could therefore pass his baggage with-
out examination. In December, 1538, Francis issued an order
to stop the further printing of the Bible, and ordering that
such portions as had already been finished should be de-
stroyed. As it was now impossible that the printing could
be continued in France, Cromwell obtained from Paris such
materials as were necessary, and the work was finished at home,
the complete book, known as the " Great Bible," being issued
in April.

At the end of the same year Henry VIII. issued an in-
junction preventing anyone for the five years next ensuing

Online LibraryH. D. (Henry Duff) TraillSocial England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) → online text (page 27 of 68)