H. D. (Henry Duff) Traill.

Social England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) online

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Mary was confined here from June, 15U7, to May, 15G8, according
to tradition in the south-east turret.

GREAT SEAL OF ELIZABETH ... .420

The second seal, used from 1556 to the end of the reign. The
roses on each face on the upper part of the field represent Lan-
caster and York.

QUEEN ELIZABETH SITTING IN JUDGMENT ON THE POPE . . 423

This is altered from an engraving representing Callisto (the Pope)
brought before Diana (Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen). The attendant
nvmphs represent the Protestant allies in Europe, whose armorial
bearings are shown on their shields ; the Pope is in the hands of
Time and Truth, but is hatching, from eggs, a cockatrice (the
Inquisition), a dragon, etc. One of the eggs bears an inscription
indicating that it contains the Prince of Orange's murderer. Of.
Catalogue of Political and Personal Satires in the British Museum,
I., p. 62.

PORTRAIT OF ARCHBISHOP PARKER ....... 425

From the MS. of College Statutes in the Library of Corpus Christi
College. Cambridge, to which Parker bequeathed a magnificent col-
lection of Anglo-Saxon MSS. and other literary treasures. To the
date is appended a text of Scripture, li The world passeth away,
and the lust thereof."

LORD BURGHLEY ......... . 429

Ascribed to Marc Gheeraedts ; the great Lord High Treasurer is
depicted in the robes of the Order of the Garter.

GODLY ZEAL PLUCKED OUT OF HIS PULPIT ... . . 431

" He which preacheth signifieth Godly Zeale, and a furtherer of
the Gospel, and the two which are plucking him out of his place
are the enemies of God's word, threatening by fire to consume
the professors of the same ; and that company which sitteth still
are Nullisidians, or men of no religion, not regarding any doctrine,
so they may be quiet to live after their own wills and minds."
(Bateman, ad Inc.)

PURITAN VIEW OF AN ECCLESIASTICAL COURT ..... 433

" The Asse signifieth wrathfull justice. The man who is drawn
away, truth : those that draweth (We-) truth by the arms, flatterers ;
the Friar lies, his associate perjury . . . There can be no greater
plague than to have an Asse to bear autority (") For by such
cometh much dissention. Among all Asses, the religious Asse
of late being in autority hath done most harme.'' (Bateman ad loc.)



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. sxxiii

PAGE

CHAPEL AT IGHTHAM MOTE 437

A remarkable moated house between Sevenoaks and Maidstone.
Much of the present building dates from the reigns of Henry VII.
and Henry VIII. The chapel, which is remarkably perfect in its old
arrangement and furniture, dates from the latter reign. In this
view the modern altar, with its decorations, is omitted. The
house is described by Turner and Parker, Domestic Architecture
in England, II., p. 282.

DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE OF THE REIGN OF ELIZABETH . . . 439

Wollaton Hall, Notts, was erected in 1588 ; Kingston House prob-
ably between 1590 and 1620.

MINIATURES OF THE ELIZABETHAN PERIOD .... to face 440

Those of Henry, Prince of Wales, and Sir Philip Sidney are by
Isaac Oliver ; the painters of the others are unknown.

NICHOLAS HILLIARD, BY HIMSELF 440

ISAAC OLIVER, BY HIMSELF . 441

Shown at the Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1891 ; of. Magazine of
Art, 1891, p. 66 seq.

COINS OF ELIZABETH'S REIGN 442. 443, 444, 445

The angels of this type were issued from 1558 to 1578. The
inscription on the reverse is from Psalm cxviii. 23 ("This is the
Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes "). The three-halfpenny
piece was first struck in 1561 and discontinued about 1582. The
inscription on the obverse means " Elizabeth by the Grace of God,
a rose without a thorn " ; on the reverse, " The City of London."
The half sovereign bears the inscription " The shield protects the
faith"; the sixpence (1566), the shilling (1561), " I have made God
my helper." as do the Irish shilling (1558) and the East Indian silver
crown (1600 or 1601).

PLANETARY SIGNS OF THE SEVEN DAIES 448

Scot's work is an exhaustive account of witchcraft as then
practised, exposing it as a mixture of jugglery, imposture, and
self-deception, and attacking the persecution of reputed witches.
He retained, however, some belief in astrology. His other work,
the "Perfite Platforme of a Hoppe-garden " (1574), is the first
practical treatise on hop culture in England (cf. p. 731).

ALCHEMISTS IN THE LABORATORY 449

From Norton's Ordinal (cf. Vol. II.. p. 591), printed in Ashmole,
Thvatrum Chemicum Britannicum, 1651.

PORTRAIT OF DR. DEE 451

THE FIRST USE OF THE SIGN OF EQUALITY (see text) . . . 455

PAGE FROM " RALPH ROISTER DOISTER " 461

The original page is about 6| in. by 4f- in. In the scene repre-
sented, Ralph, being refused by Madam distance, proceeds with
his friends to attack her house, and is repulsed by her maids.
The play is reprinted in Dodsley's Old Plays.

PASSAGE FROM " GORBODUC " (edition of 1590) 463

C



xxxiv NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

MAI;I;I\'.I: FEAST OF Sin HENRY UNTON . . . to face 464

I-'IMUI ;i largi' pain'l pietmv containing the portrait of Sir Henry

Unton. ambassador from Kli/abdli in lEmry IV. of France, with
semes t'iMiii his life He died in l."'.ii.

GASCOIGXK PRESENTING ONE OF HIS W<>I;KS TO QUEE.V ELIZABETH . 4.67

From "a MS. transition of the tale of ' Hemetes the Hereinyte '
into Kiiirlish, Italian. Latin and French, pronounced before Queen
Elizabeth at \V 1st m-k in \~>~~>." It is printed in Hazlitt's edition.

THOMAS SACKVILLE, EAEL OF DORSET 471

SIR PHILIP SIDNEY AND HIS BROTHER LORD LISLE . . . -175

ILLUSTRATIONS FROM THE SHEPHERD'S CALENDAR . . . 476, 477

From the first edition, published by Spenser under the pseudonym
of "Immerito" in 1579.

PART OF THE WELCOMES COMMON LAND, STRATFORD-ON-AVON . . 482
PASSAGE I-ROM THE DIARY OF JOHN GREENE . . . 483

This MS. is preserved partly at the Birthplace Library and partly
at the Monument Room of Stratford-on-Avon. and has been repro-
duced in facsimile by C. M. Ingleby, Xhaki'spi'arv and flic W/'h-nmbe
Enclosures, 1885, from which book this and the preceding illustra-
tion are taken. The important passage in the page shown is a
memorandum, " Sept. W. Shakespeare telling J. Greene that 1 was
not able to beare the enclosing of Welcombe." By emending I "
into " he " (which is necessary to make sense in another passage
of the Diary) this has been taken to show that Shakespeare resisted
the enclosure, which the squire (William Combe) promoted and the
Corporation opposed, and which, had it been carried out. would
have considerably affected his interests. But this interpretation is
very doubtful. See Mr. Sidney Lee in Diet. Xat. B'nxj. s.r. Shake-
speare. Greene was Town Clerk of Stratford-on-Avon.

GRAFTING 485

Leonard Mascall (died 15S9) was a busy writer and translator,
chiefly concerned with agriculture and domestic economy. This
book is based on French and Dutch originals.

TITLE-PAGE TO GOOGE'S "FOURE BOOKES OF HUSBANDRY" . . . 487

Barnaby Googe is best known as a poet (rf. text. p. 469"), but
also held office in Ireland under Lord Grey de Wilton, and translated
or adapted various foreign books. This book is adapted from a
work by Conrad Heresbach.

MEDAL OF THE REFORMATION OF THE CURRENCY, 1560 . . . 490

The base coins were called in by proclamation, September 27th,
15(50. On the reverse of the medal is Justice. The inscription
signifies "The coinage being well established."

MEDAL OF THE MASTER OF THE MINT AND HIS WIFE, 1562 . . 491

Richard Martin and Dorcas his wife. He was Elizabeth's gold-
smith, and appointed Warden of the Mint in l.~>69 ; he was likewise
Master 'if the Mint and a zealous promoter of currency reform.
He was Lori Mayor of London in 1589. and died in 1617. Hawkins.

Medallio 1 II it*t rut inn*, etc.. I., p. ln7.

A FRUIT TRENCHER, SHOWING FISH GIRLS (see on p. 734) . . 494



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xxxv

PAGE

HALL OF THE JOINERS' COMPANY. SALISBURY ..... 497

Still extant, but disfigured by modern alterations. The company
was founded in Elizabeth's reign.

ST. CLEMENT'S CHURCH, SANDWICH ... .... 499

The Dutch immigrants (mostly cloth-makers and market-gar-
deners) were allowed to perform divine service in the seventeenth
century in this church on payment of 40s. a year, and afterwards
on paying one-third of the cost of repairs. Hasted, History of
Kfiit. 1799, IV., p. 285, note.

MONUMENT OF SIR J. SPILLMAN AND HIS WIFE . ... 501

He was of German origin, jeweller to Queen Elizabeth, and one
of the earliest introducers of paper-making into England.

SECTION FROM A PLAN OF ANTWERP 503

From a collection of views, with descriptions, of the cities of the
world (Civitates Orbis Terrarum) by Joh. Braun and C. Hohenberg.
or Hogenberg, published in sis volumes at Cologne between 1573
and 11)17. The dates appended to our illustrations from this work
are those of the volumes in which they respectively occur.

THE ROYAL EXCHANGE . 505

Built by Sir Thomas Gresham on the model of the Antwerp Bourse,
and opened by Queen Elizabeth in 157.1 . It was destroyed by the
Great Fire of Kiiitl.

NONESUCH PALACE, ABOUT 1583 ; 507

Near Ewell, Surrey : built by Henry VIII., and pulled down
by Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, to whom it had been
granted by Charles II.

OLD LONDON BRIDGE 509

From the album of Emanuel van Meteren, a merchant of Antwerp,
begun in 1575. and going on to 1609. Several such albums are
preserved among the Douce and Egertoii MSS. London Bridge,
with the Tower and St. Saviour's, Southwark. seem accurately
depicted, but the hills behind, probably representing Shooter's
Hill, are misplaced, and the bluff in the foreground, on which is
displayed the bundle of hay with the motto '' All flesh is grass,"
will he sought for in vain to-day.

MEDAL COMMEMORATING ELIZABETH'S RECOVERY FROM SMALL-POX . 510

The device on the obverse is suggested by the story of St. Paul
and the viper, and signifies that the Queen like the Apostle, had
felt no harm. The disease left her unmarked. Hawkins, Medallio
Illustrations, I., p. 11(1.

MEDAL EXPRESSING FEAR THAT ELIZABETH MAY TAKE THE PLAGUE 511

The inscription on the obverse expresses regret that such virtue
and beauty should not be immortal ; on the obverse is a Phosnix,
surmounted by the crowned monogram of the Queen and a date.
The inscription may be translated thus : " Happy Arabians, whose
onl" Phueuix reproduces by its death a new Phoenix. Unhappy
iMiglish, whose only Phosnix becomes, sad fate, the last in our
country." The plague was raging at this time in London.



xxxvi NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAQS



ELIZABETH AS A GIRL (FROM LITTLE GADDESDKN, HERTS) . . .

II' pr. vents her arrest by Lord William Howard at Aslirid^c. when
she was removed to the Tower. Cf. Cussans, Ilixtury <>f Hi'rtx.

QUEEX EU/AHKTH, BY ZUCCHKKO ...... to face 514

The famous "Eyes and Ears" picture. On the representations
of Queen Kli/abeth. see text. p. 442.

PRINCESS ELIZABETH AT ASHRIDGE ........ 514

A eonteinporary painting-, discovered in 1887 in the Manor House,
Little Gaddesden : but nothing is known of its history. The manor
has long been held with that of Ashridge.

AN ENGLISH NOBLEMAN ; AN ENGLISH GENTLEMAN .... 515

From a book of the costumes of various nations by Hans Weigel,
of Nuremberg, who died about 1590.

TILTYARD PRACTICE ........... 517

From a MS. bound up with various sixteenth century treatises
on tournaments, etc., in a volume entitled ''The Boke of Certain.
Triumphs." The drawing illustrates the Ordinances made by John
Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester, in Edward I\ r .'s reign, "to be observed
in all manner of Justs throughout this Realrne before his Highness
or Liefftenant."

SHARPS AND FLATS IN THE AGE OF ELIZABETH ..... 519
The autograph is that of Thomas Hearne, the Oxford antiquary.

AN ELIZABETHAN FAMILY .......... 521

COSTUME OF WOMEN OF THE MIDDLE CLASSES ..... 522

From a MS. description, in Dutch, of England, Scotland, and
Ireland, signed only with initials and containing drawings.

FRANCOIS, Due D'ALENCON ....... . 52j

From a miniature at the South Kensington Museum. It can hardly
be faithful, as the subject was pockmarked and deformed.

BRASS OF KATHERINE RIDING, 1590 ........ 5L'6

QUEEN ELIZABETH IN FANCY DRESS ........ 527

Ascribed to Zucchero : probably painted in 1575, when she was
forty-two. On the other side are verses, probably by her. written
in sorrow, and deploring that of this goodly tree which she has
planted and cultivated " the shells be mine, the kernels others' are."
The meaning is obscure. Law, Guide, to Hampton Court, p. 92.

QUEEN ELIZABETH'S GLOVES ......... 528

Presented to her on her visit to Oxford University in 15<>6.

BRASS OF WILLIAM CUTTINGE AND HIS WIFE ..... 528

St. Katharine's Hospital, founded by the Empress Matilda, and
refounded by Queen Philippa. escaped the Dissolution as being the
private property of the Queen Consort, and was removed to the
Regent's Park to make room for St. Katharine's Docks in 1826.

BRASS OF WILLIAM BROWNE, ir.it'.) ..... . . . . 530

CHOPINES (from Venice and Florence) ....... 531

QUEEN ELIZABETH'S BUSKIN, OR RIDING BOOT ..... 532
These specimens of footgear were part of the original collection



NOTE 8 TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xxxvii

PAGE

formed by Tradescant in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. and
exhibited in his house at Southvvark. popularly known as " Trade-
scant's Ark." His son left it to Elias Ashmole, who offered it to
the University of Oxford in 1682.

THE NOBLE ART OF FALCONRY 534

QUEEN ELIZABETH AND HER HUNTSMAN 535

George Turberville (died o. 1610), like Googe, is best known as a
poet, but also translated and compiled various other works. The
ascription of ' The Noble Art of Venerie " to him seems rather
doubtful ; of. Mr. T. Seccombe's article in Diet. Nat. Biography.

FIGURES IN THE MAY GAME. BETLEY HALL .... . 537

On a window at Betley Hall, near Newcastle-under-Lyme. Stafford-
shire, ascribed by Francis Douce the antiquary {Illustrations <>f
Shakespeare, 1807), in his Dissertation on the Ancient Morris Da?ice,
to the reign of Edward IV., chiefly because of the costumes.
Four of the figures, Nos. 1, 4, 6, 7, he regarded as of foreign origin ;
the rest include Maid Marian, Friar Tuck, the Hobby Horse, Little
John, Morris Dancers, and the Fool. All of these, as also Robin Hood
and a dragon, were characters in the May Game (Douce, op. cit.).
The inscription he referred to the reign of Elizabeth. The window,
originally engraved for Steevens's edition <*f Shakespeare, is here
reproduced from Gutch, Lytell Geste of Robin Hood, 1847, where
Douce's dissertation is reprinted.

WINE BOTTLES OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 539

ENGLISH SILVER TANKARD OF 1574 541

Tankards seem to have been introduced during the first years of
Elizabeth's reign, as the term is used in 1567, and even later, to
denote pails or fire-buckets. The earliest examples of the vessel
occur about 1565, and of the term as applied to it, about 1575.
Cripps, Old English Plate, p. 353.

CHIMNEYS AT WOLTERTON MANOR HOUSE, NORFOLK .... 542

This house (at East Barsham, and not to be confused with
Wolterton Hall in Wolterton Parish) was built in the reigns of
Henry VII. and Henry VIII., and is a striking example of richly
moulded brickwork. See Vetusta Monumenta, Vol. IV. (1807).

VENETIAN GLASS, FOUND IN LONDON 543

,
MAP ON TAPESTRY 545

One of three, formerly at Weston Hall, Warwickshire. They
contain part of the Midlands and are the first specimens of
English tapestry (1573).

" KNOTS" FOR GARDENS 546

WATERING-POTS OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 547

The bottoms are pierced with small holes, shown in the centre
example ; the pots are filled, and the neck stopped with the finger ;
when it is removed, the water flows.

MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS, BY MYTENS. HAMPTON COURT. . . . 549

The portrait is ascribed to Mytens in Charles I.'s catalogue of
Hampton Court pictures, but has been attributed to Zucchero. It
is dated 1580, and is a copy of a, picture in the National Portrait
Gallery. Law, Guide to Hampton Court, p. 96.



xxxviii NOTES TO ILLUSTRATION'S.

PAOE

EDINBURGH IN 1616 (see note on p. 503) .... - 553

RINGS OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY ... . 556

On the extreme left, a seal ring with arabesque ornamentation
and the letters IHS, found in 1825 in old burial-ground near
Arbroath : next, a seal ring, with a flower intaglio, found near
Haldon Hall, IJmvickshire, 1830; next, a ring set wirh a rough
garnet, found near Tweedmouth in 1832 ; finally, a corded ring
with the figure of a rabbit.

ABERDEEN CATHKDI: AI, 558

" The only granite cathedral in the world " ; a fine example of
Decorated architecture with some survivals of Nornian. Begun
between 1356 and li.SO. and despoiled 1560.

GREAT CHURCHES or MEDIEVAL SCOTLAND . .... 559

Lincludeu, near Dumfries, was converted from a Benedictine
nunnery into a collegiate church shortly before 14uo, and is a
splendid specimen of late Decorated architecture. A history of
the place is given by MacDowall, Chnniii-h-x of Lim-l mli-it. 1SSU.
Elgin Cathedral, said to have been once the most .splendid church
of Scotland and inferior to few in Europe, was burnt in 1390 by
the Earl of Hadenoch ("the Wolf") in revenge for his excommuni-
cation, and rebuilt in the early fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries.
Glasgow is said to be one of the few nearly perfect examples of
medieval church architecture left in Scotland. Its tower is 225 ft.
lii^-h ; its total length 319 ft., its greatest breadth 63 ft., and the
height of the roof 90 ft.

JOUGS AND STOOL OF REPENTANCE 5GO, 561

The stool belonged .to old Greyfriars Church, Edinburgh. Of the
jougs one set is fixed in the wall of the Round Tower, Abernethy
(set- on p. 373), the other is from Galashiels. A sackcloth gown of
repentance, from West Calder, is preserved in the same Museum.

TOMB OF LORD GREY DE WILTON, WHADDON, BUCKS . . 564

VIEW OVER SMERWICK HARBOUR, DINGLE, KERRY . 567

PLACES OF DETENTION OF MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS . . . 571

To Borthwick Castle (one of the finest remaining in Scotland ;
built soon after 1430; height 110 ft.) Mary fled with Both well
after their marriage, to avoid capture by the insurgent nobles.
These, however, surrounded the castle, and Bothwell escaped, where-
upon they retired ; he returned, and assisted the Queen to escape in
male attire to Dunbar. The castle surrendered to Cromwell in
1650. She was confined at Wingfield Manor House (built ti-mp.
Henry VI., demolished under Cromwell after a siege), while in the
charge of the Earl of Shrewsbury in 1569, and at Ashby-de-la-
Zouche (built temp. Edward IV., surrendered to the Parliament
1645. demolished 1648), for a short time, in November, 15ii'.t.
Fotheringay, where she was tried in 15X6-7 and executed, was so
thoroughly demolished by her son James I. in 1604 that only small
fragments remain.

SCENKS FROM THE HISTORY OF THE ARMADA ..... 572, 574

These playing cards date from about 1679, and an advertisement
of them is preserved. Their publication had reference to the fear



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xxxix

PAGE

of Popish plots plots prevalent at that date. Willshire, Catalogue
of Playing Cards in, the Hr/tisJt Museum, p. 265.

THE ENGLISH AND SPANISH FLEETS OFF CALAIS 573

A section of Ubaldino's map. or rather bird's-eye view, of the course
of the Armada up Channel and roimd the British Isles, bound up
with an atlas of Saxton and Ryther. The Armada anchored in
Calais Roads, whereupon the English admiral sent in eight fire-
ships, and the Spaniards stood out to sea again in panic.

SIB WALTER RALEIGH AND HIS SON 577

Preserved at Wickham Court, West Wickham, Kent. One of the
family was a companion of Raleigh in his maritime enterprises.

TOMB OF LORD BURGHLEY, STAMFORD BARON. NORTHANTS . . . 579

He is represented in the robes of the Order of the Garter, holding
in his hand his wand of office as Lord Treasurer : a lion is at
his feet.

FUNERAL CAR OF QUEEN ELIZABETH 581

Rothschild MS. XV. (MS. Add. 35. 324) ; a volume (2 ft by 3 ft.)
of drawings of funeral processions, belonging to the early part of
the seventeenth century, some of which, including that here repro-
duced, are coloured. Another copy, without colour (MS. Add.
5408) is reproduced in Vet. Mon., III., 26.

RUINS OF KlLCOLMAN CASTLE, CORK 582

Originally a stronghold of the Desmonds, and granted to Edmund
Spenser after the suppression of their rebellion. Here he wrote
the first three books of the " Faerie Queene.'' and most probably his
" View of the State of Ireland." The house was sacked and burnt,
though not quite destroyed, in the Tyrone rebellion of 1598, and
his infant son perished, while the poet was compelled to leave
Ireland and end his life in London in poverty.

RALEIGH'S HOUSE, YOUGHAL 583

Now called "Myrtle Grove" ; described as "a perfect Elizabethan
gabled house." Sir Walter Raleigh was chief magistrate of Youghal
in 1588-1589, and, according to tradition, planted in the garden the
first potatoes ever planted in Ireland.

KlNSALE, FROM A DUTCH ,PRINT OF 1602 585

The town was held for ten weeks, in 1601, by the Spaniards, who
had to abandon it owing to the defeat of the Irish army which had
attacked the besieging force.

LEYCESTER HOSPITAL, WARWICK 589

Originally the hall of the Guilds of Holy Trinity and St. George ;
acquired from the town by Robert Dudley. Earl of Leicester, and
turned by him into a hospital for a master and twelve aged persons
of small means, with a preference to his own tenants or to soldiers
maimed in the service of the Crown: failing them, the inman <
were to be selected from certain parishes in Warwickshire and
Gloucestershire. The charity is still kept up.

TITLE-PAGE TO PENRY'S " EXHORTATION " TO THE WELSH, 1588 . 593

This was probably the second work printed at the secret press
set up at East Moulsey, when Penry and his associates were pre-
vented by the interdict of the Star Chamber from printing openly



*1 NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

TAG*

anything against the Royal injunctions, ordinances, or letters patent.
It was afterwards removed to Fawsley (p. 013). Religious know-
ledge aim HILT the Welsh at this time was at the lowest possible
level. 67'. Wacldington, Jo/in Pi'nry (1854).

AECHBISHOP WHITGIFT (artist unknown) 595

OVKHMANTEL AT WHITGIFT HOSPITAL, CROYDON 597

Whitgift founded, in 1596, the Hospital of the Holy Trinity at
Croydon, for a resident warden and twenty poor persons of both
sexes belonging to that place or Lambeth, or any number up to
forty for which the revenue should suffice. It was finished on
Michaelmas Day. 1599. He also founded a free school at Croydon,
now represented by a grammar and a middle school.

ROMANIST MACHINATIONS 601

From a series of sixteen small prints engraved by Cornelius
Danckwerte (b. 1561. d. c. 1(534) and entitled ''A Thankfull Remem-
brance of God's Mercie." For the rebellion of the Earls of Xorthum-
berland and Westmoreland in 1570, set- Froude, History />f Einjland,
Vol. IX., chap, xviii. Pope Pius V. excommunicated Elizabeth
February 25th, 1570. and absolved her subjects from all oaths of alle-
giance to her previously taken. The crown of Ireland was offered to
Don John of Austria by James Fitzgerald, one of the family of the
Earl of Desmond, in 1577. When Don John declined it, Fitzgerald went
on to Rome, and received the approval of the Pope for his scheme
for the invasion of Ireland, which, however, resulted only in the
Spanish capitulation at Smerwick (text, p. 563). The Babington
plot (1586) aimed at the assassination of Elizabeth and the sub-
stitution of Mary Queen of Scots. Dr. Lopez, the Queen's physician,
was executed in 1594 on very inadequate evidence, on the charge
of attempting to poison the Queen, which Essex pressed to a
conviction.

THE EARL OF LEICESTER'S ARMOUR 603

It is adorned all over with the badge of the Ragged Staff, and
engraved with the badges and collars of the Garter and the Order
of St. Michael of France. It was made between 1566 and 1588,
and is one of the few which possess the extra pieces (on the left
side) for the tiltyard. Loftie, Guide to the Tnirer.

ROBERT DUDLEY, EARL OF LEICESTER 604

TITLE-PAGE OF A "MARPRELATE" TRACT 607

These tracts are noteworthy for the vigour of their invective and
the astonishing amount of it that is packed into their respective
title-pages.

A SATIRE ON PLURALITIES IN THE CHURCH 608

Prefixed to a poem ' of pluralities ; that is to say. of them
that overcharge themselves with many benefices.'' which is em-
phasised by references to 1 Cor. xi. and Eccles. xxxiv. The
drawings of the edition of 1509 are repeated, seemingly from new
blocks, in .that of 1570, and were apparently accepted as satisfactory



Online LibraryH. D. (Henry Duff) TraillSocial England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) → online text (page 4 of 68)