H. D. (Henry Duff) Traill.

Social England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) online

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TOWER AT PINKIE HOUSE, MUSSELBURGH 291

This is the nucleus of the original building ; the rest, as it now
stands, seems to have been added in 1613. The Young Pretender
slept here the night after Prestonpans. Part of the older building



xxiv NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAOE

is said to have been used to receive the wounded after the battle
of Pinkie

MUSKETEER . 292

MILITARY COSTUME, 1530-1560 (gee note on p. 97) . ... 293

SHIPPING IN THE CHANNEL 297

BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OP CALAIS 300

These two illustrations are from a large panoramic view of the
approach to Calais, with the adjacent coasts, attributed to Vincent,
painter to Henry VIII.

SECTION OF CABOT'S MAP OF THE WORLD, 1544 .... 302, 303

An elliptical '' mappe monde," discovered in the house of a Bavarian
parish priest in 184.'!. and now in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris.
It is fully described by D'Avezac, Bulletin tJe la Societe de Geo-
grapliic, 1857. and reproduced in Jomard, Mniiiniiriitx d<- la Geo-
graphic, plate xx. It is also described by Winsor. J\'// //<// ire and
Critical History of Anirrirft. III., p. 20 xeq.. and by Admiral Jurien
de la Graviere in an article in the Rente (lets deux Mondi-x for 1876,
since republished in his Ma fins du XV* et du XVIe Hii'de, 1879.

THORNE'S MAP (see text) 307

Preserved in an early work by Richard Hakluyt, Divers Voyages
toiichi/i<j tin- Discovery of Amerira, l.~>82.

SIR HUGH WILLOUGHBY 313

Preserved at Wollaton Hall, Xotts, the seat of his descendant
Viscount Middleton, together with the two subjects following.
The coat was his protection from the Arctic climate.

SIR HUGH WILLOUGHBY'S CANVAS COAT 315

Two CANNON FROM WILLOUGHBY'S SHIP 315

THE CZAR IVAN THE TERRIBLE (from a very early Russian woodcut) . 318

Moscow IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 321

BURROUGH'S CHART OF THE WHITE SEA 323

Inserted in a copy of Sixton and Ryther's Atlas of England, 1579,
which contains many MS. maps and charts. It was Lord Burghley's
book, and contains memoranda in his handwriting.

VARDO IN 1594 . . . . ... 325

From a book of Arctic voyages by Linschoten, a Dutch explorer.

BOYS WILL ni: HOYS . 327

He which sitteth sleeping signifieth slothfulness amongst teachers,
whose desire being satisfied, careth not for the charge ; the children
idleness, whose minds without a careful tutor are bent to nothing
but ease and vanities." Bateman, Chrixtall fi/it. \-.\-r of (Jhrixtian Refor-
mation, accompanying this illustration.



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xxv

I -AGE

SEAL OF ILMINSTER SCHOOL, 1550 328

OLD SCHOOL BUILDINGS, SHREWSBURY 329

Built in the last half of the sixteenth century ; used as a free
library and museum since the removal of the school to a new site
outside the town in 1885. The old chapel dates from 1617.

LOUTH CHURCH, LINCOLNSHIRE 331

The church is mainly of the fifteenth century, the chancel of the
early sixteenth ; the tower was built in 1516, and restored in 1845,
having been injured by lightning in 1843.

THE GREAT HALL, HAMPTON COURT PALACE 333

Be^im by Henry VIII., immediately after Wolsey's death, the
previous hall being removed to make way for it ; the accounts of
the works, in four folio volumes, are preserved at the Record Office.
It was finished by 1536, and is 106 ft. long-, 40 ft. wide and 60 ft.
high. Catherine Parr was proclaimed queen here in 1543. Under
the succeeding sovereigns it was much used for masques and
theatricals. Law, Guide, to Hampton Court, p. 145.

FLEMISH WINDOWS, LADY CHAPEL, LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL . . 335

Of the windows in the Lady Chapel, seven were made for the
Cistercian convent of Herckenrode, near Liege, between 1530 and
1540, and obtained in 1802, after its dissolution, by Sir Brooke
Boothby, Bart., for 100. They had been hidden to escape capture
by the French. Their estimated value then was 10.000. They
consist of 340 pieces, each about 22 in. square. Five represent
Biblical subjects, two contain portraits of benefactors of the
convent. The large window shown represents Pilate delivering
Christ to be crucified ; Christ bearing the cross ; the descent from
the cross ; the resurrection. The small window on the right is
Flemish glass of somewhat later date, one of two put in recently.
These were brought to England about the middle of the nineteenth
century, and purchased from the representatives of the Marquis of
Ely. having been discovered in a cellar in London, where they had
lain forgotten for nearly fifty years. It represents the legendary
death of the Virgin Mary, surrounded by the Apostles (except
St. Thomas, who was detained at the baptism of a Royal Prince);
above, is shown her entrance into glory. Clifton. Cathedral Church
of L/eJifieltl, 1898. Though thus not actually imported in the six-
teenth century, the glass is a fair example of English aspirations
at that period.

HKXRY VIII, FROM THE PORTRAIT AT WARWICK CASTLE . . . 337

,sW- text ; and on the ascription of the portrait to Holbein,
cf Woltmann, Holbein-, Bunnett's trans., p. 396, and Nichols in
.ArchcBologia, Vol. XXXIX.

TERRACOTTA TOMB OF DR. YOUNG, ROLLS CHAPEL (see text) . . 339
RESKEMEER, BY HOLBEIN (sec text) 340

HOLBEIN, BY HIMSELF 341

The title has been doubly questioned ; but Waagen accepted it,
and found a likeness to the unquestioned sketch of the artist by
himself at an earlier age, which is at Basle.



xxvi NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.



PA OK



ANNE OP CLEVES, BY HOLHKIX ......... 342

The story that Holbein's picture was so flattering- that the reality
disappointed the king- is discredited l>y Woltmann. llnllmin. p. KH
(Bunnett's trans.) : " Holbein could not have done this it' hi- wished :
the prime characteristic of his portraits is their complete truth, and
Anne's picture, which is nowise charming, affords one of the most
distinct testimonies to this effect." Moreover, " Henry himself lays
the fault of his disappointment on words alone."

HOLBEIN'S DESIGN FOR A CUP FOR JANE SEYMOUR . 343

From an etching- now transferred from the Bodleian to the Uni-
versity Galleries at Oxford. The initials H and J, intertwined in
a love-knot, frequently appear in it, and also Jane Seymour 's motto,
"Bound to obey and to serve." For a detailed account of the design.
see Woltmann, ojj. fit., p. 417 seq.

COINS OF THE FIRST THREE TUDOR SOVEREIGNS .... ."44. 3-15

The George noble bears a motto from a hymn by Prudentins ( 1 1 . >
cent.) meaning " Consecrated by such a sign the mind cannot waver."
The gold half-crown of Henry VIII. has the initials of Henry and
Katharine of Aragon, and a motto signifying " A dazzling rose
without a thorn.'' The half-sovereign of Henry VIII. bears a
motto (from Luke iv. 30) used as early as Edward III. On the
Philip and Mary shilling (see text) the Neapolitan and Spanish
titles of the royal pair are noteworthy ; the motto (" We have made
God our helper ") occurs frequently on earlier English coins.

KETT'S OAK OF REFORMATION, WYMONDHAM, NORFOLK . . . 347
GROAT OF 1545 AND SHILLING OF 1549, STRUCK AT BRISTOL . . 350

Both these coins are debased, and the shillings of 15 51 were counter-
marked with a portcullis or a greyhound (both Tudor badges) early
in the reign of Elizabeth, and ordered to be current for 4d. ami
respectively.



LAZAR HOUSE OF ST. PETRONILLA, BURY ...... 353

From a collection of maps, plans, and drawings illustrating the
topographical history of the county of Suffolk, made by a Mr.
Craven Ord.

SEALS USED FOR LABOURERS' PASSES ....... 355

The statute 12 Rich. II., passed at Cambridge in 1388, is the first
enactment in which the impotent poor are distinctly named as a
separate class. It fixed wages, and required all persons who had
quitted their service to show a pass, sealed with the king's seal,
bearing the name of the county and hundred. Any servant found
without a pass might be put in the stocks and required to give
bail for his return to service. No perscai might harbour a servant
unprovided with such a pass. Archceolixjical Journal, XI., 379.

VAGABONDS (from Barclay, Shij) of Fools) ..... . 357

Prefixed to a poem " of foolish beggars and of their vanities."
See note on illustration, p. 134.

WHIPPING-POST (TWYFORD, NORFOLK) ....... 359

STOCKS (HAVERINGLAND, NORFOLK) ........ 361

The type of these probably dates back to the period of the text,
or earlier, though the wood of both is naturally a good deal later.
The ironwork of the whipping-post, however, appears to be ancient.



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xxvii

PAGE

CONFRATER'S HOUSE, WYG-GESTON'S HOSPITAL, LEICESTER . . . 363

This hospital was founded in the latter part of the fifteenth
century for a master, confrater, twelve aged men, and twelve aged
women (all unmarried), by William Wyggeston, mayor of Leicester,
and others.

MISER AND PRODIGAL (from Barclay, Ship of Fools) .... 364

Prefixed to a poem on " Avarice or Covetise and Prodigality."
See note on illustration, p. 134.

PHYSICIAN IN GOWN 369

ST. FILLAN'S CROZIER AND ITS CASE 371

The crozier head is of copper, ornamented with bands of niello ;
the casing is silver-gilt ornamented with filigree work. The relic
was in the possession, of the Dewar family, its hereditary keepers
(who were bound to use it, on demand, in detecting stolen goods)
from, the time of Robert Bruce till 1877, when it was acquired
from their representatives (who had sunk and again risen in the
social scale, and were then settled in Canada) for the Scottish
National Antiquarian Museum. St. Fillan was an Irish missionary
in Scotland, who died about 777. A full account of the relic
will be found in the Transactions of the Society of Antiquaries of
Scotland. XII. (1878).

SUENO'S STONE, NEAR FORRES 372

An elaborately carved pillar of hard, reddish-grey sandstone,
23 ft. high. 4 ft. wide at the base, and 14 in. thick. On the face
shown, which looks southward, the history of a battle is carved,
in five divisions : the lowest contains groups of persons, with a
building behind them ; the next, horsemen advancing-, infantry
following with spears and shields ; the next is the actual fight
warriors attacking a gateway, while in a corner are several head-
less bodies ; the fourth shows the captives (some being women)
and their captors ; the topmost division seems to have contained
a number of figures on horseback (the victors going home?). The
story has been supposed to commemorate the victory won by Sueno,
son of Harold. King of Denmark, in 1008 over Malcolm II. ; but
Skene {Celtic Scotland, I., 337) refers it to a fight between Sigurd,
Earl of Orkney, and a Scottish Earl, Melbrigda, in 900, in which
all the Scots were killed, and the horsemen went home with their
foes' heads tied to their stirrups ; one of Earl Melbrigda's teeth
struck the leg of Earl Sigurd, who died of the wound, presumably
from blood poisoning. The north side of the stone is also elaborately
carved with figures and " Runic knots." (G-roome, Ordnance
Gazetteer of Scotland, s. v. ).

ROUND TOWER, ABERNETHY, PERTHSHIRE 373

Seventy-four ft. high, with walls 2^ ft. thick below and 2 ft.
above ; the diameter inside is 8 ft. 3 in. at the base and 5 ft. 6 in.
at top. The door was originally well above the ground, but soil
has accumulated round the base. The tower is similar to the Irish
round towers, which were probably church towers, but built to
serve as refuges in case of a raid by Xorse pirates or other enemies.
This building probably served the same purpose. Various dates for it
have been suggested between about 712 and 1000 A.D.

RUINS OF KELSO ABBEY 374

Originally founded at Selkirk, the monastic community was



xxviH NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAISE

removed to Kelso in 112$ by David I. The building was much
damaged by invading armies from England in 15L':5. ].">4i'. and
finally in 154.~> under the Earl of Hereford, when it was lettered
by cannon, and ultimately carried by assault. In 15iio the Ite-
formers wrecked the remains and expelled the few monks still
there. The ruins were repaired in 1866.

NEIDPATH CASTLE, TWEEDDALE 375

Originally a stronghold of the Fraser family, the castle passed
to the Hays of Tester, the ancestors of the Earls of Tweeddale,
the second of whom held it for Charles II., but it was taken after
the tower, its original nucleus, had been battered down by Crom-
well's cannon. It was afterwards sold to one of that branch of
the Douglases whose head was the Duke of Queensberry. and
subsequently passed to the Earls of Wemyss. It was of very high
strategic importance.

SKAL OF WILLIAM THE LION (1165-1214) 376

On the obverse, the king on the throne, a sword and an orb,
with cross ; on the reverse, he is seen on horseback, with flag attached
to a lance, and a shield with a central spike. The details of the
costume and horse-trappings will repay study.

ABBEY GATEWAY, SCONE 377

On the mote-hill, to the west of the abbey, folkmoots were held
as early as the eighth century. The Scottish kings were crowned
here (for the Coronation Stone, see Vol. II., p. 2311, note on the
illustration;, and the abbey, founded in 1114. was sacked and
destroyed by a mob of Reformers from Perth in 1551). The abbot's
house had been used as a Royal Palace.

STIRLING CASTLE 379

The rock is 34(> feet above the plain below. The castle has been
considerably modernised, being one of the four Scottish fortresses
required to be kept up by the Act of Union : it is still an important
military centre. Only a small part of the buildings dates back to
the fifteenth century, but the castle, as commanding the main
passage between the Northern and Southern Scotland, has been of
the utmost importance in Scottish history. It was besieged by
Edward I., and surrendered after Bannockburn ; it was the birth-
place of several Scottish kings ; it was the chief Royalist strong-
hold in the Civil Wars, and was unsuccessfully besieged by the
Young Pretender in 1745. The Palace (erected by James V. and
.Mary of Guise) and the Parliament Hall, erected by James III.,
are inside the castle.

CHAPEL OF ST. LEONARD'S COLLEGE, ST. ANDREWS . . . .381

The college was founded in 1512, out of the revenues of a sup-
pressed hospital for pilgrims to the shrine of St. Andrew, and was
united with the College of St. Leonard in 1747, their revenues
having greatly decreased, to form the Faculty of Arts and the
Faculty of Medicine of St. Andrews University. Its buildings
were then sold, and the chapel alone remains.

PORTRAITS OF JAMES III. AND JAMES IV., HOLYROOD .... 382

This picture is of the school of Van Eyck, and has been attributed
to Van der Goes; it is said to have been painted as an altarpiece
for Trinity College Church, Edinburgh, founded by Mary of Gueldres,
mother of James III.



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xxix

PAGE

EXPERIENCE AND THE COURTIER . ... 383

MARGARET TUDOR ........... 384



By Mabuse : on panel, 2S-J- in. by 21 in. It was for many years
at Lee Priory, Kent.

MARY OP GUISE (HAMPTON COURT) ..... . 385

On wood. 3 ft. 4 in. by 2 ft. fi in. : but a piece has been added to
the original. The painting-, probably executed about 1543-44, and
mentioned in the catalogue of the Hampton Court pictures under
Charles I., was sold under the Commonwealth and only rediscovered
in 1852. Law, Catalogur of the Pictures at Hampton Court, p. 209.

SWORD OP JAMES V. (ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM) ...... 386

JAMES V .............. 387

Artist unknown : on an oak panel, in three pieces, 36 in. by 24 in.

DUNFERMLINE PALACE ........ . . 391

Probably built early in the fourteenth century ; enlarged and
restored under James IV. and V. ; allowed to fall into ruin after
Charles II. 's time, and repaired in 1812. It was frequently a
Royal residence, and was the birthplace of Charles I. Here also
James I. of England signed the Solemn League and Covenant, and
Charles II. the " Dunfermline Declaration."

KECK CHAINS .......... . 394

The outer one, with oval links, was found in Holyrood Park.

SCOTTISH SHOES OF PRIMITIVE TYPE . . . . . . 395

" Rivlins ' ? from Shetland, which, as is noted in the text, the
shoes of this period exactly resembled.

STAIGUE FORT, KERRY .......... 399

About twelve miles from Waterville, in a hilly district ; an
enclosure 114 feet in diameter over all ; the inside diameters are
87 ft. from X. to S. and 88 ft. from E. to W. The wall is 13 ft.
thick at bottom, tapering to 5 ft. 2 in. at the top. In the S.S.W. side
is a square doorway 5 ft. wide belo\v and 4 ft. 2 in above. In
the wall, opening inwards, are two small chambers, one 12 ft.
de?p. 4 ft. 7 in. wide, and 6 ft. 6 in. high, the other 7 ft. 4 in. deep,
4 ft. 9 in. wide and 7 ft. high. Round the inside of the wall are
ten sets of stairs, the highest reaching nearly to the top, the secondary
about half way, leading to narrow platforms on which the defenders
stood. The fort may be two thousand years old. and was the strong-
hold of a Xeolithic people. It is the best preserved example in
Ireland, though not the largest. Its name is, of course, modern.
(Wildu. Ciitiilnijiii' nt the Muwum of tin- Royal Irish Academy, Dublin.)
A model exists in the museum.

PASSAGE FROM THE "LIBER HTMNORUM " .... . 400

Trinity College. Dublin; MS. Xo. 1.441. of the eleventh century,
containing hymns in Irish and in Latin. The page is 10^ in. by 7| in.
The contents have been published in 6 vols., including translation
and glossary.

PASSAGE FROM A BREHON LAW TRACT ....... 401

A number of these tracts, of the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth
centuries, with text and glosses, are preserved in the Library of



xxx NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

PACE

Trinity College. Dublin. On the Bivhon law, .svr Maine, Early

Ilixtur;/ i>>' I ' nxl /i nt in/iK.

SHKIXE OF ST. PATRICK'S BELL ...... to face 402

The bell is believed to have belonged to St. Patrick ; it was
preserved for centuries at Armagh, and is the oldest relic of
Christian metal-work in Ireland. Its shrine was made between
I'i'.il and 1 lu.">, as is proved by an inscription on it recording the
names of its makers.

CROSS AND ROUND TOWKR, MONASTERBOICE, LOUTH .... 42

The tower, probably of the ninth century, is 5] ft. in circumference
at tlif b:ise and '.to ft. high. It had five floors. The largest cross
(there are three) is 27 ft. high, the second 15 feet. Both are covered
with elaborate carving, partly scriptural, partly seeming to refer
to some episode of the Danish invasion. They are referred to the
ninth or tenth century.

SCENES FROM IRISH LIFE, AS DESCRIBED BY GIRALDUS CAMBKENSIS . 403

These are nearly contemporary attempts at faithful illustration
of Giraldus's Topograpllia Hiberniae, Dist. III. (11H7). The native
Irish, he says, always carry axes [instead of sticks like other people]
'' that they may be ready promptly to execute whatever [villainy]
their minds suggest" (c. 20). They are industrious only in playing
the tabor and harp, their sole musical instruments (c. 11). The
coracle shown was encountered by a ship driven by a tempest within
sight of the northern coast of Ireland, some of whose crew described
it to Giraldus (c. 2(i). It was of wattled boughs, covered with hide ;
its two occupants were naked, save for a broad belt of skins, and
wore long, yellow hair. They proved to be heathens and un-
civilised, and expressed astonishment at the sight of bread and
cheese, of which they were allowed to take home specimens. "The
women as well as the men ride astride with their legs stuck out
on each side of the horse " (c. 26 ; there is no other evidence of the
practice, and Giraldus may be generalising from a single exception).
St. Kevin is here (as always) represented with a blackbird ; because
once, when he retired, as was his wont during Lent, to a small cabin
in the wilderness, and lifted up his hand [in prayer] a hen blackbird
laid her eggs in it ; wherefore the saint, taking pity on her. held his
hand in the same position till she had reared her brood (c. 28). The
last illustration is invested with a special interest by modern anthropo-
logy. Giraldus tells (c. 25) of a people of Tyrconnel, in Donegal, who
practise a loathsome rite in the inauguration of their kings. A
white mare is brought into the midst of the assembled multitude
and the king-elect crawls towards it, ' shamelessly confessing himself
a beast." The mare is then killed and cut up, and tlu king muse
bathe in the broth, lapping it up, and eat of the flesh, which is
also served out to the people. Giraldus's editors (j\<j. Dimock in
the Rolls Series) have rejected the story in tutu as a hoax ; but it
is impossible not to suspect a survival of totemism. The white
mare is the patron, perhaps the reputed ancestor of the tribe, who
solemnly recognise their descent by participating in the flesh of
the parent. Cf. A. Lang, Ctixtom and Jfyth. p. 107. We need not
suppose, however, that the story was true of the people of Tyrconnel
( \vho are known to have had another method of inauguration in
Christian times) or of Giraldus's own age. It may have been a
tradition, possibly from pre-Celtic times, though it can hardly have
been pure invention. In any case, Giraldus's zeal to repeat it
shows his animus against the Irish.



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xxxi

PAGE

THE CROSS OF CONG . 405

Made at Roscommon by native Irish workmen about 1123, as a
receptacle for a fragment of the True Cross, and brought to Cong
Abbey by Roderic O'Conor, the last native king of Ireland, who
found a refuge there, and died in 1198. It was found in a chest
in the village early in the nineteenth century. It is 2^ ft. high. 1 ft.
6| in. across the arms, and If in. thick. It is of oak plated with
copper, covered with gold tracery, was set with jewels, and has
a large crystal in the centre.

THE ROCK OF CASHEL . 406

The rock is about 300 ft. high. A church was founded here by
St. Declan in the sixth century, and the place was the capital of
the kings of Minister. Henry II was acknowledged as sovereign
of Ireland by the Irish clergy here in 1172. The rock was stormed
by Lord Inchiquin for the Parliament in 1647.

WEAPONS AND ACCOUTREMENTS 407

Above, a bronze celt or " palstave," which would be mounted on
a wooden handle and made fast with a strip of hide. The swords
are bronze, iron swords in Ireland being late and rare. The double
mouthpiece of the bit is curious. (Described in Wilde, Catalogue
of Royal Irish Academy Museum.)

SUBJECTS FROM THE BOOK OF KELLS 408, 409

These figures, introduced as decorations into a " thoroughly Irish "
MS. of the Gospels, in Latin, possibly of the sixth century, are
regarded as faithful representations of Irish costume of that period.
One (p. 409) represents a soldier, armed with a round target and
spear of similar make to extant examples ; his cap is yellow, his
coat green, his breeches light blue. The seated figure (p. 409)
drinking wears a turban, partly yellow, with a flesh-coloured border ;
a dark red cloak with yellow border ; a blue tunic with yellow
border and green sleeves ; and is barefooted. One of the equestrian
figures (also with yellow caps and green cloaks) shows the short
tunic well. (Wilde. Catalogue of the Royal Irish Academy Museum,
Class IV., Part II., pp. 299, 300.)

FIGURES FROM THE CASKET CALLED BREAC MOEDHOG .... 411

This is the " speckled shrine " of St. Moedhog of Ferns, of about
the eleventh century, and exhibits important details of costume in
the embossed bronze figures attached to it.

IRISH MEDIEVAL COSTUME 413

The twilled woven cloak exactly resembles that in Speed's picture
of the " wild Irishman " in his Atlas of 1610. The costumes were
found on human bodies disinterred in 1824 and 1843, and are
described by Wilde, Catalogue of the Museum of the Royal Irish
Academy. II., p. 325 seq. The skirt of the female dress resembles
the Greek fustanella. The shepherd's plaid of the trews is note-
worthy, as also the cut leather ornamentation of the shoes.

BALLYMOON CASTLE, CARLOW .... . . . 414

"The walls of the bawn [enclosure] are hollowed into a kind
of gallery, lighted by loopholes from without and by large windows,
now ruined, from within." A further description will be found
in Grose, Antiquities of Ireland (1792), II., p. 8.



xxxii NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.



PAOH



THE TARA TORQUE . . .416

Found near Drogheda ; copied by modern jewellers as the

" T;ir;i



MEDAL OOMMKMORATING THE MARRIAGE OF MARY AND DARNLEY. 1565 418

Mary, without waiting for the consent of Parliament, conferred
the title of king on Darnley. and the obverse accordingly bears the
inscription in Latin. "Mary and Henry. Queen and King of Scots."
On the reverse, "Whom God hath joined together let not man
put asunder."

LOCH LEVEN CASTLE, SHOWING MARY'S TOWER . . . 419



Online LibraryH. D. (Henry Duff) TraillSocial England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) → online text (page 3 of 68)