H. D. (Henry Duff) Traill.

Social England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) online

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freely imitated by Hollar, in his " Market Place " (Parthey, No. 596).
Cf. Catalogue of Political and Personal Satires, I., p. 31.


RATESON. Miss MART, Associate and Lecturer of Jfewnham College, Cambridge ;

Editor of Records of tlie Borough of Leicester ; Catalogue of flie Lihniry
of Si/oii Monastery, etc.

BKAZLKY, C. RAYMOND, M.A., F.R.G.S., Fellow of Merton College, Oxford ;
Author of The Dawn of Modern Geography; Henry the Narigator
(He-oes of the Nations Series); John and Seliaxtian Cahot ; James I.
of A rag oti.

BROWN, Rev. JOHX, D.D. ; Author of John Bunyan: His Life, Times, ami
1 }'n rli ; The Pilgrim Fathers of New England; Apostolical Succession in
the Liglit of History and Fact; and of The Yale Lecture on Puritan
Preaching in England.

CLOWE-, Sir WILLIAM LAIRD, Fellow of King's College. London; Gold
Medallist, U.S. Naval Institute ; Editor and Principal Author of The
Royal Navy : A History ; and of A Nacal Pocket Hook.

COLVILLE, JAMES, M.A., D.Sc. (Edin.), Examiner in History at Glasgow
University; Editor of Spalding's Hist or ij of English. Literature and
Shakespeare's Coriolanvs (for Schools) ; Author of Jit/way* of History.

CORBETT, W. J'., M.A., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge.

CREIGHTON, C., M.A., M.D. ; Author of -4 History of Epidemics in Britain.

DUFF, E. GORDON, M.A. Oxon., sometime Librarian of the John Rylands Library,
Manchester, and Sandars Reader in Bibliography in the University of
Cambridge; Author of Early Printed Boohs; Early English Printing;
The Printers, Stationers, and Bookbinders of London, etc.

FLETCHER, C. R. L., M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Magdalen College, Oxford.

GASQUET, the Right Rev. F. A., D.D., Abbot President of the Benedictine Order
in England ; Author of The Ere of the Reformation ; Henry Till,
and. the English Monnster ies ; Edioard, YI. and the Booh of Common
1'rat/er; The Great Pest Hence ; The Last Ahliot of Glastonbury and his
Companions, etc.

HASSALL, ARTHUR, M.A., Student and sometime Censor of Christ Church,
Oxford; Author of Bolingbrohe ; Lonis XI]'.; A Ilandlti'oli of European
History ; A Class Booh of English History ; The French People; Editor
of Periods of European History, and Author of Period VI. {The Ha I a nee-
of Power) ; Joint Editor of and Contributor to Constitutional Essays ;
Editor of the third edition of Dyer's Modern Europe, and of The
Student's France.

HEATH, H. FRANK, Ph.D. Strasburg ; Registrar of the Academic Council,
University of London ; one of the Editors of 'The Globe Chaucer



HEWINS, W. A. S., M.A., Pembroke College, Oxford ; Director of the London
School of Economics ; Tooke Professor of Economic Science and Statistics
at King's College, London; Member of the Senate, and Examiner in
Political Economy, in the University of London ; Author of English
Traile mill finance in the Seventeenth Century ; Contributor to the
Dictionary of .\ational Biography and the Dictionary of Pol it i, 'id


BUTTON, Rev. W. H., M.A.. Fellow and Tutor of St. John's College,
Oxford; Author of The Marquis UV//r.v/r// , William Laud; Sir Thomas
More; The Church of the VI. Century, etc.

JOYCE, P. W., LL.D., Commissioner for the Publication of the Ancient Laws of
Ireland ; Author of A Short History of Ireland ; The Origin and History
of Irinh Xamex of Places ; Old Celtic Romances; Ancient Irish- Music;
A Child's 77 /.We/ 1 // of Ireland, etc.

MULLINOER, J. BASS, M.A., University Lecturer in History, Cambridge;
Author of History of the University of Cambridge to the Accession of
< 'harks I. ; Joint Author with the late Professor S. R. Gardiner of An
Introduction to English History.

OMAN, C. W. C., M.A., Fellow of All Souls' College, and Deputy Professor of
Modern History in the University of Oxford ; Author of The Art of War
in the Middle Ages; Wancick the King -maker ; The History of JEunye,
476-918 ; Seven Roman Statesmen; A History of the Peninsular War, etc.

PROTHERO, R. E.. M.A., M.V.O., sometime Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford ;
formerly Editor of the Quarterly Review; Author of Pioneers and Progress
of English Farming and The Life of Dean Stanley, etc. ; Editor of the
Letters and Verses of Dean Stanley ; the Letters of Edward Gibbon, and
the Letters of Lord Byron, etc.

ROCKSTRO, W. S. (the late), Author of A General History of Music; Life of
Handel; Life of Mendelssohn, etc.

SAINTSBURY, GEORGE, M.A. Oxon., Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature
in the University of Edinburgh ; Author of A Short History of French
Literature ; Histories a/Elizabethan and of Nineteenth Century Literature ;
Marlborough, etc.

SMITH, A. L., M.A.. Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford.

STEELE, R., F.C.S., Librarian of the Chemical Society; Author of Mectiaral
Lore; Editor of The Story of Alexander and of Lydgate's Secrees of Old
Philosoffres (E.E.T.S.).

SYMES, the Rev. Professor J. E., M.A., Principal of University College, Notting-
ham ; Author of A Te.rt Book of Political Economy.

WHITTAKER, T., B.A. Oxon. ; Author of The Neo- Plat out sis ; A Study in the
History of Hellenism ; Joint Editor of Groom Robertson's Remains ;
sometime Assistant Editor of Mind.


THE present volume contains one important addition to the
text : the section on social life and manners in the two
first Tudor reigns, which has been written by Miss Bateson
expressly for the illustrated edition. Those portions of the
first chapter in the volume which deal with political and
religious history have undergone some re-arrangement, and
in the subsequent chapters a few passages have been excised,
to avoid unnecessary repetition, and a few notes added. The
lists of authorities have been carefully revised, and brought
up to date. The illustrations, as in the preceding volumes,
have been selected with the primary aim of elucidating the
accompanying text.

The widening of the stream of English history in the
sixteenth century involves some loss in the material available
for illustrations, as well as some gain. If the invention of
printing and the coming of the Reformation together deprive
us of the magnificent illuminations which so copiously illustrate
most forms of medieval life and some of medieval thought
from the twelfth to the end of the fifteenth century, yet we
gain a good deal in other ways. We have life-like portraits
of the great figures of the Tudor period ; we have their
autographs ; the beginnings of political caricature in the
last half of the century give us vivid indications of popular
feeling ; military subjects, though less abundant than in the
preceding century, are fully adequate for our purpose ; shipping
becomes directly intelligible from the drawings of the period,
without that necessity for the aid of the reconstructive
imagination which is felt in dealing with the fleets of the
Middle Ages ; contemporary views of towns and landscapes
are trustworthy representations of specific places instead of
giving us merely the generic features which we can trace in


some of the illuminations of the later MSS. 1 ; personal relics,
examples of furniture, of costume, of silver plate and table
glass, of musical instruments, become adequate in numbers,
though not exactly plentiful ; most of all, the great outburst
of maritime adventure and geographical exploration facilitated,
to an extent we are apt to forget, by the social disorder at
home provides us not only with valuable examples of the
increase of geographical knowledge, but with representations
of figures and scenes absolutely new to European observers,
and contributing in no small measure to the making of
Elizabethan literature. Cabot's map of America, Thome's
map of the way to the East Indies, the successive maps in
the editions of Hakluyt, which gradually drop the legendary
islands from the Atlantic Ocean, the map of the Arctic
regions by Michael Lok, the drawings of Esquimaux and of
" Herowan " Indians by John White these together illustrate
one of the most potent of the intellectual influences which
transformed English life in the Elizabethan age, and which
no history of the development of English society in that
period could venture to leave out. Medieval architecture is
replaced by the more sober and less picturesque types of the
Renaissance ; ecclesiastical building has become superabundant,
and ceases, while secular building takes its place ; the scenic
glories of medieval Catholicism give place before the invisible
entities of a purer and sterner religious creed ; but there is
this compensation in the plan adopted in this volume, that
the affairs of Scotland and Ireland become for the first time
part of the regular main stream of English history, and the
retrospective treatment of their annals affords abundant ex-
amples of the treasures of art and architecture still preserved
to them in relatively greater measure, perhaps, than in

Our sincere thanks are again due to the owners or
guardians of many valuable objects for the permission freely
and generously given to use them for the illustration of the
work. In all cases acknowledgments are printed under the

1 E.ij. the town, seaport, and landscape reproduced at pp. 614, 668, and 7-17
of Vol. IT., and the Flemish scenes of pp. 626, 627 of the same volume. The
view of the Tower of London. Vol. II., p. 755, seems unique as a faithful
representation of a particular place in a MS.


illustrations. But we must express our obligations in par-
ticular to the Chapter of the College of Arms, for permission
to photograph subjects from MSS. in their possession, and to
the officials for their assistance ; to the Duke of Norfolk, the
Duke of Bedford, the Marquis of Salisbury, the Earl of
Warwick, Earl Brownlow, Earl Spencer, Viscount Middleton,
Lord Arundell of Wardour, and Lord de 1'Isle and Dudley,
for the access given us to family portraits or relics in their
possession ; to the Archbishop of Canterbury ; to the Master
of the Rolls ; to the Elder Brethren of Trinity House, and
to Mr. H. S. Liesching, who have enabled us to obtain many
illustrations of the history of the English navy and mer-
chant shipping for this and subsequent volumes ; to Mr.
E. W. B. Nicholson, librarian of the Bodleian ; to the governing
bodies of Trinity College, Cambridge, of Trinity Hall, Cam-
bridge, of Christ Church, Oxford, of Trinity College, Oxford
(for leave to photograph the chalice of St. Albans Abbey,
saved by their founder at the Dissolution), of Trinity College,
Dublin (for leave to reproduce specimens of Irish MSS.), of
Corpus Christi College, Oxford (for leave to photograph the
plate left by Bishop Fox) ; to the Worshipful Companies of
Armourers, Barber-Surgeons, and Ironmongers ; to the ProA r ost
of Eton (for permission to reproduce a specimen page from
the unique copy of Udall's famous drama, preserved in the
College library) ; to the keeper of the Hope Collection of
Engraved Portraits at Oxford ; to the authorities of Stonyhurst
College (for photographs of the relics of Sir Thomas More) ;
to Sir R. Colt Hoare, Bart. ; to E. Delmar Morgan, Esq. ; to
T. Colyer-Ferguson, Esq., of Ightham Mote ; to the Rev. F. W.
Galpin (for leave to photograph selected specimens from his
very remarkable collection of representative musical instru-
ments of the sixteenth and succeeding centuries, with in-
formation regarding them) ; to the Rev. S. Baring Gould
(for leave to reproduce his portrait of Edmund Spenser, by
Allori) ; to the Warden of Whitgift's Hospital, Croydon ;
to the Governing Body and Headmaster of Dulwich College ;
to the Kent Archseological Society ; to the Curators and
Governing Bodies of the Ashmolean Museum and University
Galleries at Oxford, the Archaeological Museum at Cambridge,
the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, the


Wallace Collection, the Guildhall Museum, the Scottish National
Museum of Antiquities, the Scottish National Portrait Gallery,
the Royal Irish Academy, the Mayer Museum, Liverpool,
and the Museums of Ipswich, Lewes, Truro, and York.
Finally, we must express our sincere thanks to the staff of
the British Museum, especially in the Library and the De-
partments of Prints and Drawings and of Coins and Medals,
for their unfailing courtesy and readiness to assist.

In selecting the illustrations, very valuable aid has been
rendered to the editor, as in the preceding volume, by Mr.
T. D. Atkinson, Mr. T. A. Archer, of the University of Oxford,
and Miss E. M. Leonard, of Girton College, Cambridge. Mr.
Archer has also kindly assisted to revise the lists of authori-
ties appended to each chapter.

August, 1902.





" IF a lion knew his own strength, hard were it for any man A. L. SMITH.

to rule him " The Reign

of Henry

In these quaint and characteristic words More summed vin.
up his own experience of Henry VIII. as a master, and his
advice to Thomas Cromwell. The words are a summary of
the whole reign. Year by year the royal power grew stronger,
and revealed itself in more startling forms. Before his death
this king without an arrn} r , without an independent revenue,
with no open breach in constitutional forms, was exercising,
over a nation still proud of its instincts of freedom and jealous
of political innovation, a self-willed authority that amounted
to a real despotism. Every fresh publication of the State
Papers dealing with the time brings out in a clearer light
the great abilities and the deeply marked personal character
of the king, the importance of his initiative, his extraordinary
power of carrying the nation with him, and the magnitude of
the results which he achieved. At his accession there was
more than conventional rejoicing. Foreigners saw in it the

England turned
repressive adminis-

and ignominious ^reacteiojt, to the young* M % ;nee, who embodied
so brilliantly the learn'ing and culture '.eft' his. time, its tastes
and ambitions, .even -its ideal of manl}* vigo'ur and beauty.
He was the firsjb kiftg for a hundred and i.eiv years who had
a title beyond Ca4\t;, -he had inherited.* a' ".treasure which the



Venetian Giustiniani puts at 10,000,000 ducats: l>y marrying
his brother's widow, Katharine of Aragon, ho had secured
the alliance with Spain : and the arrest and execution of hi.-'
father's hated ministers, Empson and I)udley, raised the new
ruler's popularity to its climax.

It was an age of great European wars. In these wars

I-' ranee, full of a
restless military
class, conscious ol
her new centralisa-
tion and unity, was
the moving spirit.
There was much
talk of ( 'harle-
magnc and the
Holy Sepulchre ;


like schemes to

England recover Naples or to rob Venice. But in England, the sullen
continent traditions of Crecy and Agincourt, the ancestral and inveterate
hostility to " our adversary of France," had been quickened to
fresh life by French ambition, and were ready at a moment to
leap into flame. Henry seized the opportunity in 1511 to join
the " Holy League " to protect the Papal territories from French
aggressions in Italy. The expedition concerted with Ferdinand
to attack the French from the Spanish side was a disastrous
failure. Ferdinand, overreaching himself as ever in his own
cunning, infuriated his son-in-law by treating him as a catspaw ;
the troops, drinking Spanish wine as if it Avere beer, fell ill,
mutinied, and insisted on a return home (p. 92). The failure made
Henry determine that the campaign of 1518 should be on the
Flemish side of France, to get Maximilian's co-operation. It
also brought Wolsey to the front, the one man Avhose organis-
ing capacity and omnipresent energy AVIV to gi\v a distinctive
impress to the first twei.iy years of the pejgii. The autumn
of 1513 witnessed the. Fvench panic and defeat at the Battle
of the Spurs, the capture by Henry in person of Tournay and
Teroueime, and the overwhelming ruin of the invading Scotch
host at Floddcn Field, .lames IV. had fallen on the field; his
successor Avas an inian', his widow was Margaret Tudor.



Scotland was forced to submit to a peace, and for many years to
come Wolsey's skilful management of the Scots' intestine feuds
his " fiddling," as Dacre called it availed to put an end to
all danger in that quarter. It was considered also a master-
stroke of policy Avhen, after the most secret
negotiations, peace was made with France in
1514, and not only peace but an honourable
alliance by the marriage between Louis XII.
and Henry's sister Mary. It is true she was
seventeen and he about sixty ; but in three
months his death set her free again. With
Francis I. on the French throne, and Charles
now ruling Spain as well as the Netherlands,
the drama somewhat shifts its actors ; and
these three remarkable contemporaries entei
historic rivalry. Between Francis and



upon their
C'harles the duel
was inevitable and, so to speak, justifiable. But Henry's
intervention is less easy to understand. The leading motive
of it has sometimes been sought in a desire to appear as the
champion of the Papacy, sometimes in a vigilant calculation
of the balance of power. But no one motive suffices to
explain it. His normal relation to France varied from jealousy
and intrigue to open warfare, Avhile the interests of trade and


pt him normally The

,- , , 77 i Field 01
of the French the Cloth

of Gold.

(till 1525 at least)

in alliance with Charley?

and English kings at the Field of the Cloth df Gold in 1 520

is thoroughly typicalof the time, in its almost 'brutal magnifi-
cence, in its affigcta&dh of an effete chiya^irpj nbove all in its
barefaced diplomatic" futility. Immediatel^'lvjore he met his

' *

4 /'///<: dl.-l) ORDKK C If A \til-: 1 1.


"dear brother of I'Yance," Henry had pledged himself in a,
personal interview to the Kmperor; and immediately after
the meeting he hurried back to another such interview at


Gravelines. Francis knew well that he was bein^ shamelessly
tricked : and Henry knew that he knew it. Yet the portentous

THE AXGLO-FKKM'll "KXTKXTK 'UF. i:,K (M^. V.'>1>. B. ii.).

i J

i A <:. \i'iii:y to Mai': ', . .i

* , O '' ( <

farce v;hich mined '.i/ituvv 'nobles of bo'ili'.'couhfries was played
out with decorous hypocrisy to the eiid. In 152o France,
weakened in Italy and threatened by tke Emperor and the
Swiss on three sides, 'seemed to offer a faycv.i'rab'le moment for

ill, O (

, . ack. The ebiei' l-'vench noble, the Consta^lO Bourbon, had

" c *


,' ' ' ' I





g i

SH =
o <



put his sword ;it the service of the invaders. P,ut, as tlie
penetrating genius of Macchiavelli li.-id pointed out, France is
a country as liard To hold as it is easy to invade. \\\\\\ one
l>urs! of her ancient spirit she shook off all her foes: and
Avhen the rout of her great army and the capture of her king
at I'avia in '1525 seemed to lay her again at the mercy of her
old foes, Henry thought better of his first vengeful impulse
and made a treaty with Louise of Savoy, the llegent. The
treaty \vas renewed in 1527, and was to he cemented l>y a
French marriage for the Princess Mary. No doultt Henrv
\vas reluctant to push Charles's aggrandisement any further.
But he was also beginning to feel his way to that rearrange-

/ O

ment of his foreign position which the divorce from Katharine
The Divorce seemed likely to entail. This divorce question and the con-
sequent estrangement from Charles explain the fact that there
was from this time no war with France till near the close of
the reign. In 1 5oN .lames Y. of Scotland, by his marriage,
introduced the (Juise influence into his country; and in 1542,
by this influence and the encouragement of the Pope, James
\vas led to a rash invasion of England. It resulted in the
English victory of Sol way Moss and the death of the Scots
king. A Scotch invasion was always the accompaniment of
a rupture with France, and in 1544 Henry invaded France
and captured Boulogne, which was held till 1550.

I >r. Brewer has maintained that all this aggressive foreign
policy was needed to rouse England from its insular isolation,
and that its effect was to raise the country from the position
of a third-rate Power to that of one of the first rank, making
it the arbiter of Christendom. In a witty French masque,
performed in Wolsey's presence, the truth was better expressed
by representing the function of England as that of " paying
the piper." It would be more just to call England the make-
weight than the arbiter. Neither its interests nor its resources
entitled it to such an offensive interposition in the strife of
two Towers, each vastly its superior in population and revenue,
and still more in organisation and military efficiency. Such a
policy diverted it from its real work, which was to remain, for
fifty years to come, the neutralisation of Scotland, the pacifi-
cation of Ireland, the assimilation of Wales. At best the more
urgent need for the England of the Tudors was the creation






of an efficient fleet, towards which not much was done by
the king's occasional interest in his dockyards, or the building
of a Great Harry (p. 103). The net result of such a policy
was the addition of a huge item in the financial wastefulness
of the most wasteful reign in English history. It can hardly
be denied that Wolsey 's administration was, in regard to

/'!,,,/,,; WaU-rr Jt Cockeri'lt, Clifford's Jim, E.C.

(National I'ln'ti'iiit 1,'nJli i'ii. fi-niii ili'iin-iiiy at

his foreign schemes, costly, dangerous, and futile, however
stimulating it may have been indirectly.

Yet Wolsey was beyond all doubt a great man. His com- wolsey
manding abilities deserved the ascendancy which they won
him, not only in the popular imagination, but also in the
councils of Europe. But, great as he was even then recognised
to be, full justice was not done to him, nor could be done,
till modern times. Only with the recent opening of our own
and foreign archives has there been disclosed to us the bold-
ness and magnitude of his aims, the comprehensiveness and
practical sagacity of his highest conceptions, his almost



incredible industry, and his thorough grasp of details. " Feared
by all, loved by few or by none at all." This is the description
by a famous contemporary. But a scholar, and a needy <>ne,
had a twofold grudge against this cardinal whose interests
were practical and whose wealth was already pledged to a
great practical scheme. Wolsey was indeed " lofty and sour
to them that loved him not." But through all the invectives
of his enemies, even through the biting doggerel verse of
Skelton, there pierces a reluctant note of admiration. Wolsey
was not free from some of the faults of his age its rather
vulgar ostentation, its arrogance and impatience, its un-
scrupulousness as to means, its low standard of private morals.
That he had a household of eight hundred and a retinue
bearing silver pillars and poleaxes, that he held at once three
bishoprics and one of the richest abbeys, that he humbled
the great nobles and bullied ambassadors, that he had,
and openly promoted, at least one illegitimate child these
were not traits without precedent in the lives of churchmen,
however highly placed. The defects which in a fair historical
judgment must weigh more heavily against him are his mis-
apprehension of the conditions before him and of his royal
master. He was clear sighted rather than far-sighted. He
saw the need of Church reform ; he did not see the speedy
and inevitable advent of the Reformation. He saw that the
land required a stern enforcement of order, that the lingering
feudal spirit must be cowed, that the equity jurisdiction in
Chancery needed acceleration and extension, that Parliament
was not yet fit to be the direct instrument of government :
but what he failed to see was that there was a spirit in tin-
people which would resent even benefits if conferred without
their co-operation, and which would endure a despotic sovereign,
but not a despotic minister. In the same way he saw that

Online LibraryH. D. (Henry Duff) TraillSocial England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) → online text (page 6 of 68)