H. D. (Henry Duff) Traill.

Social England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) online

. (page 49 of 68)
Online LibraryH. D. (Henry Duff) TraillSocial England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) → online text (page 49 of 68)
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England. Besides a great number of galleys - - a type of






Tin: EXPANSION or /;.v,/,.i.\7>.


war-ship previously unseen save in the Mediterranean Philip
assembled all the available galleons, or large ocean-going
vessels, of his extensive dominions, and also all the galleasses.
These last corresponded to some extent with the frigates of
more modern days, since they occupied a position midway
between the galleons, or line-of-battle ships, and the galleys,
or last light craft, and combined some of the advantages of
both. They had lofty and formidably armed bows and sterns ;
but they had also three banks of oars, and at Lepanto they
had significantly demonstrated their value.


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(From I'hii/hig C'<ov/.s in tin' ]:r!ti*]i M aw urn.)

The fleet which at length made rendezvous in the Tagus
in May, 1588, consisted of 132 vessels of these three classes,
and about forty transports, tenders, and storeships, the whole
manned, according to Avhat appears to be the most trustworthy
Spanish account, by upwards of 7,400 seamen, 18,800 soldiers,
500 volunteers, and a number of galley-slaves. The com-
mander-in-chief of this great force was Don Alfonso Perez
de Guzman, Duke of Medina Sidonia, The English ships
available were more in number, but of much less aggregate




tonnage. The Armada sailed on May 29th ; but, encountering
bad weather, and being badly handled, was scattered, and had
to make a new rendezvous at Corimna, so that it did not enter

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v n:-rs

\ F LA

(Ubaldino's Mop of the course of the Armada, 1590.)

the English Channel until July 19th. Its motions and its
fortunes need not be here followed in detail. It will suffice to
say that, intelligence of its approach having been carried into




Plymouth, it was promptly followed tliciicr on its course up
( 'hannol by the English fleet under ( 'harles, Lord Howard of
Effingham, and was on July 21st brought to partial and
indecisive action. The English continued to chase, and the
I at tie was renewed 011 the 22nd, when Drake captured I lie
great galleon of Don Pedro de Yaldez, freighted with bullion
and stores worth 55,000 gold ducats. Another galleon, that
of Don Miguel de Oquendo, was burnt, and a third was driven
upon the French coast, where she was lost, On the 23rd ; off

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earn en


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(FfjiiL Playing Cards in the British Mtiseiim.)

I 'oil land, there was another partial action, in the course of
which the English made several prizes. On the 24th English
reinforcements from London reached the fleet ; but there was
only a distant engagement. On the 25th, off' the Isle of
Wight, there was a furious tight, in which a small English
-ra ft, commanded by one Cock, was sunk in the midst of the
Spanish ships, many of which suffered badly. The enemy,
thus harried, made for Calais Ptoads (cf. p. 300). There, on the
-.sili, the Knglish attacked them with tire-ships, and so alarmed
'hem that, although it was blowing a gale, they cut their cables



and drove away in sreat confusion. Some fouled one another ;

*/ j

others ran ashore, or upon the Flanders sands. On the 29th
there was a final engagement off Gravelincs ; after which the
Spaniards, conscious that the game was up, and that return
by the route by which they had come was impossible, made
sail into the North Sea, with the intention of rounding
Scotland and Ireland, and so getting home. The weather was
very bad, and, although the English soon ceased to chase, the
flying foe. fared so ill that, after suffering terrible vicissitudes,
but fifty-three ships of the great Armada ever reached their
ports. Spain had experienced a disaster which was fully as
destructive to her naval power as Leparto had been to the

AFTER the failure of the Armada Elizabeth's years of triumph A^HASSALL.
begin. The country advanced in wealth and prosperity, Results
manufactures increased, the growing of corn became again
profitable. The wealth and prosperity of the nation was
due in great measure to the successful war with Spain, which
continued till James's accession, as well as to the outburst
of energy and enterprise which characterised the reign of
Elizabeth. Till the end of the century the Queen, freed from
all fear of attack, was enabled to carry on a successful foreign
policy, and to insist upon the adoption of the "middle way'
in religious matters, though she was forced to recognise the
rising importance of the House of Commons.

The destruction of the Armada enormously enhanced the
reputation of England in Europe. Henceforward Englishmen
attacked the Spaniards all over the world. In 1592 Drake
and Sir John Norris determined to free Portugal from Spain.
They sacked part of Corunna, but failed to take Lisbon.
Having burnt Vigo and plundered the surrounding country,
they returned home with a considerable amount of booty. In
1596 Essex, together with Howard of Efringham and Raleigh,
attacked Cadiz, then the principal port of Spain. The town
was sacked, a large number of ships burnt, and the expedition
returned, having dealt a very heavy blow at Spain and relieved
England from all fears of invasion. The unwieldy Spanish
monarchy, assailed thus successfully by the English, found
no compensation in the French schemes of Philip II.







The Re-

Henry III. had been murdered in 1580, and Philip had
indulged in the wild hope of securing the French crown.
Elizabeth, recognising that the cause of Henry IV. was her
own, in 15SO and in 1501 sent him men and money: the did
alliance between England and France was renewed, and when
Henry, in 1503, declared himself a Catholic, Philip was forced
to recognise the failure of his plans and to conclude the Peace
of Yervins (1508) with the French king. Although she never
conquered her scruples about aiding revolted subjects against
their sovereign, Elizabeth maintained the treaty of 1585 with
the Dutch, and the wars between the United Provinces and
Spain continued till 1600. In England a strong war party,
headed by Essex and Raleigh, urged that a large expeditionary
force should be sent to Central America to contest with Spain
the trade of the New World. The peace party, headed by
Burghley, opposed these ambitious views, and advocated the
thorough re- conquest of Ireland and the resumption of the old
commercial intercourse with Spain. Elizabeth adopted the-
views of neither party. No English army was sent to Panama,
but the French alliance was renewed in 1580, the Dutch were
supported, and private enterprise was encouraged in its attacks
on the Spanish empire.

With the disappearance of all danger of Spanish invasion
Elizabeth was enabled to turn her attention to the task of
ending the divisions which weakened the English Church. The
Jesuit attacks had strengthened her resolution of enforcing'
conformity, and in 1583 Grindal had been succeeded in the
archbishopric of Canterbury by Whitgift. He at once set to-
work on the lines of Cecil and Parker, and endeavoured to
combine the Catholic, Puritan, and Anglican parties, and to
induce them to accept a common form of worship. In 1588
appeared the Marprelate Tracts (p. 605). Danger, too, was
also to be found in the existence of a small body of irrecon-
cilable Catholics who opposed the government of Elizabeth.
The energetic action of Whitgift, aided by the Court of High
Commission, checked the growth of Separatism and the efforts.
of the Jesuit faction, and in 1503 an Act of Parliament
imposed severe penalties on all who attended private religious
assemblies (p. 503). There is much to be said against the
system of persecution levelled against a small section of obscure




fanatics, who alone were dangerous. It was not sufficiently
discriminating, and the army of spies, informers, and priest-
hunters had undoubtedly too much power. Penal legislation
was distinctly justified by the critical position of affairs
between 1570 and 1588, but could not be defended after the

(From the fainting by Zucclic.ro, by permission of Sir H. Ltniw.nl, Bart.)

crisis was over. The Catholics were, however, regarded as
the allies of the Pope and of the King of Spain, their religion
was looked upon as a menace to the Church and the Govern-
ment, and no distinction was made between those who were
willing to take an oath to defend the Queen against all
enemies and those who refused.

Though Elizabeth might favour the Anglican party, she



found that many members of the House of Commons did not
approve of the oftentimes oppressive character of the Clmivh
Courts, and after 1588 she was compelled to give heed to the
voice of the Commons on religious as well as on political

Crown As soon as the Armada hud been destroyed a new spirit

commons. W:IS visible among the members of the Lower House, and 1588
may be regarded as the beginning of that struggle between the
Crown and Parliament which lasted for a hundred years, and
was not concluded till William III. ascended the English
throne. The growth of wealth and the increase of prosperity-
produced a spirit of independence among the country gentry
-who were for the most part moderate Churchmen, and
whose sons formed the bulk of the Puritan party during
the Civil War period. Puritanism itself developed independence
of character among the younger generation, already stirred
up by the struggle with Spain. The country gentry, too,
trained to business as justices of the peace, were now
accustomed to discuss the affairs of the country. The
House of Commons, thus strengthened, could speak with
authority when the Queen came to them with demands for
money. After 1588 Elizabeth's necessities often compelled
her to appeal to Parliament for assistance, and Parliament,
when asked for extra subsidies, grumbled and pleaded poverty.
In the famous debate on monopolies in the last Parliament
of the reign (1601), which was summoned to grant supplies
for the Irish wars, the Commons complained that the pre-
rogative was being exercised with regard to monopolies in
a way prejudicial to the public interests. Like some of her
predecessors, Elizabeth knew when to yield, and she agreed
to stop all such monopolies as were injurious. When the
Commons came to express their thanks she made some
characteristic remarks. " I have more cause to thank you
all than you me," she said ; " for had I not received a knowledge
from you, I might have fallen into the lap of an error, only
for lack of true information. I have ever used to set the
last judgment-day before mine eyes, and so to rule as I shall
be judged to answer before a higher Judge to whose judgment-
seat I do appeal, that never thought was cherished in my heart
that tended not to my people's good. Though you have had,




iiud inuv have, many princes more mighty and wise sitting
in this scat, yet you never had, or ever shall have, any that
will be more careful and loving." Many of her trusted
counsellors died before her. Drake died in 15!)5, Burghley
in 159.S. In 1001, Essex, who was found guilty of treason,
Elizabeth's was executed In 1003 the Queen herself died, indicating
Death James, King of Scotland, as her successor. She had found
England weak and distracted, torn with religious divisions ;
and unable to defend itself against foreign foes. She left it
strong and united. Aided by Burghley and Walsingham in
her Council, and by Drake, Frobisher, and Raleigh at seu,
she had warded off the attack of the great king of Spain,
and launched England on a career of maritime and colonial
expansion which is being steadfastly pursued at the present

P. W.

in Ireland.

AFTER the suppression of the Desmond rebellion a large part
of Minister was confiscated ; and in 158(j another Plantation
was entered on. Extensive tracts were granted to various
j^^h . undertakers," who were to import settlers. But the
settlers did not come in sufficient numbers ; and after the
usual fighting and bloodshed, the general result of this
Plantation was to displace nearly half the native gentry, and
to substitute English proprietors : the great majority of the
people remained undisturbed. Two of the undertakers are
well known Sir Walter Raleigh and Edmund Spenser the ;

This period is specially distinguished by the O'Neill

v ,,. rebellion. Hugh O'Neill, afterwards Earl of Tyrone, was
Rebellion. *

educated among the English, and began his active life in the
Queen's service. For a long time after he had become earl
and chief of Tyrone, he retained his command in the English
army, and continued friendly to the Government, without
any designs of rebellion : but partly on account of the measures
taken to repress Catholic worship, and partly through his
efforts to regain all the ancestral power of his family in Ulster,
his relations with the Government became gradually less
friendly. The bitter and exasperating hostility of Sir Henry
Bagenal, Marshal of Ireland, whose sister he had married,
greatly helped to precipitate matters: till at length, in 1595,












he broke out into open rebellion. A short time before this,
the O'Donnells of Tirconnell, who had long been on the side
of the Government, were turned into bitter enemies by a
dishonourable act of the deputy, Sir John Perrott. Without
any justification, but merely to secure a hostage, he treacher-
ously seized young Hugh Roe (Red Hugh) O'Donnell, the
chieftain's son, and incarcerated him in Dublin Castle. Four
years afterwards O'Donnell escaped, entered at once into

i', Dublin,


(Edmund Spenser's Residence.)

active rebellion, and subsequently became O'Neill's ablest
lieutenant. It should be remarked that, notwithstanding this
piece of foul play, Perrott generally treated the Irish fairly.

O'Neill, even in rebellion, was still anxious for peace ; and
there were truces and conferences in which he always in-
sisted, as a primary condition, on freedom of worship for
the Catholics ; but this was persistently refused. The war
went on ; and in several minor engagements he defeated the
Government forces. At length, in 1598, Marshal Bagenal
marched north from Dublin with an army of over 4,000 men,
determined to crush O'Neill, and release the English garrison,
at that time closely beleaguered in the fort of Portmore.




O'Neill resolved to intercept him, and placed his army, which
was about equal in number to that of Bagenal, right in the
way from Armagh to Portmore, at a spot called the Yellow
Ford. Here the Government forces sustained a disastrous
defeat by O'Neill. The brave marshal, leading on his men,
fell shot through the brain ; two thousand of the English
army were killed, including nearly all the chief officers ; and
the whole of the arms and stores fell into the hands of the

Photo: Guy & Co., Ltd., Cork.

victors. This was the greatest overthrow the English ever
sustained in Ireland. Almost the whole country was now in
successful revolt; in 1599 the Queen took vigorous measures,
sending over the Earl of Essex with an army of 20,000 men.
But he totally mismanaged the war, dissipated his fine army,
and after a disastrous campaign of half a year, left the
country rather worse than he found it.

After the arrival, in 1600, of Lord Mountjoy as deputy, Mountjoy
and of Sir George Carew as President of Minister two very
able men the Irish began to lose ground. Carew directed


all his energies against

the Munster rebels, taking their



castles one after another, and executing tlie defenders; and
by measures equally vigorous and relentless ho crushed the
southern rebellion. Mountjoy was not less active in the
north. While he himself drew off the attention of O'Neill
and O'Donnell by an expedition from Dublin, Sir Henry
Docwra, with a powerful armament and abundant stores,
landed on the shores of Lough Foyle, where he succeeded in
building forts and planting garrisons. And O'Neill and
O'Donnell, attacked front and rear, had enough to do to
defend themselves.

But now the war blazed up again in Minister ; for in
September, 1601, a Spanish fleet with 3,400 troops, under the
command of Don Juan del Aguila, landed in the south to
aid the Irish Catholics, and took possession of Kinsale.
Mountjoy and Carew, hastily collecting an army, laid siege to
the town with 12,000 men ; and on the other side O'Neill
and O'Donnell inarched southwards in mid-winter to aid the
Spaniards, and encamped near the English lines. The
English Avere now themselves invested, and unable to procure
provisions ; and in about three months 6,000 of them perished
of cold, hardship, and sickness. At last a combined attack
by Irish and Spaniards was secretly arranged, against the
better judgment of O'Neill, who was for the surer process of
letting the English army melt away. But of this design
Mountjoy got timely information from a traitor in the Irish
camp ; the Spaniards, through some misunderstanding, failed
to come forth ; and the Irish, attacking at a disadvantage, were
utterly defeated. Immediately after this, in the spring of
1602, the Northern leaders retreated to Ulster, and Del
Aguila surrendered the town.

The Land A characteristic and cruel feature of these Elizabethan
laid wars was the wholesale and systematic destruction of crops

and food of every kind all over the country by the Govern-
ment troops in order to exterminate the peasantry by famine.
Carew followed this practice from the beginning; and again
was Munster brought to a state almost as dreadful as after
the Geraldine rebellion twenty years before. Mountjoy, on
his part, continued to employ his officers and men for two
whole years in Leinster and Ulster burning homesteads and
haggards, and destroying crops, cattle, and all the poor

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people's means of subsistence. The famine so carefully
planned came in good time, and swept over the whole country,
with sickness in its wake; and Ulster was if possible in worse
case than Minister. For the most vivid descriptions of the
appalling results of this policy we are indebted to Mount joy
himself, and to his secretary, Fynes Moryson. By these
means, combined with vigorous military operations of a less
uncivilised character, the country was ultimately reduced,
and the great O'Neill rebellion came to an end in 1(503. The
Irish chiefs made submission ; and in fulfilment of the con-
ditions of peace O'Neill was restored by the Queen to his
title and estates.



CAMDEN assigns the rise of Puritanism in England to the


Puritanism J ear 1568, a date which may be accepted if we take it as
and Non- simply marking the time when the leaders of the movement
came into open conflict with the Government, and when
Puritanism began to make itself felt as a force which must
henceforth be reckoned with. Its real origin, however, was
much earlier. Indeed, that desire for a more scriptural wor-
ship, and that spirit of resistance to sacerdotalism and church
ceremonies which constituted the very essence of Puritanism,
may be traced back even for centuries before the Reformation.
As early as 1165 the Council of Oxford Avas summoned
mainly to deal with thirty weavers in the diocese of Worcester,
whose heretical opinions were substantially those of the
Puritans of a later time. And it would not be difficult to
show that such opinions continued to prevail more or less
on to the time of Wyclifte and the Lollards, and thence to
the sixteenth century, when the Reformation became an
accomplished fact. But while the spirit of Puritanism was
the very soul of Protestantism, the name, as the badge of
a party, only took its rise in the earlier years of Elizabeth's
reign. At first it was applied merely as a nickname for pre-
cisianists, but, as in some other cases, this nickname acquired
respect from the sterling qualities associated with it, and
eventually was accepted as the designation of a party in the
country which numbered eminent divines, lawyers, statesmen,
soldiers, and even orators and poets in its ranks ; which made
itself powerfully felt in the great struggle for constitutional



freedom, and furnished substantial and important elements
to the national life.

On the accession of Elizabeth, the Puritans, relying on
her Protestant reputation, were hopeful that she would give
weight to their views in the national settlement of religion. Queen.
But while breaking with the Papacy as completely as her
father had done before her, so far as legislation was concerned,
in other respects she showed herself averse to their views and
to such changes as they desired in the ceremonial of the
Church. Though no theologian and despising disputation,
she was an uncompromising disciplinarian. She regarded the
Church of England as her own Church, over which her
personal authority was supreme, and she cared for order,
pomp, and appearance in religion as in other things. It is
certain she was the formative power in matters ecclesiastical.
The most prominent bishops and divines were, in the early
part of her reign, in close sympathy and friendly intercourse
with the Swiss Reformers, by whom many of them had been
hospitably received in the days of exile under the Marian
persecution, and they would willingly have made concessions
to the Puritans at home. Jewell, who may be taken as a
representative bishop during this earlier period, wrote to his
friend Bullinger at Zurich, in 1566, saying: "I wish that all ;
even the slightest, vestiges of Popery might be removed from
our Church, and above all from our minds. But the Queen
at this time is unable to endure the least alteration in matters
of religion."

Differences between Elizabeth and the Puritans came to
open conflict on the promulgation of the orders known as
Advertisements (1566 : p. 432). These specified the minimum
of ceremonial which would be tolerated in the services of the
Church. Uniformity was to begin at a given date, deprivation
of benefice to follow after three months' refusal of compliance.
Proceedings commenced with the London clergy, who were
summoned to appear at Lambeth before the Archbishop, the
Bishop of London, with others of the Ecclesiastical Commission.
The controversy deepened in seriousness as it proceeded, but
at first the wearing of the clerical vestments was one of the
things most objected to on the part of the Puritans. As those

Online LibraryH. D. (Henry Duff) TraillSocial England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) → online text (page 49 of 68)