H. D. (Henry Duff) Traill.

Social England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) online

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all through by Art MacMurrogh Kavanagh, king of Leinster ;
and on the second occasion was near losing his whole army
among the Wicklow highlands. After this king's time, and
especially during the Wars of the Roses, the English power
in Ireland grew weaker than ever ; but soon after the accession
of the Tuclors it began to recover.

The Irish colonists had all along a parliament free to make
its own laws. But Henry YII., provoked by the favourable
reception the Anglo-Irish had given to Simnel and Warbeck,
caused the Irish Parliament under the deputy, Sir Edward
Foynings to pass " Poynings' Law" in 1494, which destroyed
Irish legislative independence by making the consent of the Eng-
lish king and council necessary before parliament could be sum-
moned or a bill introduced. Towards the end of the reign of
Henry VII. the colonial territory had shrunk to its smallest
dimensions, including portions of only four counties round
Dublin. The wretched colonists were harassed by coyne and
livery and other exactions, by wars and plagues; and they had
to pay " black rents " to the neighbouring Irish chiefs to pur-
chase that protection against the fierce raids of the natives
Avhich the government were unable or unwilling to afford them.


(Mil-aim of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin.)



at the

This little territory was called the Pale; soon alter this time it
became gradually enlarged.

Henry YI11.. by his strong will, succeeded in restoring the
almost extinct English power in Ireland. The Irish chiefs were
induced to acknowledge him as spiritual head of the Church:
Inn he failed to bring the Irish people as a body to do so. On
the whole he treated the Irish considerately and kindly ; and at
the close of his reign the country was submissive and quiet, and
the English power in Ireland was stronger than it ever had been

But the quiet was of short duration. After Henry's death
two new sources of strife appeared; for the government at-
tempted to force the Reformation on the people of Ireland ; and
they also began to plont various districts with colonies from
England and Scotland, for which the native owners were to be
expelled. The Plantations succeeded to some extent: the
attempt to Protestantise the Irish, though continued resolutely
for three centuries, was a failure. These two projects were the
cause of nearly all the subsequent dreadful rebellions and wars
that desolated the unhappy country.



A UTHORITIES, 1547-1558.

The following works may be added to the list given for Chap. IX :

General, Literary Remains <,f Edward VI. (Eoxburghe Club); Chronicle of King
Henry VIII., trans, from the Spanish by M. A. Sharp Hume, 1889 ; Sir Johu
Hayward, Life of Edward VI., 1(330; P. F. Tytler, England under the Reigns of
Edward VI. and Mar;/ (original letters, edited with introductions and notes, 1839) ;
Chronicle of Queen Jane and Queen Mary (Camden Soc. ) ; State Papers, Foreign,
Domestic, and Venetian Series ; A. F. Pollard, England under the Protector Somerset ;
J. M. Stone, History of Queen Mary, 1901 ; S. R. Maitland, Essays on Subjects Con-
nected with the Reformation, ed. Huttou, 1898.

Religion. Strype, Life of Cranmer and Annals of the Reformation. Publications of
the Parker Society, e.g. , ll'orks of Craumer, Ridley, and Jewell ; Original Letters,
1537-1558; occasional references hi Froude's History of England ; Blunt, History of
the Reformation, Vol. II. ; Perry, History of the English Church. On the history of
the English Bible, the best books are : Anderson, Annals of the English Bible (2 vols.,
1845) ; Lewis, History of the English Bible ; Lovett, The Printed English Bible.

Exploration. Hakluyt, Voyages ; Harrisse, Discorery of Xorth America.

Architecture and Art, 1509-1603. Ferguson, History of Architecture, Vol. III. ;
Woltmaun and Woermaun, Jlistory of Painting; Waageu, Handbook; Walpole.
Anecdotes of Painters, ed. Wornum ; Wornum, Epochs of Painting. For 1509-1558, in
addition ; Woltmann, De Joh. Holbein Pictoris Celebcrnmi Origins Dissertatio ; Nichols,
Contemporaries and {Successors of Holbein. (Joins as for Vol. II., Chap. V.

Pauperism and Poor Laics. Burn's History of the Poor Laws was quoted with
approval by Adam Smith ("Wealth of Nations," Book I., c. x.), but Eden, State of
the Poor, is still, in many respects, the most valuable work on the subject. See also
Nicholls, History of the English Poor Law (ed. by Willink, 1902). Of more
recent works, Ribtou Turner, History <>f Vuijrants and Vagrancy, is full of interesting
information. See also E. M. Leonard, Early History of English Poor Relief, 1900 ;
Ashley, Economic History, Vol. I., Part 2 ; Cunningham, Growth of English Industry
anil Commerce ; and the notes to the section.

Scotland, General History, Contemporary. The oldest and most valuable contem-
porary matter is to be found in the publications of the Burgh Records Society, e.g.
the Ancient Laics and Customs of the Scottish Burghs, 1124-1424; the records of the
Conrention of Royal Burghs and the Charters of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, etc.
Equally important are the Scottish Record Publications the Exchequer Rolls, 1264-
1454, and Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer, 1473-98, to the latter of which is
prefixed an extremely interesting picture of life and manners by Dr. Dicksou, of the
Register House. Fordun, Wyutoun, and Boece (in a metrical version) are in the
Rolls Series, and Major is published by the Scottish Historical Society. Barbour's
Bruce has been published by the E.E.T.S., Blind Harry's Wallace, by the Scottish Text
Society. The Acts of the Xeot fish Parliament are also accessible. The Chronicle of
Lanercost (Maitlaud Club) is valuable for the period of the War of Independence.
Modern Works. C. Rogers, Scotland Social mid Iinnnstic (Grampian Club) ; Michel,
J.es Ecossais en France, les Fn/ncais en Ecosse, and Scottish Language as Illustrating
Cirilisation in Scotland; John Mackintosh, History of Cifilisatinn in Scotland. The
remarks of native and foreign contemporary observers are made accessible by P.
Hume Brown, Scotland before 1700, and Early TrarcUers in Scotland. Grant, Burgh
Schools, sketches the rise of education. Far the most valuable modern books are
T. H. Burton, History of Scotland; Robertson, Scotland under her Early Rings;
Cosmo Innes, Sketches of Early Scotch History (1100-1750), and Scotland in the
Middle Ages, 768-1600, and Tytler, History of Scotland, vol. i., c. vii., on Ancient State
and Manners of Scotland ; Cosmo Innes, Scotch Legal Antiquities, last chapter, on
Students' Guide Books, is a valuable catalogue raisonnce of the authorities. Architecture.
Grose's Antiquities; Biilings' Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities ; and especially


n and Kn-s, Domestic and Castellated Architecture of Scotland. .W;W/ Life.
The cartularies and registers of most of the religious houses (:;/., Kelso, Melrose,

'i'aislcy. Cupar- arc accessible, anil illustrate the rural life. S<> dn, e.g. I'.ai hour's
llnirc, and popular poetry like C/irixf's A"/'/ 1 / 1 nn /lie (ireeii aud I'ehlix I,, tin 1'ln//.

I r/ lii ml. O'Curry, J.eetttrex mi I lie MS. Mnter'nilx of fri*// //(.*/<////, and on the
MmiiKi'x mid I'lixtiinix nf the .1 lie/, nt Ir/sli ; the Alien nt l.mrx of Inlnnil, 4 vols. (Hulls
Series); Maine, Early History of Institutions ; Ware's //;.,/<//// <,f tin Hixlm/ix, and
II, \tni-ii inn! .lnfit//<i/i/x i if In /i/i/,/, eil. Harris (Dublin, 17'')!>-<>l) : the works of (jriruldus
Cambrensis ; Sir J. Davies. II ixi,,rienl '/'r/ir/x on Jre/tn/i/, ed. ( 'halniers ; Spenser, I'ien-
nf the Watt of Ireland ; Kegan, ed. Goddard (" The Song of Derniot and the Earl") ;
the Ainutlx <>f the Four Mnxti rx (ed. aud trans. O'Donovan, Dublin, 1848-51), and other
Irish annals; i.ij. the Annals of Tujlnrmne, the Aiuniln of J.oi/i <'i and I'lirnineun
Keii/iirttiii (Rolls Series); the Annul* of I'lxtn- (Irish Record Cora.); and Annrt/x ,,f
< lonmacnoist (Kilkenny Archteological Society); Gilbert, Tiecroys of Ireland ; A. C.
Richey, Lectures >/ the Hist or;/ of Ireland to 15:54 (Dublin, 1869) ; and the histories of
Ireland by Macgeoghan (Dublin, 1831), R. Cox (1(389), T. Lelaud (1773), McGee
((llasgow and London), and Joyce (London, 1893).

Plwto: W. G. Mourc, Dublin


of the Roiiul Irish



THE NEW ORDER. 1558-1584.

ELIZABETH came to the throne in November, 1558, determined A. HASSALL.

England and
to resume the royal authority over the l/nurch wmcn nacl Europe.

been asserted by Henry VIII. The wisdom of carrying out
a religious revolution, when France and Spain were, by the
Treaty of Gateau Cambresis, bringing to an end their long
quarrel, might indeed be questioned. But the return of the
Marian exiles compelled her to forego the restoration of the
" middle way" of Henry YIIL, and to cast in her lot with the
Protestants. The Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity were
promulgated, and Elizabeth could only rely upon her own
skill and the jealousies of foreign Powers to aid her in
extricating the country from the precarious position in which
she found it on her accession. Though there was no
immediate danger of a direct attack on England by France
or by Spain, the close alliance subsisting between France and
Scotland was a serious menace to English independence.
In June, 1559, however, the Roman Catholic Church was
overthrown in Scotland, the French connection Avas repudiated,
and the Protestant leaders appealed to England for support.
After a period of characteristic hesitation, Elizabeth sent an
English army to besiege Leith, and in July, 1560, the Treaty
of Edinburgh practically destroyed French influence in
Scotland, and largely augmented the English queen's reputa-
tion in Europe. In 1562 the wars of religion broke out in
France, and Elizabeth, fearing that the overthrow of the
Huguenots might lead to a close union between France and
Spain, occupied Havre, but failed to hold it 011 the con-
clusion of the first Civil War. Henceforth the religious
wars and political differences between the French and Spanish
Courts secured England from danger on the side of France,







and Elizabeth and Catherine de Medicis found that they had
many interests in common.

During the next four years (1564-1568) events in Scotland
gave the English Government much anxiety. Mary Stuart,
on the death of her husband, Francis II., had returned to
her kingdom in August, 15(51, and, supported by all
parties, was bent not only on being recognised as heir-
presumptive to the English crown, but on removing Elizabeth
from the English throne. Her marriage with Darnley (July,
1565) was followed by political and religious turmoil, ex-
emplified in the murders of Rizzio (1566) and of her


husband (1567). Her marriage with Bothwell ruined her
cause in Scotland, the Protestant lords overthrew her at
Carberry Hill, and she was compelled to abdicate in favour
of her son (July, 1507). Her escape from Loch Leven the
following year, and her defeat at Langside, forced her to take
refuge in England. Meanwhile in Ireland, Avhich, as we have
seen in the last chapter, was in a state of partial rebellion
at Elizabeth's accession, the revolt of Shane O'iseill (p. 562)
had broken out again in 1562, and had terminated only to
be succeeded in 1569 by the far more serious rising of the

During the next twenty years England passed through a
period- of unparalleled difficulties. Calvinists and Catholics
struggled for supremacy. The presence of Mary in England
constituted a perpetual danger, and the outlook on the
Continent was uncertain. Archbishop Parker (1559-1575)




endeavoured by means of the High Commission Court and
the Book of Advertisements to enforce uniformity. The
Independent party arose, and Parliament, itself strongly
Puritan, enforced in 1571 subscriptions to the Thirty-nine
Articles. Archbishop Grindal (1576-1583), himself a moderate
Puritan, refused to repress Puritanism, and was suspended by
Elizabeth (p. 434). This steady growth of the Protestant
party in England was due in great measure to the aggressive


attitude of the Papacy and to the steady development of the
Counter-Reformation. The imprisonment of Mary in England
brought in its train plots for her release, for the overthrow
of Cecil, the deposition of Elizabeth, and the restoration of
Catholicism. A conspiracy headed by the Duke of Norfolk
collapsed in October, 1569, and the insurrection of the Northern
earls was easily suppressed before the end of the year. In
1570 the excommunication of Elizabeth by Pius V. was
followed by the discovery of Ridoltrs plot (1571), the
execution of Norfolk (1572), the arrival of a large number
of seminary priests from Douai to stir up the Catholics in
England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the underhand intrigues
of Spain.


/'///<; NEW ORDER.


favouring '''n'iiig tlii* dangerous period (1568-1584) Elizabeth found
Elizabeth, support (1) in the attitude of Parliament, (2) in the revolt
of the Netherlands, (3) in her alliance with France. The
Parliament of 1572, like all the Parliaments of the reign,
displayed a strong Puritan feeling, and warmly supported the
< v hieen against her enemies. The same year the Dutch rose
against Spain, and Philip, fearful of driving England into a
close alliance with France, and of imperilling his hold on
the Netherlands, refused to regard the repeated aggressions
of England as a casus belli. Henceforth Elizabeth secretly
assisted the rising under William of Orange, though she
always hoped to bring about a compromise between the
contending parties. In 1577 Drake commenced his voyage



round the world, and during the next three years attacked
the Spanish colonies, inflicting very serious damage on
Spanish trade (p. 679). In April, 1572, Elizabeth, after one
or two false steps, had at last concluded a defensive alliance
with France, and this alliance was till 1584 "the corner-stone
of her foreign policy." The Massacre of St. Bartholomew
did not impair this friendship between the two Governments,
which proved of the utmost value to England. In 1578,
diplomatic relations (broken off in 1571) with Spain were
renewed with the arrival of Mendoza in England, though in
the following year Philip sent troops to Ireland and incited
a Catholic reaction in Scotland. Till 1584 Elizabeth's waiting
policy, pursued in opposition to the wish of Cecil, who



always desired a thorough-going anti-Catholic crusade at Her
home and abroad, proved successful. Instead of forming a
league with all foreign Protestants and entering upon an
internecine war with Catholics at home and abroad, instead
of marrying a French prince and interfering actively in
Scotland, where the Anglophile party, headed by Morton,
was struggling against Esme Stuart, Duke of Lennox, the
representative of the Guises and of Catholic Europe, Elizabeth
resolutely refused to adopt a spirited foreign policy, and in
1581 her marriage scheme with the Duke of Anjou was
broken off. Events showed the correctness of her judgment,
and the position of England at the beginning of 1584
justified her determination to preserve peace. The Raid of
Ruthven (August, 1582) overthrew the party of Lennox,
aveng'ed the death of Morton, and showed the absence of


danger to England from a country torn by rival noble factions.
England had since her accession enjoyed peace and good
government, and in 1584 was strong, prosperous, and prepared
for the great struggle which could no longer be averted.


UNDER Elizabeth the reformed settlement of religion which CHARLES
obtained in the early years of Edward VI. was restored, as far as gEAZLE?
one time can ever reproduce another. But the point at which The state
the Queen stopped in her anti-Romanism, and the point at which church!
were fixed the doctrine and discipline of the Church of England
for the rest of the sixteenth century, was, in technical terms,
well-nigh the same as the point arrived at by the second Prayer
Book of Edward VI. (1552; p. 26G).

The most extreme developments of Genevan and Zwinglian The Eliza-
Protestantism, which were on the point of bringing to pass a Jjjj^
third revision of the Liturgy at the end of her brother's reign, merit,
were held in check by Elizabeth and her chief advisers in Church
matters, Cecil and Parker ; the new revision of 1559 was even
slightly like all subsequent additions and corrections of the
Prayer Book in favour of the Anglican Catholicism of Henry
VIII.'s last years, and of the first English Liturgy ; the distinctive
religious mark of the new reign was the evolution of organised
Puritanism on the one side, and on the other of that High type of
Churchmanship which produced the work of Hooker, Andrewes,
and Laud, and the first Old Catholic school of modern times.



Tims, while on one side, the connection with Rome was finally


and promptly broken ; while the religion of English society, as a
whole, ceased from the year 1558 to acknowledge the Papal
obedience and took to itself gradually a popular Protestant
character of an unmistakable kind yet, within that once com-
pact body of abhorrers of Papistry, a division became every year
more apparent between the moderate of the Anglican or Royalist
party and the uncompromising zealot of the school of Calvin and
of Knox.

Church The permanent threefold division of English religion into

state. Q llirc h mari) Nonconformist, and Roman Catholic begins in the
reign of Elizabeth for all practical purposes, though she would
have been the last to recognise the fact. To her, as to the
bishops, there was never more than one Church in England the
Church recognised and protected by the State, said the Court ;
the Church of the ancient ministerial succession, said the High
Churchmen who came to the front in the later years of the reign.
But in this later as well as in the earlier period of the Tudor
Revolution, the central thought in all religious change and settle-
ment was national, political, or social rather than ecclesiastical.
The reformation of the Church, as of all other parts of the English
social system, was the work of the State, of the Crown, as re-
presenting the people. And, except in the reign of Henry VIII.
himself, no epoch of the Tudor dynasty shows the secondary
place of purely religious interests, in the transition from the
Middle Ages to the Modern World, more thoroughly than the
age of Elizabeth. The Church is treated very much as an arm
of the Civil Service a dignified but pleasantly helpless prey
of an impecunious sovereign and a rapacious Court ; the Queen,
without the title, enjoys a full reality of supreme headship ; each
one of the new Queen's primates at Canterbury Parker, Grindal,
Whitgift complains without ceasing of the petty oppressions of
powerful laymen. Still more is the subject and tributary
position of the English Establishment at this time proved by the
tone of the current apologies for its reformation, such as Jewell's,
Avhere the main charge against Popery is its disloyalty to princes,
and the main boast of the reformer is his own obedience to the
great laws of Christ " Render unto Caesar the things that are
Ccesar's," for " My kingdom is not of this world."

On the Prayer Book, the Articles of Religion, and the




Homilies 1 appointed to be read in churches, was stamped the Doctrine
same mark of State control. The ornaments of churches existed
by the authority of Parliament; the General Councils of the
Church could not be gathered together without the command-
ment and will of Princes ; the sin of rebellion was denounced in
the only authorised sermons of the time as the most deadly of
all crimes. " For this," 2 as Jewell declares, " is our doctrine,



Vs*v'i'fv'^i ^"ftg t'nr '3/.T? i w\,'i'i,s} -..it jo* jijjf .'cmfn in iOfufft

> ^v a:-< t .-H - /i - -'"- - - i? ,' J. ' , f-/__.^c

Off! fr&omatfijat tn'an . mee&n fin&ft
tJr xvxhttK & torr/it iref&x nar~ rmeoerr inn

tJr xvxttK torrq/t ref
Vp Hfuff. drfi unsn ajsmen *t qroefr
Dif ttrtende fteif- ft3h*ft"tJNl~feii!rt(e


(From a Contemporary Print.)

that every soul, of what calling soever he be be he monk, be
he preacher, be he prophet, be he apostle ought to be subject to
kings and magistrates." 3

And this subjection, enforced as rigidly by Cecil in 1570 as

1 '-He that nameth rebellion." says the Homily on Disobedience (Part iii.,
init.) "nameth not a singular or only sin. as is theft and such like, but he
nameth the whole puddle and sink of all sins against God and man."

2 "Apology," Part iv., p. 85 (Cassell's ed.).

3 Contrast with this the extreme medieval Churchman's attitude, as ex-
pressed in Boniface VIII.'s bull ' : Unam Sanctam " : " It is altogether neces-
sary that every human creature should be subject to the Roman Pontiff."
(A.D. 1302.)



by Henry and Cromwell in 1580, carried with it not merely a
paralysis of ( 'hurch machinery and Church action (except so far
as the Government allowed), not merely the great central
doctrine and position that the Crown's majesty had the care of
the souls as well as of the bodies of its subjects but an infinite
amount of petty tyranny. Elizabeth's language to the Bishop of
Ely, like Henry YIII.'s to the Archbishop of Dublin, was the
language of the Court to any ecclesiastic who tried to assert
rights of any sort against the good pleasure of the Government,
its friends and favourites. The proud prelate, who had shown
an unpardonable and amazing reluctance to resign to Chris-
topher Hatton with cheerful readiness the gardens of Ely House,
is warned to remember who it was that had made him ; if he did
not come to a better mind on that point, the Queen screamed at
him, as it were, by letter " by God I will unfrock you." Not
even her father had ever dealt more plainly with a " lewd
priest." In a way that unpleasantly recalls some of the e.\a< -
tions of William Rufus, we hear of bishoprics often kept vacant,
while the Crown drew the revenues ; of constantly recurring
grants of Church property to noble, or powerful, or at least im-
portunate, beggars ; especially of the Commissions of Conceal-
ment, issued under the guise of completing the work of monastic
dissolution by inquiring if the Crown was still defrauded by any
concealment of confiscated property.

The com- These commissions were so shamefully abused by the Court

missions harpies, the " bottomless Baggs " thus let loose upon the clergy.

ment. that Burghley himself interfered to spoil their game, and desired

of Parker " some particular information against them." It was

forthcoming in abundance ; l but so many people, from Leicester

downwards, were interested in the extortions, that they recurred

" even to the latter end of the reign." And they went so far as

to procure many of the possessions of the churches, especially

the new foundations, as concealments, " and that for very trifles."

1 Thus Parker wrote, December 2o. 1572, to Burghley: "Will this turn to
honour, after the fruits, tenths, subsidies, of late most liberally granted : after
the arrearages of tenths, of subsidies, from Kinf Henry's days, required and
extorted : and some of these . . . twice and thrice discharged, and now. after
all this such pastimes to be procured ?"..."! can say no more." he adds
in April next, to the same friend, " but Jesus misereatur nostri. Est modui;
in rebus." ''By which short expressions, insinuating the miserable estate o;
the clenry." Strype, ''Parker," ii. 225-0. - Ib., p. 227.




A more extreme way to scourge the clergy, as Parker wrote on
Christmas Day, 1572, could not have been devised.

Thus it was not wonderful that Elizabeth's reign came to compensa-
look like an Egyptian bondage to those Churchmen of the seven-
teenth century who, with high ideas of ecclesiastical privilege,
were not tempted to quarrel with a Royal patronage so kindly


Online LibraryH. D. (Henry Duff) TraillSocial England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) → online text (page 37 of 68)