H. D. (Henry Duff) Traill.

Social England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) online

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When the king asked him (1587) how he could live amongst
such turbulent neighbours as the men of Badenoch, the sage


Mufeum of Scottish

SCOTLAND, 1561-1603.


said the position was the best he could have, for it made him

thrice a day go to God on his knees when maybe otherwise

he would not have gone once. We
have even pretty glimpses of child-life.
as that of Mary Stuart's baby son at
play with his Jock o' Sclaitts (John
Erskine, afterwards Earl of Mar), and
looking out from the ramparts of
Stirling on as fair a scene as Britain
has to show. We see him walking up
and down he was then eight with
James Melville, discoursing on knowledge
and ignorance. The Treasurer's ac-
counts tell of his books, the fitting-up
of his study, and the " paper builds "
for themes. He had the services of a
whipping-boy, too, though stern peda-
gogues like Buchanan and Peter Young

disapproved of all vicarious punishment.

But the most charming of such pictures is

that of James Melville as a boy in his

father's manse near Montrose. His father

would lay him on his back and play with

him, and when asked what ailed him that

he could not rise, he would answer, " I

am sae fat I may not gang." We can

sympathise with his efforts to resist " a

bairnlie habit of pyking" (pilfering). His

sister read to him Davie Lyndsay ; and

the postrunner brought from Edinburgh

Wedderburn's songs ( " The Glide and

Godly Ballates ") and the stirring news of

" Seignour Davies slauchter, of the


(National Miixcum, of Scottish


murder, of the queen's taking at Car-
berry and the Langsyde feild." Alto-
gether, the student cannot too much admire
the inimitable vernacular of James Mel-
ville's diary, the honesty and kindliness
of the author, and the lifelike picture it presents of social
Scotland in those days.


(Attm-licil In tJtc Hull nil
Ton-er, Abernetliy.)



: 1558

P. W.




AT an earlier page we noted two disturbing influences as

. j o

traceable in the history of the period which we are now
approaching. The first of these the religious one began to
be felt immediately after the accession of Elizabeth. During
the seventeen years from 1536 to 1553 the State religion of

*/ o

Ireland had been changed three times: Henry VIII. had
made himself head of the Church instead of the Pope.
Edward VI. had made a change from Catholic to Protestant :
and Mary from Protestant to Catholic. There was now a
fourth change : Elizabeth made the religion of the State
Protestant once more ; and it remained so till the Disestablish-
ment in 1S69. But these mutations had no effect on the
general body of the people : they remained solidly Catholic
all through. The officials in Dublin, and these only, changed
with the Government each time. In 15<H) the Government
began to adopt severe punitive measures to force the Catholic
people of the Pale to conform. The two Acts of Supremacy
and Uniformity were brought into play The Act of Supremacy
declared that the Queen was spiritual head of ihe Church : and
now officials and clergymen were required to take jin oath
to that effect on pain of dismissal. The Act of Uniformity
commanded all t > attend Protestant worship ; jind heavy fines
were inflicted on Catholics who refused to attend. Wherever
these laws were enforced the priests had to leave their churches,
which were then handed over to the Protestant clergy. But
even in the Pale it was found impossible to enforce them to
any extent ; and in most other places no attempt at all could
be made.

Within the period covered by. this chapter there were
two serious rebellions. The first was that of Shane O'Neill
" John the Proud ' -the powerful prince of Tyrone, in
Ulster. His first cause of quarrel was the arrest of his
father, the first Earl of Tyrone, by the Government in 1551;
and for ten years expedition after expedition was sent north-
wards by the deputies to reduce him, but he baffied them
all. At length he made a friendly visit to London on the
Queen's invitation, and peace was made in 1562; but soon
after his return, incensed by some unfair treatment he
experienced at the hands of the Government while he was



in their power in London, he broke out again. War and
negotiation went on for some years ; till at length he was
defeated and ruined, not by the Government, but by his
neighbours the O'Donnells. He rashly tied for refuge to
the Scots of Antrim, whose enmity he had earned some
time before by defeating them in battle ; and by them he
was assassinated at a feast in 1567. As to the manner in
which he had, during his active life, governed his princi-
pality, the English historian, Campion, bears very favourable

The next was the Geraldine or Desmond Rebellion, which Tlie

, ,11 i Desmond

was brought about partly by threatened extensive plantations, Rising.

and partly by the efforts made to force the Reformation.
The Fitzgerakls were the chief leaders in this ; and they
were joined by most of the principal men of Munster, both
of Irish and of English descent, to all of whom the Govern-
ment had made themselves odious by needless harshness.
James Fitzmaurice, the Earl of Desmond's first cousin, was
the leader in the first stage, which lasted from 1509 to 1573,
when he was forced to surrender. After a lull of six years,
the rebellion a^ain broke out in 1579. In that same year

o */

Fitzmaurice was killed, when the Earl of Desmond himself,
goaded at last into rebellion by the authorities, took the
lead ; and for four years more Munster was convulsed. The
war was carried on all through with great barbarity. Both
sides burned and destroyed the districts of their adversaries ;
and in addition to this the Government troops, as they
traversed the country hither and thither, hunted up and
killed the unoffending peasantry everywhere, sparing neither
age nor sex. In 1580 the insurrection blazed up in Leinster,
where the deputy, Lord Grey of Wilton, was badly defeated
in a Wicklow defile by Viscount Baltinglass and Fiach
MacHugh O'Byrne. Soon after, in the same year, a detach-
ment of 700 Spaniards and Italians landed in Munster to aid
the Irish ; but they were besieged in their fort at Smerwick
and forced to surrender by Lord Grey, who had them all
massacred on the spot in cold blood. His sanguinary cruelties
went on till the Queen intervened and recalled him. The
Earl of Desmond was killed in 1583, and the rebellion, which
for some time had been merely flickering, came to an end.

The Clear-

564 '/'///; .v/-;ir


It had made M unster a desert ; famine and pestilence followed
the war, for all food had been destroyed ; and nothing car.
be more appalling than Edmund Spenser's description of the
country, and of the miseries of those of the peasantry wln>

I Miring the reign of Queen Mary the plan had for the
first time been adopted of clearing off the native tribes from
whole districts, by expulsion or extermination, to make room
for English and Scotch settlers. But the natives resisted, and
defended their 'homes with desperation; and the settlers had
to tight for their lives and for their newly acquired possessions
from the beginning, aided, however, in their work of exter-
mination by Government forces. During the twenty years
from 155(5 to 157(5 plantations were attempted in the present
Queen's County and County Antrim this latter by the first
Earl of Essex. But though the planters committed frightful
atrocities, both attempts in great measure failed. The plan-
tations continued altogether for about a century and a half.
Besides incalculable misery and loss of life to both sides, they
were the chief cause of the great rebellion of 1(541. The}' left
to posterity a legacy of strife and hatred ; and their evil effects
are felt even to this day.


(Whachlon Church, Clicks.)


A UTHORITIES.l 558-1 584.


Froude, History of tin- Reign of ({inm Elizabeth; D'Ewes, Journals of the
Parliaments of Queen Elizabeth; Hallum, Constitutional lli.^tury of England;
Lingard, History of England ; Henri Martin, Hisloire do France depuis les temps
tea pins riculi-s; Rauke, History of England Principally in tin' Seventeenth Century;
the Calendar of the MSS. at Hatfield House.


Religion. Strype, Liven of Parker and Grindal (Oxford ed. , 1821), and Annul* <-/'
tin Reformation ; the publications of the Parker Society (especially Jewell's Work*,
the Liturgical Sr, neen of Elizabeth, Nowell's Catechism, Becon's Works, etc.;
occasional references in Froude's Hit-lory of England : Blunt, History of the
Reformation, Vol. II.: Perry. History <>f tli< Clum-h of England, II., pp. 269-359;
the Homilies (ed. 1676, or that of the Parker Society).

Architecture and Art. Loftie, Inigo Join:: and Christopher Wrr-n ; Gotch,
Renaissance of Architecture (1891) , Blomfield, The Work of lingo Jones, in the
Portfolio for 1889 ; articles on artists mentioned iu the text in the Ihi-tmnary <</'
Xal in, ml Biography ; T. L. Propert, History of Miniature ,lrl. See also the list
given at the end of Chap. IX. Coins, as in C. IX.

Magic, Astrology, and Alchemy. A very good notion of popular ideas on alchemy,
witchcraft, etc., may be obtained from such sources as Joiisoii's A/ilnmist, Stow's
Chronicles, and collections of tales such as Mrs. Lynn Lin ton's Witeli Clones. A
student of the subject may, starting from this, go on to the Malleus Mali-fieamm,
Scot's Discorcric of Witchcraft, and the numerous seventeenth- century treatises ou
the subject. The works ou alchemy of this period are for the most part in MS.
Babsee, Ashmole, Thcatrum Chemicum Bntannicum, 1635; M. Casaubou, True Relation,
rtntci ininij Dr. I)ee, 1659; Dr. Dee's Private Diary, ed. Halhwell (Camden Society);
Smith, Alchemy.

Xalurnl Science. Xo complete history of English science separately has apparently
been written. The history of science in Europe generally is treated of in Whewell,
Histon/ of the Inductive Sciences and Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences. See also
biographies in the Encyclopaedia Bntannica and Dictionary of National Biography.
Usfful information as to the history of scientific ideas may be found in the intro-
duction to Prof. Fowler's edition of Bacon's Xorunt Urganoti. Students who wish to
go further must be referred to the original treatises themselves.

Literature, 1558-1603. The chapters dealing with the subject in the works ou
English Literature of Craik. Taiue, Arnold, Miuto, and Chambers ; Morley, English
Writers, Vols. VIII. X. ; Saintsbury, Elizabethan Literature ; A. W. Ward, English
Dramatic Literature: Symonds, Predecessors of Shakespeare; C. H. Herford, Stnd'us
in the Literary Relations of England and Germany in the Hi.dioith Century, and the
works of the several authors named in the text.

Agriculture. Tusser, Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry, 1573 (best modern
ed. Mavor's, 1812). Barnaby Googe translated, with large additions, Heresbach's
Fonre Bookes of Husbandry (1577). In the Profitable Art of Gardening (1568), by
Thomas Hill, will be found the earliest English treatise ou the Right Ordering of
Bees. Reginald Scot, in his 1'erfite Platformc of a Hoppe Garden (1574), was the
first writer on the cultivation of hops. Leonard Mascall laid the foundation of
the grazier's art in his Gorernment of Cattel (1605). John Gerard's Herbal! is of
importance (no modern edition) Modern Bvoks. J. E. Thorold Rogers, History of
Agriculture and Prices in England, and Si.r Ccntuii<* of Woilc and U'ayex ; Sir F.
M. Eden, The State of t/ie Poor; Drake, Shakespeare and his Tuncx ; Cunningham,
G /'oicih of English Industry and Commerce ; R. M. Gamier. Hisluri/ of the E>t</l/xh
Landed Interest ; R. E. Prothero, Pioneers and Progress of English Farming.


Industry inn! Cummcrce. Hamilton, (Quarter Sexsinns from Elizabeth to Anne;
Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, Book I., C. x. ; Schanx, /:/,,//;,.,//, Kandelspolitik';
Jacob, History of tin- 1'reeimis Metals; Harrison, Dcxcri/il><>n <,f l-'.ngland ; Maephei;snn,
Annul* of Commerce ; Stow, Surrey of London, 1598; Camden, I-'./izal,elh ; Dowell,
History of Tit.res and Taxation; Morns, The Walloon,-; Ending, Anna's of the
Coinage. See also list append 'd to Chap. IX.

J'ublie Health. As in Chap. IX.

Elizabethan .SV,V///. The chief separate work is II. Hall's Society in tin- Elizabethan
A<i' : but a great deal is to be found scattered about iu the innumerable editions of,
and works upon, Sliiikespeare.

Manners mnl Costume, 1559-1042. Harrison, I)ccriptio>i of England, 1577-1587;
Stubbes, Anatomy of ilir Abuses in England, 1583 (botb eel. by F. J. Furuivall for
the New Shakspere Society, 1877) ; Harrington, Xugue Antitjuue, ed. Park ; Rye,
l-'ngland as Set u In/ Eon -igni m in the Days of Elizabeth and James I. , 1865; Drake,
Hhukesiicurc and lit* Tnnr-, 1.SC7; Dekker, Gull's Horn Hook, 1609 (Arbev's reprints);
Gosson, School of Abuse, ed. Collier (1841) ; Pleasant (Juips, 1,59.); Prynue, Jlixlrif,-
innati.r ; Healf/ias ; Sicknesse ; The Unloveliness of Lovelocks ; Tracts in the Roxburgh
Library and the Harleiau Miscellany ; Lodge, Illustrations of liritish History froni
Henry Till, to James I. ; Chamberlain, Letter* (Camden Soc.) ; various Satires,
e.ij. Marston, Scoiirt/c of Tillaity ; Sir John Davies, Epigrams; Donne's AV/m'.v ,
George Wither, Abuses Stript and H'/iipt ; Rowlands, Zfumottrous Looking Glat*
(Hunterian Club, 1872) ; Pilkington, ll'orlcs, 158") (Parker Society's ed.) ; Babington,
ITorks, 1.385; Nicholas Ferrar's Lift; ed. J. E. B. Mayor; Walton, 7, ires of Dr.
Donne, Hooker, Wottou, Herbert, and Bishop Sanderson ; Wiuwood, Memorials of
Aff'nirs of State in the Iieii/nn of Elizabeth and James I. (1725); Rye, England (is
'Seen In/ Foreigners in the Days of Elizabeth and James /., 1805; Edward Smith,
Foreign Tisitors in England, 1889. Dress : Fairholt, Cost/line in England; Strutt,
I>ri'sn and Habits of the People of England (1796) ; O'Douoghue, Descriptive Catalogue
of Portraits of Q/ttrn Elizabeth ; Stow, Aintalcs, ed. Howes, 1631 ; Catalogues of the
Tudor and Stuart Exhibitions. Sport*: Strutt, Sports and Pastimes, 1838; James I.,
The Bool- of Sports (Arber's reprints), and Basilicon Doron (Roxburghe Club) ; Drake,
Shakespeare and his Times (1817); Brand, Popular Antiquities. Tobacco: James I.,
Counterblast to Tobaceo (Arber's reprints) ; Fairholt, Tobacco : its History and
Associations . London Life : Stow, Survey of London, 1598, enlarged by Strype,
17'-0; H. B. Wheatley, London Past and Present; Wilkinson, Londina Illustrutu .
notes to Firrnivall's ed. of Harrison (see above). Cookery : Hazlitt, Old Cookery
Hooks. Ornamental Gardening: Hazlitt, Gleanings ; ,n Old Garden Literature ; Bacon,
Essay on Gardens. The Court : Aikin, Courts of Elizabeth, James I., mid Cliarles I. ;
Birch, Memoirs of the l\eigns of Elizabeth, James J., and diaries I.; Strickland,
I ires of the Queens of England ; Nichols, Progresses of Elisabeth and James; Green,
Lives of the Princesses ; M. S. Hume, Courtships of (jueen Elizabeth.

Scotland (1513-16QB). Genera! Jlistnry : (a) Contemporary: 1'egister of the Priry
t'l'iincil, Hamilton Papers, Register of the Great Seal, Exchequer Rolls, etc., published
in the series of CJironieles and Memorials of Scotland ; Thorpe's Calendar of State
Papers, 1509-1603, Publications of the Bnrr/h Record Society, and the Scottish History
K,ieiety during the period. Diarists were numerous during those stirring times ; ef.
e.g. Sir Ralph S'ulleir's Correspondence, 15S9-1570: Scotstarvet, Staggering State of
Sen/.-: Statesmen, 1550-16.10; Baniiatvue's Tra>isaetions, 1570-1573; Moyse's Memoir::,
1572-1J5SI ; Diurnal of Remarkabk Occurrents, 1513-1575 (Banuatyue Club) ; Birreil,
,1'iary ; also Buchanan's U nlnrij to 1583. Bellenden's translations of Boece and the
'histories of Major (trans, published by Scottish History Society) and Bishop Lesley
lielnnrf to this period. (1;) Modern : The general histories of Taylor, Tytler, and
Burton; also of P. Hume Brown (Cambridge Historical Series) and A. Lang. Of the
works dealing with Mary Queen of Scots, the chief are Robertson, Mary Stuart,
Skelton, Mm'laiul of Leihingion ; J. Hosack, Mary Queen of Scots, 188<S ; S. Cowan,



Ma rii Queen of. -Scots and 7(7/0 Wrote the Cmlce*. Letters, 1901 ; L. Lang, Maria Stuart ;
and D. Hay Fleming, JLrr// Queen, of Scott, from her birth to her flight into England.
Malcolm Laing's and Robert Chambers' works on James VI. are important. In
Prof. Mason's Edinburgh Essays are some picturesque sketches of the time. Religion :
Contemporary accounts are Knox's History of the Reformation]; the anonymous
Buol; of the Vnirersall Kirk of Scotland, 1-560-1618. Modern : Herkless, Life of
Cardinal Beaton ; McCrie, Life of Kno.r. Social Life : Chambers, Domestic Annals,
begins with 1561 ; cf. also Dalyell, Darker Superstitions of Scotland ; Pitcairu, Criminal
Trial*; Macpherson, Annals of C'o>nitterce, and the Ledger of Andrew Halyburton
(1494-1503). Literature (sec also list appended to Chap. IX.) The notable collections
of Ancient Scottish Poems by George Baunatyne and Sir Richard Maitland belong to
this time, as also the anonymous Crude and Godly Ballatcs. Language : Jamiesou,
Scottish Dictionary; Murray, Dialects of the South of Scotland.

Ireland. See list appended to Chap. X. : also the Curein Papers, and Hamilton
Calendar ; Annals of Camdeu and Ware ; histories of Ireland by Moryson and
Campion ; and O'Sullivau, Historic Catholicce Iberntcce Compendium (ed. 1850)

II' Lawrence, Dul/lin.




WITH the year 15S4 the great crisis of Elizabeth's reign


England approached, and the struggle with Spain could no longer be
Europe postponed Cecil and the Queen's ablest counsellors had
urged her to enter upon that struggle shortly after her
accession, but Elizabeth's characteristic caution had prevailed,
undoubtedly to the advantage of England. Since 1572
England had found in France a valuable ally, and the
Huguenots had failed to gain any vigorous support from
the English Government. By aiding to maintain a balance

O ^

between the Guises and Henry of Navarre, Elizabeth had
saved Henry III. from becoming the mere instrument of the
League, and had enabled France to remain a counterpoise to
the Court of Madrid. In June, 15<S4, the Duke of Anjou, the
last hope of the Valois line, died, and his death produced an
important change in the political world.

Henry of Bourbon, the Huguenot King of Navarre, was
now the next heir to the Crown, and though Hemy III.
would willingly have recognised his claim, the Guises and
the League were too strong for him, and, supported by Philip,
began an agitation for the extirpation of heresy in France
and the Netherlands, and for the exclusion of Henry of
Navarre from the French throne. A bitter religious war in
France became inevitable, and with its outbreak the alliance
between Elizabeth and Henry III. was doomed. Elizabeth's
relations with Philip had at the same time undergone a
serious change. The discovery of Throgmorton's plot had
been followed, early in 1584, by the expulsion of Mendoza,
the Spanish ambassador, but though that event had not
caused the outbreak of war, the murder of William of Orange,
on July 10th, tended in the direction of hostilities; Elizabeth
found herself being forced into the position of defender of



the French and Dutch Protestants, and declared Lintagonist
of Spain. Early in 1585 the Dutch appealed to her for
assistance, while in France Henry III., by the compact of
Nemours (July), agreed to all the demands of the League,
and the country was plunged into its last great Avar of religion.
Elizabeth had thus lost the French alliance, Spain's attitude
was threatening, the fate of the Netherlands hung in the
balance. The Dutch alliance alone remained, and the Dutch
desired to be united to the English Crown and definitely
offered Elizabeth the sovereignty of the United Provinces.
But Elizabeth refused at first to take any decisive action.
She hoped that Philip would, even now, consent to make
adequate concessions to the Dutch, and so render unnecessary
the English intervention. She made, however, a treaty with
the Dutch in 1585, but at the same time entered upon peace
negotiations with Parma, which continued till 1588. While
Drake was plundering Vigo and the West Indies, Leicester
was sent, at the beginning of 1586, to the assistance of the
Dutch, and received the powers and title of Governor-General.
Though Elizabeth still hoped to induce Philip to agree to a
.compromise, her open intervention in the Netherlands, coupled
Avith Drake's plundering expedition, destroyed all chance of
peace Avith Spain. Philip's policy Avas to put doAvn the Dutch
rebellion, to neutralise France, and then to conquer England.
France Avas, indeed, neutralised, but though Parma had taken
Antwerp, though Leicester's expedition effected little, and
though the battle of Zutphen, Avhich resulted in the death of
Sir Philip Sidney, Avas folloAved by the capture of Zutphen
by the Spanish general, Philip determined, in view of the
poAver of the English at sea, to defer the suppression .of the
Dutch rebellion till after the invasion of England.

In England the discovery of Babington's plot to assassinate The Re-

Elizabeth brought home to all Englishmen the danger in Avhich

" Struggle.

the Queen stood. The plot had the support of Mendoza, IIOAV
in Paris, and the invasion of England by Parma was expected.
Mary Stuart Avas implicated, and in deference to the opinion
of Elizabeth's advisers, the Scottish Queen Avas executed on
February 8th, 1587. Her execution reduced the number of
Elizabeth's enemies at home. The majority of the Catholics
ceased to work for the restoration of the old religion, and


1584 1603

though a small Jesuitical faction might still desire to see
Philip king of England, the Catholics as a body rallied round
the Queen, and supported heartily the cause of national link
pendence. Philip II., after Mary's execution, at once claimed
the crown of England as the descendant of John of (Jaunt.

O *

and made elaborate preparations tor the invasion of England.
The war With 1587 war with Spain definitely began. In the spring

g ith Drake successfully destroyed so many ships and such an amount

of stores in the harbours of Cadiz and Corunna that an invasion
of England that year was rendered impossible. Philip's object
in making his enormous preparations for the conquest ot
our island was not only to overthrow Protestantism, and to
put an end to the assistance given by England to the re-
bellious Netherlander, but to check for ever the attacks on
his colonies and commerce by the audacious and piratical
English adventurers.

w. LAIRD IN 1588 Philip completed his preparations for attacking the
The country which alone seemed to stand in the way of the accom-

Armada. plishmont of his ambitions religious, political, and commercial.
He had previously caused to be made and transmitted to him
the best charts which had then been constructed of the British
coasts and ports ; he had collected as many vessels of war as
possible from the Mediterranean, and he had taken the
precaution of inducing the leading German and Italian ship-
owners to send away their best craft on long voyages, or to
otherwise put them beyond the reach of his foes, in case the
nation which he wished to crush should be minded to hire
and tit them for defensive purposes. As Colibcr observes '
" The power of Spain, after the conquest of the Moors of
Granada by Ferdinand, who, by his marriage with Isabella,
had united the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, became very
considerable. But the Spanish navigation and sea forces were
soon prodigiously increased by the acquisition of Naples and
the best part of America, which was discovered in his time ;
after which the noble victory of Lepanto, gained over the
Turks by Don Juan of Austria, added much to the power, but
more to the reputation, of the Spanish fleets. " All this power,
backed by all this reputation, was to be hurled against

Online LibraryH. D. (Henry Duff) TraillSocial England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) → online text (page 48 of 68)