H. D. (Henry Duff) Traill.

Social England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) online

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by the Elizabethan public. On the work, .svr note on p. 134.

THI: MANOR HOUSE, FAWSLEY. XORTHANTS 613

The first of the Marprelate tracts, directed against Episcopacy,
was printed at Kingston, in Surrey ; but for fear of detection the
type and press were sent down to the house of Sir Richard Kniglitley
at Fawsley (near the residence of Penry's wife's father, and a



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xli

PAQB

Puritan centre), and subsequently moved to a farmhouse at Norton.
Waddington. JnUn Penry (1854), p. 36. The books were printed
in the turret, according to tradition.

TITLE-PAGE OF MARPRELATE'S REPLY TO BISHOP COOPER . . . 615

MONUMENT OP HOOKER, BISHOPSBOURNE CHURCH 617

Erected in 1635 by Sir William Cowper, grandfather of the first
Earl Cowper, over Hooker's burial place.

WHERE HOOKER MINISTERED 619

Hooker held the living of Drayton Beauchamp for a few months
in 1584-5, after his unfortunate marriage ; he was Master of the
Temple in 1585-1591, and was then presented to Boscombe in order
that he might have quiet to complete his great work. He was
promoted to Bishopsbourne, near Canterbury (a better living), in
1591, and held it till his death in 1600.

POCKET DIAL OF THE EARL OF ESSEX, 1593 .... . 621

A circular case of gilded brass, '2\ in. in diameter and 1 in in
breadth, bearing his arms. It includes a ''nocturnal,'' or arrange-
ment for enabling the user to find the time at night by measuring
the distance between the Pole Star and certain other stars, in this
case the " pointers " in the Great Bear, but this has been spoilt by
careless repairing : an instrument for the determination of the moon's
age from her position in the heavens, or' the declination and altitude
of the sun, a calendar of church festivals, a compass, a tide table,
and a list of important places with their latitude and longitude. It
was made by one Kynwyn. who is known to have been established
as an astronomical instrument maker in London in 1590. It was
possibly used by Essex at Cadiz and presented by him to Queen
Elizabeth. It is fully described in Archeeologia, XL., 343-360, and,
as is there remarked. ' raises our respect for the men who went to
sea with such appliances."

ENGINEER TAKING ALTITUDES 622

From the initial letter of a description of Gluttony, which refers
to the conspiracy of Zimri (1 Kings xvi.) against Elah, who was
"drinking himself drunk."' The engineer is apparently arranging
to bombard a town.

ELIZABETHAN ARMOUR 623, 624

From the brasses of Simon Malory, Woodford, near Thrapstone,
1580 ; of William Disney, Xorton Disney, Lincolnshire, about the
siine date ; and of Richard Disney, -ibid.

SOLDIERS AT SIR PHILIP SIDNEY'S FUNERAL 625

This roll, preserved at the Heralds' College, was engraved and
published by T. Lant (London, 15S7). under the title " Sequitur
celebritas et pompa funeris Domini Philippi Sidney." It is referred
to by Walpole, Ann-dotes of Painting, I., 2b2.

A BATTLE : FROM HOLINSHED'S CHRONICLES, 1577 .... 626
A SIEGE : FROM HOLINSHED'S CHRONICLES, 1577 . . 627

MATCHLOCKS OF THE ELIZABETHAN PERIOD . ... 629

A FIGHT WITH PIRATES 633

From the map of England in Saxton and Ryther's Atlas of England
and Wales. 1579. The ship is off the mouth of the Humber, but



xlii NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

the illustration is probably only decorative, like the astonishing
representations of inn-maid-; and sea-monsters which adorn these
:md other maps of the period.

ENGAGING THE SPANISH ARMADA .635

From the reproductions published by John Pine in 1739 of the
famous tapestries, executed to the order of the Earl of Nottingham
(Lord Howard of Klt'iny-ham. the English admiral), from designs
by H. C. Vroom, a Dutch artist. These tapestries decorated the old
House of Lords, and were burnt with it in 1834.

THE AKK 1,'nr.i/. . . .... .... 637

From a large woodcut, probably contemporary.

CHART OF THE APPROACH TO FALMOUTH (at Trinity House) . . 643

"THE CHEST AT CHATHAM" 645

Of iron ; sent to Greenwich Hospital by the Admiralty in 1845.
With it are preserved two account books, showing- the sums received
and paid by the Clerk of the Chest in the years 1(537-1642 and
1654-1655.

LORD HOWARD OF EFFIXGHAM 647

By Zucchero ; formerly at Hampton Court, but presented to
Greenwich Hospital in 1825 by George IV.

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE . 651

From a picture on panel at Trinity House ; probably contemporary.

A MOHAMMEDAN WOMAN (xec below, note on pp. 688-695) . . . 657
VIEW OF GOA ABOUT 1570 (m- above, note on p. 5(>3) . . . 6(il

THE EAST INDIES AS KNOWN IN 1589 ... ... 663

From a unique map in Hakluvt, Dirers Yoijai/rx tnitrliirif/ the
Dixeorcrii' of Anicrifti , 15S9. Other parts of it will be found at
pp. >i~'2. 673. The chart replacing it, in the edition of 1599, shows
an immense advance in geographical knowledge.

SECTIONS FROM JENKINSON'S MAP OF RUSSIA 666, 667

The Czar Ivan the Terrible is at the upper left-hand corner of
the left-hand section. At top of the right-hand section nomads
worshipping an idol, which on being consulted by the priest,
directs their acts and migrations (always correctly) ; further
to the right, the inhabitants of that region, described as nomad,
militant, and carnivorous, and as worshipping the sun. ''or a red
cloth hung from a pole." The group at the extreme right represents
a tribe which, with its flocks and herds, was suddenly turned into
stone " about 300 years ago." Below, the Kirgessi (Kirghiz), who
hang their dead on trees instead of burying them. It is part of
their worship that the priest shall climb a tree and sprinkle the
assembled multitude with a mixture of blood, milk, and dung.
" This sprinkling is regarded and worshipped as God." These
explanations are given in Latin on the map.

SOUTH AMERICA AND THE ANTARCTIC CONTINENT .... 672

THE ATLANTIC OCEAN, WITH SOME IMAGINARY ISLANDS . . . 673

Sum.- of these islands, r.g. that of St. Brendan, appear to be inserted
purely on the ground of legend. "Brazil." however, appeared in



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xliii

PAOH

Dutch maps of the seventeenth century, at a time when Dutch
trade with the East passed by the Orkneys and the West of Ireland,
to avoid English cruisers, arid it has been suggested that the island
may really have existed and have disappeared, since a shoal now
exists in that neighbourhood.

MARTIN FROBISHER ........... 075

MAP BY MICHAEL LOK ...... . . 677

Lok financed Frobisher' s expedition of 1576, spending 7,500 of
his own money, and as the result found himself destitute, with a
wife and fifteen children. Eventually, in 1581, he was sent to
the Fleet Prison. Possibly he dedicated this map to Sir Philip
Sidney in order to obtain his release, the circumstances and date
of which, however, are unknown.

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE'S ASTROLABE ........ 679

In its simplest form the instrument is held by the projection at
top so that the diameter running from it is exactly vertical, and
the pointer is then directed to the object, so that the angle can
be read off.



CRUISE OF THE GOLDEN IIixi> ..... . . . (580, 681

These four illustrations are from a description in Dutch of the
voyages of Drake and Cavendish, with their portraits and a map
route, probably printed at The Hague in 1595.

CAVENDISH AND HIS ROUTE ... . . 685

ESQUIMAUX WOMAN AND MAN ... . 68S

ESQUIMAUX ATTACKING EXPLORERS . . ... 689

INDIAN VILLAGE OF POMEIOC . . .... 091

INDIANS SPEARING FISH . ... U92

INDIANS OF VIRGINIA . . ..... . .

The five preceding illustrations are part of two large collections
of water-colour drawings, with two or three maps, preserved in the
Grenville Library at the British Museum and in the Department
of Prints and Drawings respectively The G-renville volume, con-
taining seventy -six drawings, is entitled " The pictures of sondry
things collected and counterfeited according to the truth in the
voyage made by Sir Walter Raleigh Knight for the discovery of
La Virginia in the 27th yeare of the most happie reigne of our
Soveraigne Lady Queene Elizabeth and in the yeare of o r Lorde
God 15S5." The other volume is entitled ; W. Raughley's Book
by White," and (in another hand) " The originall draughts of ye
habits, towns, customs, etc., of the West Indians and of the plants,
birds, fishes, etc., found in Greenland, Virginia, Guiana, etc., by
Mr. John White, who was a painter and accompanied Sir Walter
Raleigh in his voyage." A reference follows to the preface of
Theodore De Bry's America, in which work, now very rare, some
of them were reproduced. Besides the drawings of Indians here
reproduced, there are some representing' Mohammedans (one of
which is given above, p. 657) and other figures from countries
borelering on the Mediterranean. The zoological drawings include
a bluebird and a blue jay, a - 'g\vanoo" (iguana, a large lizard),
land crabs, and many fishes, butterflies and snakes. The botanical
include pineapples, plantains, a grape hyacinth, hepatica, pulsatilla,



xliv NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAOl

hellebore, tulips, a dog-tooth violet, narcissus, irises, and anemones.
A note from a bookseller's or auction catalogue in the Grenville
volume states that these drawings are those reproduced by De Bry,
and that the other collection is partly the work of one Le Moine.
The drawings are of considerable interest for the history of
horticulture.

WILLIAM GILKKRT .... 698

Engraved by Clamp from a portrait once in the old Schools at
Oxford, now apparently lost.

Two PAGES OF DR. TYE'S ' : ACTES OF THE APOSTLES" .... 699

The music is for four voices. " meane." counter-tenor, tenor, and
liass. In one chapter a treble part is substituted for the counter-
tenor. The title page describes the contents as designed " to synge
and also to play upon the lute, very necessarye for students after
their stud ye to fyle their wyttes, and also for all Christians that
cannot synge to reade the good and Godlye stories" of the lives
of the Apostles.

VIRGINAL OF 1550, SPINET OF 1552. AND LUTE 701

The virginal, a name given in England to the spinet, more
especially in the rectangular form, was developed from the Psaltery,
an instrument with wire strings plucked by the fingers. To the
psaltery a keyboard was added during the fourteenth century on the
analogy of the organ, the strings being plucked by quills or by
"spines" of hard leather (whence probably the name) projecting
from upright strips of wood called jacks, which' were raised by the
depression of the keys. Being much more easily fingered than the
lute it was much practised by ladies, whence probably the name
virginal. The archlute is similar to the theorbo, a lute with an
extended neck carrying two sets of tuning pegs, the upper set for the
long bass strings. It was used mainly for instrumental music, the
theorbo, being smaller, for accompanying the voice. (Rev. F. W.
Galpin.) Set- note to illustration on p. 207.

EDMUND SPENSER, BY ALESSANDRO ALLORI 705

The artist, nicknamed Bronzino, was a Florentine painter, born
1.-..H5, died 1607.

VELVET VERSUS CLOTH 709

Greene's ''Quip for an Upstart Courtier" "contrasts the pride
and uncharitableness of present times with the simplicity and
hospitality of the past, denouncing upstart gentlemen who main-
tain themselves in luxury by depressing their poor tenants.'' (Mr.
A. H. Bullen in. Diet. Nat. It tug.) It is reprinted in the Harleian
Miscellany.

THE PREY OF THE SHARPEE 710

Greene 's " Notable Discoverie of Coosenage " gives an account of
the tricks practised on the unwary by the sharpers and blackmailers
of Elizabethan London, and is described as " written for the general
benefit of all gentlemen, citizens, apprentices, country farmers,
and yeomen that may happen to fall into the company of such
coosening companions." An appendix deals with the tricks of
bogus charcoal-sellers who give short weight.

TOM NASH, HIS GHOST; TOM NASH IN IRONS 711

' The Trimming of Thomas Nash." published under a pseudonym,
is the last stage in the controversy between Gabriel Harvey and



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xlv

PAGE

Thomas Xash, which " began in 1592 in anger and ended in l.~>97
in abuse " (Payne Collier). It was provoked by a libellous passage
(not in any existing copy) in Greene's " Quip for an Upstart
Courtier," which stated that Harvey was the son of a ropemaker.
Harvey replied, and Xash took up the cudgels in defence of
Greene.

PORTRAIT OF RICHARD ALLETNE 715

Artist apparently unknown. Alley ne was part owner of the
Fortune Theatre and of the Bear-garden in Southwark. and founder
of the " College of God's Gift " at Dulwich. perhaps modelled on
Button's foundation at Charterhouse, and now better known as
Dulwich College.

PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE 717

Purchased at the Stowe sale (of the Duke of Buckingham's
collection), September, 1848, by the Earl of Ellesmere. and pre-
sented by him to the nation in 1856. Attached to the back of the
picture is a note (the authenticity of which has been questioned)
stating that " The Chandos Shakespeare was the property of John
Taylor, the painter, by whom or by Richard Burbage it was painted."
and by whom it was left to Sir William Davenant. After his death
it was bought by Betterton the actor," from whom its history is
traced until it was inherited by a Duchess of Buckingham (Catalonia 1
of National Portrait Gallery). Mr. Sidney Lee regards it as "painted
from fanciful reproductions after Shakespeare's death." The other
authenticated portrait is an engraving prefixed to the folio of 1C>23,
but is unlike this one except in the baldness. A number of other
portraits exist, , including a cast of the poet's face alleged to
have been taken after his death, and now at Darmstadt : xn 1 Mr.
Sidney Lee's account of them in his article " Shakespeare " in the
Dictionary of National Biography.

THE OLD GRAMMAR SCHOOL, SANDWICH 723

Richard Knolles was appointed master of the Grammar School by
Sir Peter Manwood, son of Sir Roger Manwood, who took the largest
share in its restoration, and. according to Antony Wood, " thoiigh he
was there in a world of troubles and cares, and in a place that
afforded no means of comfort to proceed in great works, yet he
performed much for the benefit of history at his vacant hours, by the
desire of the said Sir Peter." He appears, however, to have neglected
his school duties, and was consequently discharged with a pension
in 1606, though a decision to get rid of him had been come to
four years earlier. Boys, History of Sandwich, p. 271 (1792).

PORTRAIT OF BAJAZET (from Knolles, History of the Turks) . . 727
HOP CULTURE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY (see note on p. 4-18) . . 731

COUNTRY HOUSE SHUT UP . . 733

From a ballad of a later date entitled "Christmas' Lamentation
for the Loss of his Acquaintance, and lamenting that ' whereas great
men by flockes there be flowne to Londonward, where they in porupe
and pleasure now waste that which Christmas was wont to feaste,'
since none of these good deedes will do, Christmas had best
turn courtier too." The movement townwards thus continued during 1
the next generation.

COOKS (see notes on pp. 134 and 608) 733



xlvi .\nTE8 TO ILLUSTRATION'S.

PAGS

FRUIT TRENCHER OF TII i : I*: i, i / A r.KTii A \ I'LiiioD . . . to face 734



One of the set of wliieb .-mother is shown at p. 4'.)4.
IRON CIIIMM:'! |'I,\TI: ( Ipswich Museum) .... . 734

.Ml\l.l.-s' TOOLS OK THK Si.XTKKNTH CENTURY . 736

FLEMISH CLOTH-HALL. < 'i: \M'.KOOK. KENT .... . 738

The Flemings seem to have settled where they could obtain
water-power and marl: r a paper in A rch<i >>l<><i/<i Cant hunt. Vol.
IX. Craiiln-ook was a very important centre of the broad-
cloth manufacture and its product was famous for its durability
and t'a<i eoloiir. The building here shown, a typical specimen of
rhe Kentish cloth halls, is situated at Coursehorn. about a mile
from Cratibrook, and was visited by Queen Kli/.abeth in l.V.Ci. Local
tradition says she walked to it from the town on Cranbrook
broadcloth.

THE SACK OF ANTWERP, 1576 ......... 739

MERCHANTS' TABLE OF 1350, BRISTOL ....... 742

One of four pillars formerly in the Tolzoy. Bristol, used by
merchants on 'Change as tables for writing 1 or counting 1 money.
This is the earliest, the others are of the succeeding 1 century.

THE HOG HOUSE, BUXTED, SUSSEX ... . 744

lias a hog- and the date 1581 carved above the door. It was the
residence of the Hogge or Huggett family, one of whom. Ralph
Hogg-e, is said to have cast the first English cannon in 1543. Hare,

SHXXI ./-. p. 125.

ANCIENT ENGLISH WEIGHTS AND MEASURES .... 746, 747

Those in the first group bear Royal and private arms. Those in the
second were used by the officers of the University, who had the over-
sight of weights and measures, and made assize of bread, beer, and
wine, and otherwise regulated the sale of victuals.

FIREBACK OF 1.~>X7 (i'f. Vol. II., p. 552, note ; and above, p. 211) . . 748
Decorated with fleurs-de-lis and with the arms of Henry Neville.

PAGE FROM BULLEIN'S ' BOOK OF SIMPLES" ...... 749

Several pages are devoted to drawings of herbs and stills for
medical use. the former including- strawberry, cherry, chickweed.
radish, and wormwood. " Alkakengi " is seemingly akin to the
Cape gooseberry, or the physalis francheti of our gardens ; " Tilia "
is the lime-tree. The illustration is of interest as showing the
revival of attention to herbals and horticulture after the inuak at
the dissolution of the monasteries.

Tin; Kim MAN AND THE POOR MAN ....... 751

"The rich man signifieth a proude man covetous, such a one as
careth for no poore man, but for such as hym lyketh (too many
such are not good in a commonwealth) ; the poor man signifieth
tlie povertie general!, whose petitions of such are not heard, nor
relieved." Katernan, ail lot: "Of Pride."



THE UPRIGHT MAN AND THE COUNTKHFKIT CRANK .... 753

The book called "A (i round work of Conny-catching." attributed
to Greene without evidence except that he wrote another work on
the subject, is really a reprint, with some prefatory matter, of



NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xlvii

PAGE

Thomas Harman's Caveat or Warning to Common Cut'setors (c,. 157(i).
Harman. whom Dr. Furnivall has called "a keen social reformer."
lived at Crayford in Kent, and, being- kept at home by ill-health,
made it his custom to talk to tramps and study their life. His
book contains a list of known professional beggars and rogues.
These two figures and the nude figure on the next page represent
the same person, as is indicated by the lines beneath. The ' Upright
Man "was a slang- name for a leader of the beggars' calling-, ' a
man who g-oetli with the truncheon of a staff." and is of so much
authority among- his fellows that he may demand a share in
the gains of any tramp of inferior rank. The " counterfeit crank "
is a person who pretends to be subject to " the cranke or falling-
sickness " (epileptic fits). The first illustration (given also by Harman)
represents Nicolas Blunt, an upright man," nl'mx Xicolas Jeiiynges,
"counterfeit crank," who carried blood in a bladder and privately
smeared his face with it. then professing to have been injured by
falling- in his fits. Harman had him watched, and he was detected,
despoiled of his ill-g-otteii gains, and compelled to wash (<?/". p. 754).
when he turned out to be a handsome man with a sound body and
a flaxen beard. Harman's work, with other material relative to
Elizabethan tramp life, has been reprinted by Dr. Furnivall for
the E.E.T.S. and New Shakespere Society, but is adapted only
for specialists in sociology.

THE IMPOSTOR EXPOSED ... 754

This illustration is added in the " Groundwork'of Conny-catching,"
with scenic accessories which scarcely fit the text. On being de-
tected and stripped, the "crank" was covered with a cloak, but he
presently escaped, cast it away, and fled naked.

FINGER PILLORY, ST. HELEN'S CHURCH, ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH . . 755

A substitute for the stocks The horizontal beam contains holes
of various sizes, "cut first horizontally and then perpendicularly,
in order that the first joint of the finger may be retained in an
angular form ; the culprit is then secured by bringing down over the
holes another beam." hinged to one of the uprights, and fastened by a
lock at its other end. The victim was of course helpless, and his
position must soon have become intensely painful. This example,
now in the church, is said to have been used to punish disturbers
of Divine service ; another, still extant at Littlecote Hall. Wilts, was
used in the seventeenth century for domestic punishments e.g. for
disorderly conduct during Christmas festivities. Cf. JVWr.s- and
Querii'x, Oct. 2.">, 1851 : W. Andrews, Bygone Punishments, 1899. A
quotation in Nichols, Hixtonj of Leicestershire, indicates that it was
regarded as a less severe means of punishment than the stocks.

CHRIST'S HOSPITAL, IPSWICH 759

From a print preserved in a collection of materials relating to
the history of Suffolk. MS. Add. 8967. The buildings were origin-
ally the House of the Black Friars. Ipswich, and were purchased
by the Corporation and used for an institution called Christ's
Hospital, which was founded in 15G9 and received a charter in
1572. This institution combined the functions of the London
Bridewell and Christ's Hospital, being used both for the correction
of idlers and the instruction of the young, and partly also as an
asylum for the aged. It was one of the earliest Bridewells, founded
seven years before the Statute for Houses of Correction was passed.
Ir.. 1748 the original charity had been amalgamated with others,
still used in the three ways mentioned. They were pulled down
shortly before 1850. Some information about the institution may
be found in Bacon, Annals of Ijjswich, and Wodderspoon, Ij



ilriii NOTES TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

HALL OP THE MIDDLE TEMPLE. . 761

The hall was built in the reign of Elizabeth ; its roof has been
called " the best piece of Elizabethan architecture in London." The
feasts and masques held here under Elizabeth and in the two next
reigns are famous.

LONDON, WEST OF ST. PAUL'S (A SECTION OP A LARGE MAP) . . 765

BROADSHEET, REFERRING TO THE MORTALITY AT OXFORD IN 1577 . 769

The British Museum catalogue assigns the example here repro-
duced to 1 625, but notes that the allusion in stanza 4 fixes the date
of composition at 1577 or 1578. "Bell" was Sir Robert Bell, Chief
Baron of the Exchequer from January 24. 1577, to his death at the
assizes ; '' Baram " was a Serjeant-at-law. The jurors died also, and
the High Sheriff, with others. Stow, Annuls, under the year 1577.
The date was July 4-6.

THE TABARD INN, SOUTHWARK 772

Demolished in 1874 : till about the middle of the nineteenth century
it bore an inscription, " This is the Inne where Sir Jeffrey Chaucer
and the nine and twenty Pilgrims lay in their journey to Canterbury,
anno 1383." The name became " Talbot " after the great fire of 1666.
It was situated in High Street, Southwark, opposite the borough
town hall, and is given here as the best specimen available of the
inn yards, with galleries, which suggested the structure of the modern
theatre, and some examples of which are still in existence.

SIK WALTER RALEIGH'S PIPES AND PIPE CASE. EARLY PIPES . 778, 779

CUCKING STOOL, FROM IPSWICH MUSEUM 781

The ducking or clicking stool was specially used to cool the anger
of scolding women, who were lowered in it for a moment, as often
as might be needed, into any convenient piece of water.

A MARRIAGE FETE IN BERMONDSET 783

Though formerly described as " Horselydowii Fair," the scene is
clearly a wedding feast, with costumes of about 1590. The Tower is
seen in the distance ; the church (right) is the Abbey Church, now
replaced by St. Mary Magdalen ; the grounds probably those of Sir
Thomas Pope's manor house part of which still exists as a recreation
ground. The artist (Joris Hoef nagel. a Hollander) is on the right, behind
musicians and dancers. The bridal procession is coming out of church,
preceded by a trophy : the bride's mother is receiving a distinguished
guest in the foreground. The picture was shown in the Tudor
Exhibition, is'.in.

AN ELIZABETHAN BEDSTEAD (FROM TURTON TOWERS, YORKSHIRE) . 785

GOSSIPING AT THE MARKET 787

Part of a large woodcut, ascribed to the last year of Elizabeth's
reign, entitled "Tittle Tattle ; or, the Several Branches of Gossiping."
Groups of women are seen at the birth of a child, at the market, at
the bakehouse, at the alehouse, washing at the river, at the church,
at the '' hotte house " (hot baths), and at the conduit always talking 1
busily. The cut is accompanied by verses of later date. It was



Online LibraryH. D. (Henry Duff) TraillSocial England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) → online text (page 5 of 68)