H. D. (Henry Duff) Traill.

Social England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) online

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tion of Greek with, 112, 113; Ascham on
the teaching of, 127, 128

Lawyers, rendezvous of, in Elizabethan
London, 522

Learning, decay of, under Henry VIII., 171

Learning, the New, 29, 33, 112-128

Legal profession, remuneration of, 520

Leicester, the Earl of, 569, 599, 602

Leighton, Dr., on expulsion of scholasti-
cism from Oxford, 122

Leland, John, topographer, 134

Leprosy in Scotland, 386

Lessons in Prayer-book of 1559. 429

Levant Company, 504, 741

Levant trade and travel to the, 108, 109,
298 309, 326, 656 659

Lichfield Cathedral, Flemish windows at,
334

Lincolnshire, opposition to Amicable Loan
(1525), 17; rising in (1536), 48, 50

Literature (1558-1584), 456-478; Elizabe-
than (proper) (1584-1603). 702-728; be-
ginning of modern English, 129; in-
fluences on, 130; under Henry VIII.,
character of, 140; Scottish, 141147;

Liturgy ^'English, of 1544, 80. See Prayer-
Lodge Thomas, dramatist, 708, 711
Lodge', Thomas, physician, 196
Lok, John, voyages, 309. 656, note
London, attitude towards King, in 1525, 16;
outbreak against foreigners, 158, 210;
preserves its guilds, 177; assessment of
0-503), 181; under Henry VIII., 225-229;
martyrs of Smithfield, 275, 281, 282;
health of, 190 seq.. 370, 371, 505-512, 764-
766- growth of, 505512, 764; population
o{ 508512; vital statistics, ibid.; open
spaces in, 512; life under Eliza-
beth 522, 523, 781784; increased
trade of 740; principal streets in
Elizabeth's reign, 781; river traffic 782
shops, 782; sports, 781; taverns, 780, 782,
784 theatres, 773-775; women, 785;
sights of, under Elizabeth, 782

^ngbow B di d S g cont 7 lnued in 1595, 630. See

Archery
Longford, 438
Longleat, 436



Lords, House of: alterations in structure
nnrlpr Henrv VIII., 83 84; ana riui
"nun, "wo 1 difference w"h Commons
on Houses of Correction Bill, 754



; military authorities,

Luxury, growth of, under Henry VIII.,
225; under Elizabeth, 542, 733,

Lyly^John, his "Euphues." 458-460; his

verse, 476, 477

Lvly, William, 117 .

Lyn.isay, Sir David, poetry of, 146, 147; c

social abuses, 393
Lyric poetry, Elizabethan, 721

Machiavelli, on conquest of France 6; in-
fluence of his " Prince on Cromwell,
46

Magic, 446448

Maidstone, foreigners at 500

Malacca, Ralph Fitch in, 660

Manchester, "l59. 176; plague at 196
Manners, English, 222; at table, 221; unc

Elizabeth, 540; in Scotlan A,., \ 9 - w
Manners and costume (1558-

See also Social life
Manor houses, 334, 436
Manufacture, change in localities, 159,

Scottish, in 16th cent., 397; progress o!,

740

Mariner's compass, 455, 642
" Market Overt," 186

Marlowe', Christopher, work of, 708 seq.
'Marprelate Martin," controversy and
tracts, 588, 605 seq., 612-615; in literary

Mar^hall! y or 7 Beche. Thomas, last Abbot of

Colchester, executed, 75
Marston, John, 718
Martyrs, the Protestant 274 277-282



refuses to give up hearing Latin mass,
264 Catholic reaction under, 270 seq. ;
Head of the Church, 271; Persecutions
under 274 seq. : navy under. 298 ; trade
and industry under, 351; finances or,
351352

Mary * tuart^fcSen of Scots, interest .in
music, 148; marriage to the Dauphin,
252; claim to the English crown, 4
imprisonment in England, 419; instruc-
tions as to her ambassador's behaviour,
524 ; career of, 547 ; execution 569

Marv Tudor, sister of Henry VIII., mar-
riage of, to Louis XII 3; marries
Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, 201

Masks, in dress, 786

Masques, 535

Matthew's Bible, 284

Maxstoke Castle, 238

May Day, 537

Meat, price of, 638, 746

Medical Acts, 197

Medical profession, earnings of, under
Henry VIII. 200; under Elizabeth, 520

Medicine: incorporation of College
Physicians (1518), 197, 453; empirics in,
197, 198, 200; and astrology, 453



796



INDEX.



Mediterranean, trade with (15341553), 309

Merbecke, John, 150

Mercantile Marine, under Henry VIII., 109;

under Edward VI., 298
Mercantile System, rise of the, 493
Mercenaries, foreign, in English army,

289, 291 seq.

Merchant Adventurers, 301, 504
Metre of Elizabethan dramas, 465
Middelburg, Scottish trade at, 397
Middle classes, under Henry VIII., 86;
rise of, under Elizabeth, 512, 521; posi-
tion of, under Elizabeth, 749, 750
Militia of London, 295
Miniature painting, 440 seq.
Mining, in Scotland, 556
Monasteries, decay of, 24; suppressions by
Wolsey, 20, 6277; visitation, 66; execu-
tions, 63, 6566, 74, 75; friars, Observant,
of Greenwich, 64; Carthusians, 66;
smaller, 68; friaries, 72; voluntary sur-
render, 72; total proceeds, 76, 77; dis-
posal of, 73, 77; numbers dispossessed,
75; fate of inmates, 76; and education,
121 ; effect on agriculture, 151 seq. ;
effect on society, 168; number of per-
sons affected, 170; and pauperism, 358,
360, 361

Money, fall in value of, 12, 166; quantity,
under Elizabeth, 745, 746. See also
Coinage, Currency
Monopolies, under Elizabeth, 494, 741, 742;

debate on, in Commons, 578
Monson, Sir William, 638
Morals, decay of, under Henry VIII., 171;
sexual, in Tudor period, 201 seq. under
Elizabeth, 525, 526; in Scotland, 558
More, Sir Thomas, view of Henry VIII.,
and advice to Cromwell, 1 ; as Speaker,
13 ; views on reformation of the Church,
29: as scholar, 123; his "Utopia," 123,
136, 160 seq., 190; literary work of, 136;
summary of his career, 161 ; promotes
English Bible, 283; the "Utopia" on
enclosures, 355, 356, 480
More family, water-drinkers, 220
" Morgan, Sir Pierce " (Sieur de Pors-

moguer), 109

Morion (helmet), 96, 623 seq.
Moro, Antonio, painter, 343
Morocco, trade with (1551), 309
Mortality, Bills of, 194 seq.
Morton, Archbishop, policy of, 9
Moscow, Chanceler at, 319 seq. ; Jenkinson

at, 668

Mountjoy, Lord, In Ireland, 583 seq.
Mulcaster, Richard, headmaster of St.

Paul's, 457

MULLINGEK, J. BASS: Learning, the New
112130; Educational Reaction, the,
under Edward VI., 326330
Music, under the earlier Tudors 147
" Fifth English School," 150; of Tudor
period, 234; under Elizabeth, 699702;
sacred, 784; popular, 784
Musical instruments, 148, 242, 243
Musket, use of, 628, 629
Mystery plays, 206 seq.



Nash, Thomas, 708, 711

Natural science, beginnings of. in England

454 456; (15841603), 697699
Nautical terms, 641
Naval stores, prices under Elizabeth, 637

seq.

Navigation, art of, 642
Navigation laws of Elizabeth. 493
Navy, the, under Henry VIII., 102, 112;



under Edward VI., 296298; under
Mary, 298300; under Elizabeth, 630
654, 737; becomes a profession, 638; dis-
cipline, 639; pay in, under Elizabeth,
642, 643; sanitary state of, 768

Netherlands and England, 420; commercial
recovery in, 740

Newberie, John, journeys of, 657

Newcastle, plague at, 191

Newfoundland, first Fisheries Statute, 311;
becomes English, 683; English fisheries
at (1577), 738

New Learning, the, 112128; effect on the
Church, 29, 33, 114, 122

Nobility, under Henry VIII., the old, 83
seq. ; the new, 54, 84 seq. ; personal, 86;
and the land, 88; under Elizabeth, 516,
517

Nonconformity, punishment of, 606 ; growth
of, 586593

Nonesuch Palace, 230, 232

Norfolk, Elizabeth, Duchess of, 244

Norfolk, Thomas Howard, third Duke of,
suppresses Pilgrimage of Grace, 48, 50

Norfolk, Thomas Howard, fourth Duke of,
conspiracy of (1569), 419

Norfolk, and Amicable Loan (1525), 17; and
Kett's rebellion, 346

Norman, Robert, scientist, 455

North-East Passage, search for, 308, 311317

North-East Passage to China (Pet and Jack-
man), 670

North-West Passage, Robert Thornton,
305308; and Frobisher, 674 seq.; and
Davis, 687691

Northumberland, John Dudley, Duke ol,
254; procures accession of Mary, 270;
recantation at execution, 260; unpopu-
larity of, 294

Northumberland, Duke of (Sir Robert Bud-
ley), naval reformer, 653 seq.

Norwich, and Amicable Loan, 17; under
Henry VIII., 175; foreigners at, 500, 501



Occult sciences, the, 446 453

Oglethorpe, Owen, Bishop of Carlisle, 4^0

" Old Poor Law," 759763

Oliver, Isaac, 441

Oliver, Peter, 441

OMAN, C. W. C. : Art, the, of War (1509
1547), 90102; Development of the Art
of War (15471558), 287296; Elizabethan
Army, the, 620631

O'Neill, Hugh, Earl of Tyrone, rebellion of,
580

Onions, 488

Open-field system, preserved by fall In
wool, 730

Ordinal of Edward VI., 259, 262, 266, 271

Ornaments, Rubric, 429

Overcrowding, checked, in London, 506,
508

Oxenham, John, 652; last voyage of, 672, 673

Oxford, debt of, to Henry VIII., 178180;
Charter of 1523, 180

Oxford University : dissolution of colleges,
56; new foundations, 37, 120, 171; hos-
tility to Greek, 113; revolution in
studies, 122; faculty of medicine at,
197; decay of learning at, under Edward
VI., 171; in relation to society, under
Elizabeth, 520; and the drama, 171



Pace. Richard, work as English agent in

Switzerland and Venice, 109
Pageants, 204 seq.
Painters, Court, 336 seq.



INDEX.



797



Painted Glass In 16th cent., 334 seq.
Painting, under earlier Tudors. 336 343
Palace life, under Henry VIII., 233, 234
Palsgrave, John, translator, 133
Paper, manufacture of, 500
Paracelsus, 450

Paris, George van, burnt for Arianism, 264
Parish Registers, 82

Parker, Matthew, Archbishop of Canter-
bury, 426 seq., 430, 431; and Bishop's
Bible. 286

Parliament, Wolsey's conception of, 13;
under Henry VIII., 21, 22; under Eliza-
beth, 22, 578; and Henry VIII., 43; in-
fluence of Crown on, 178; the Irish, 412;
instance of friction between the Houses,
762. See also Commons, Lords

Parr, Catherine, Protestantism of, 56
Parsons, Robert, composer, 150

1'astinies. See Sports

Patents. See Monopolies

" Paul's Walk," 781

Pauperism, under Henry VIII., 158; effects,
223 seq.; under Edward VI., 346, 364;
pauper apprentices, 360; the problem
of, 352366; collections for poor, 359,
364; under Mary, 365 seq. ; Scottish, in
16th cent., 396; legislation, under Eliza-
beth, 750763

Pavia, Battle of (1525), 6

Pay, naval, under Henry VIII., 106, 111

Peele, George, dramas of, 708, 709

Penry, John, 614

Persecution, under Mary, 257

Persia, English travel in, 670; Jenkinson
in, 668

Perth, 551

Pet, Arthur, voyage of, 670

Pett family, the, shipbuilders, 637

Phaer, Thomas, 472

Philip of Spain, and English manners, 222;
marriage with Mary, 272; and rising in
Netherlands, 420; intrigues in Ireland
and Scotland (1579), 420; supports
Catholics in France, 568; claims Crown
of England, 570; concludes peace of
Vervins with Henry IV. of France (1598)
576

Physicians, under Henry VIII., 196 seq.
College of, incorporated (1518), 197; fees
of, 200, 520

Pilgrimage of Grace, 47 50; and dissolu-
tion of monasteries, 70

Pilgrimages, 81

Pillory, the, 782

Pillows, 543

Pilots of Thames, incorporation of, 157

Pinkie, Battle of, 288291; political effects,
252

Piracy, Elizabethan, 650, 651, 737; religious
and political aspect, 737

Plague, under Henry VIII., 190196; noti-
fication of, 194; at Havre (1563), 200;
in London, 509, 510; in Scotland, (1568
1569), 556; in Elizabeth's reign, 763, 764;
fear of its spread by dramatic perform-
ances, 772

" Plantations," Irish, 414, 580

Plate, silver, increase of, 734

Plymouth, rise of. 176; borough court, 189

Poetry, Earlier Elizabethan, 465478

Pole, Cardinal, 270274; policy of, 276

Poor laws, under Elizabeth, 750763

Poor, relief of, under Henry VIII., 169;
under Edward VI., 269; voluntary col-
lections for, 365, 366; principles of
Elizabethan, 757. See also Pauperism

Pope, Sir Thomas, treasurer of the Court
of Augmentation, 68



Population, increase of, under Henry VIII.,
170; of London, 508512; of Scotland,
551

Porsmoguer, Sieur de, French Admiral, 109

Poultry, 541

Poynef's Catechism, 272, 432

Prsemunire, revival of, 43; partial repeal
of, 254

Prayer-books, of Edward VI., 78, 80, 259,
266, 267; revised, of 1559. 428 seq.

Preaching, provision made for, by Whit-
gift, 608

Presbyterian system in England, 589, 590,
596 seq.

Preston, Guilds of, 177

Prices, under Henry VIII., 166, 163, 225;
rise of, under Elizabeth, 492, 735, 744
746; comparative table of, under Eliza-
beth and James I., 746

" Primer," the English, 80

Prose, Elizabethan, 721 seq.

Protectionism, under Henry VIII., 210, 211;
under Elizabeth, 494

Protectorates, under Edward VI., 260

Protestants, activity, under Mary, 257, 272.
See Martyrs

Protestantism, under Henry VIII., 32

PROTHERO, R. E.: Transformation, the, of
the Land, 478 489 ; Agricultural
Counter-revolution, the, 728736

Provisions, price of (1570, 1584), 637, 638;
under Elizabeth and James I., 746

Public Health (15091547), 190201; (1547
1558), 366371; in Elizabeth's reign,
763770; in Scotland, 556 seq.

Punishments, 782; in Scotland, 550, 553;
for begging, 158, 358, 362; for violation
of quarantine, 194; for witchcraft. 446,
447

Puritanism, under Elizabeth, 419, 421 seq.;
effect of, on English morals, 788; in
Scotland, 546; and Nonconformity, 586
593

Puritans: application of name, 586;
under Elizabeth, 433, 434; atti-
tude to Elizabeth, 587, 6ff2 ; Presby-
terian, 588; Independent, 588 seq. ; re-
action against (c. 1600), 605; attacks on
Episcopate, 611615; prosecutions of,
614; reaction against, 618, seq.



Quarantine, 193 seq.

Queen's Bench Prison, insanitary state of,
768



Raleigh, Sir Walter, in Ireland, 581; and
White's expedition to Virginia, 694; his
expedition to Guiana (1595), 695; on
trade with Russia, 738; and tobacco,
778

"Ralph Roister Doister," 135, 462, 464

Ramea, 696, note

Randolph, Thomas, traveller to Russia, 669

Rapiers, 212

Raymond and Lancaster, explorers, 662

Reading Abbey seized, and Abbot and two
priests executed, 75

Rebellions in Eastern Counties (1525), 17
19; (15471558), 288, 292. See Carew,
Kett, Wyatt

Recorde, Robert, his " Whetstone of Wit,"
455

Redford, John, 150

Reformation, English, preparation for, 24
seq., 40 seq. ; causes of, 40 sfq. ; character
of. 42 seq. ; course of, 5862, 7782, 258-
271; attitude of Erasmus to, 115



798



INDEX.



Reformation in Ireland, 414

Regiment," first u-e of term. 295

Relisrion: at accession of Henry VIII.. 22,
23, 24; mercenary, 27, 28; frauds in, 27;
reformers, under Henry VIII., 30; under
Edward VI., 258271; foreign influences,
under Edward VI., 264, 268; reaction,
under Mary, 254 *eq.; struggles, under
Kli/.ibrth, 421435. 593610. See Church,
Puritanism, Reformation

Religion and literature (15841603), 610620

Religious struggle, the (15841603), 593610

Renaissance, the, effect on England, 112
seq. ; effect on architecture, 331 ; and
education, 88, 456

Richmond Palace, 232

Riding in Elizabeth's reign, 780

Ridolft Plot, 419

Ridley, Bishop, influence on Edward VI. 's
endowments, 269; martyrdom of, 278,
279

River navigation, under Henry VIII., 102

Roads, under Elizabeth, 544

Roanoke, 692, 695

ROCKSTKO, W. S. : Music, under the Earlier
Tudors, 147150; Music, under Eliza-
beth, 699702

Romanists' treatment, under Elizabeth, 576

Rome, breach with, 62. See Catholicism

Royal Exchange, 594

Ruffs, 528, 529

Russia, rediscovery of, 317, 318; Chanceler's
description, 319 seq.; trade with, 321
324; embassy to London (1557), 324;
trade with, 668. 669, 671, 738

Russia Company, 504

Rut, John, explorer, 308



.Sackville, Thomas, Earl of Dorset, 140,

470-^72

St. Andrews, 551

St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 269, 770
St. George's Cross, 104
St. John's College, Cambridge, 120, 121
St. Paul's Cathedral, removal of rood, 82;
as a rendezvous, 522. 781; music at 784
St. Paul's School, 117, 171
St. Thomas of Canterbury, shrine plun-
dered, 81

St. Thomas's Hospital, 269, 770
Saints' days, under Elizabeth, 538
Saints, popular regard for, 26
SAINTSBURY GEORGE; Literature (1509
1547), 129141; Literature, the, of Edu-
cation, 456460; Early Elizabethan
Drama, 460465; Earlier Elizabethan
Poetry, 465478; Elizabethan Society,
512523; Elizabethan Literature (1584
1603), 702728

Salisbury, Margaret, Countess of, execu-
tion (1541), 52

Sandwich, foreigners at, 499
Sanitary measures, against plague, 192 196
Sanitation, military, 96; under earlier

Tudors, 195; under Elizabeth, 766767
Satires, Elizabethan, 721
Sawley Abbey suppressed, 70
Scarborough Castle, seizure of, 257
Scenery of Elizabethan theatres, 776
Schools for boys in Middle Ages, 118, 120,
128; foundations, under Henry VIII.,
120; effect of Reformation on, 241 seq.;
of Edward VI., 329; Irish, in 15th and
16th cent., 398
Sciences, natural, 455456, 698699; occult,

446455

Scot, Reginald, his " Discoverie of Witch-
craft," 448



Scotland: defeat at Flodden, 2; and
France, 6; invasion, under Edward VI.,
251 seq.; Battle of Pinki.-, 288 291 ; pike-
men of 288 seq. ; history (11241561),
371398; feudalism in, 372, 390; forma-
tion of, 373; social system, 373375;
burgh life in Middle Ages, 376, 377;
trade of, 378, 379; rural life in, 378,
389393; Court life, 378380; shipping,
380; culture in, 380, 381; nobility, 380,
381; history (15131568), 383386; lan-
guage, 383; criminal law in, 385, 386;
judicial system, 386388; Church in,
388; agriculture. 389392; exports of,
392; relations with England, under
Elizabeth, 417, 418, 421; history (1561
1603), 547561; disorder of. 548; law in,
548, 550; rural districts, 550551; town
life, 551 554; manners, 554; furniture,
554; food. 554; town life, 555; sports,
556; public health, 556; the Church,
557; the clergy, 557; morals, 558;
culture, 559; child-life, 560
Scurvy, 770

-eamen, number of English, in 1583, 653
Sergeant, Nicholas, painter, 344
Servants duties of, in Tudor period, 236,

237; under Elizabeth, 786
Shakespeare, William, and enclosures, 481;
and his contemporaries, 712714; life,
715716; work, 716718; sonnets, 719
Shaxton, Nicholas, ex-Bishop of Salisbury,

79
Sheep-farming, growth of, 150 seq., 480, 729;

checks on, 152154
Sheffield, 159, 176
Shells introduced in war, 98
Shepherde, John, musical composer. 150
Shipbuilding, improvements, under Eliza-
beth, 630 seq., 653 seq.

Ships, size of, 107; Elizabethan, 631 *tq.\ of
Spanish Armada, 6 7 4; number of
English, in 158788), 653
Shoes, Scottish, 395
Shops in Elizabethan London, 782
Sidney, Sir Philip, poetry of, 474, 476 seq.
Silk weaving, 500

Silver, influx of, from America, 166, 491
Silver plate, English. 222, 543, 544
Six Articles, Act of, 78. 82
Skelton, poetry of, 130133, 139
Skene, Dr. Gilbert, on plague. 196
Slave trade, English, begun (1562), 740
Sleeves, 531

Smeaton. Mark, musical composer, 150
SMITH, A. L. : The Reign of Henry VIII.,
1 9; the New Era in Church and
State, 4358; the Reign of Edward
VI., 251254; the Reign of Mary,
254258

Smoking, 778780
Soap, 544

Social changes in early Tudor period, 184

seq.. 189. See Land, Towns. Pauperism

Social life of medieval Ireland, 401; under

Elizabeth, 522; (15841603), 771788
Society, under Henry VIII., alterations in
structure of, 82, 89: modernising of. 88;
features of, in Tudor period, 203:
structure of, under Elizabeth, 512522
Somerset, Edward Seymour, Duke of, Pro-
tectorate, 251254'; seizures of Church
property, 264, 327; invasion of Scotland,
288; at the Battle of Pinkie, 290; un-
popularity of, 294; his palace, 327; in-
fluence on architecture, 435
Solway Moss, Battle of, 6. 98
Sonnet. Elizabethan, 719. 720
Sorcery, 446 ;4<s



INDEX.



799



Southampton, and Guinea trade, 175

Southwark Fair, 188

Spain, alliance with England, 2; religion
in (c. 1509), 22, 23; relations with
England, 420, 421; invasion of Ireland
from, 584; English depredation on ships
of, 737

Spenser, Edmund, the " Shepherd's Calen-
dar," 474, 476 seq.; in Ireland, 581; his
" Faerie Queene," 704 seq., 707

Spice trade, significance of, 174

Sports, 396 seq. ; Scottish, 556. See Amuse-
ments

Spurs, Battle of the (1513), 2, 90, 98

Stafford Castle, 230

Starch introduced, 529

Statutes : of Appeals, 45 ; of Apprentices,
495 seq. ; of Bankruptcy, 172; of Kil-
kenny (1367), 412; of Mortuaries, 60; of
Pluralities, 60; " Poyning's Law," 412;
of Probate, 60; of Restraint of Annates.
61, 62; of Restraint of Appeals, 62; of
the King's Supreme Headship, 62;
against Dispensations and Peter's
Pence, 62; for Dissolution of Monas-
teries, 68; securing Monastic Property
to King, 73; checking Enclosures, 152
154, 347, 729; forbidding foreigners to
take apprentices (1523), 159; dealing
with Guilds, 159, 176. 177; abolishing
Laws against Usury (1536), 172; relating
to the Medical Profession, 197, 198;
Sumptuary, 216, 533; of Supremacy
(1559), 427; of Uniformity (1559), 430;
transferring Church Property to Crown,
430; against Witchcraft, 447; against
Private Religions Assemblies, 577, 593;
Poor Law of 1563, 751; of 1571, 753; of
1572, 754; of 1576, 758; of 15971598, 759;
of 1601, 763; of Uses, 45, 55, 171; of Wills,
55, 56, 171

STEELE. R.: the Occult Sciences, 446454

Steelyard, or Stilleard, Merchants of the,
188

Stockings, 531, 534

Stourbridge Fair, 188

Streets of London, 781

Stretes, Guillim, 342

Strongbow, Richard, invades Ireland, 408

Sturm, John, 127, 128

Suffolk, and Amicable Loan, 17; agricul-
ture in (c. 1590), 732

Suffolk, George Brandon, Duke of, 94; ex-
pedition to France, 94

Sugar, use of, 539

Sumptuary laws, 216 seq., 533

Sunday observance, 610, 618

Superstition, 26, 27; rejection of, 81

Surgeons, statiis of, 198

Surrey, Thomas Howard, E..rl of, admiral
of allied English and Imperial fleets,
103

Surrey, Henry Howard, Earl of, poetry, 135,
13J3 seq.

Swearing, prevalence of, 524

Sweating Sickness, 19, 366; under Edward
VI,, 366; under Mary, 367; later epi-
demics, akin to, 368

Sweets, in Tudor period, 221

Sword exercise. 781

SYMKS, J. E. : Commerce and Currency
155091547). 156173; the Economic
Crisis < 1547- 1558), 3-W 352; the Econ-
omic. Revival <x5.VJ 1584). 489505; the
Progress of Commerce (15841603), 736
750

Syphilis, prevalence of. in London, and
connection with vagabondage 770

Syria, English in, 658



Tactics, military, 98 seq. ; naval, 107

Tallys. Thomas, musical composer, 700

Tapestry, 543, 544

Taverner, John, musical composer, 150

Taverns, under Elizabeth, 780

Taxation, under Henry VIII., 911

Taylor, Rowland, martyr, 280

Telescope, in the Navy, 641

Terouenne captured, 2

Thames, traffic on the, 179; in London, 782

Theatres, form of Elizabethan, 714, 744;
early London, 773, 774, 775

Thorne, Nicholas, on trade to West Africa,
309

Thorne, Robert, argument for N.W. Passage
to Indies, 305308

Throgmorton Plot, 568

Timber, 543

Tithe, transfer to laymen, 82

Tobacco, 778780

Token Coinage, 445

Torregiano, Pietro, 338

' Tottel's Miscellany," 129, 138, 140

Tournay captured, 2

Tourneur, Cyril, dramatist, 718

Tower of London, animals at, 782

Town life, under the earlier Tudors, 174
190

Towns, relative importance of, in 1503, 181;
relations with Crown and nobles, 183;
health of, 191, 229

Towrson, William, voyages of, 326

Trade, maritime, under Henry VIII., 103
seq. See Commerce

Transformation of the land, the, 478 486

Translators, Elizabethan, 472, 473

Travel in Tudor period, 184, 236; under
Elizabeth, 544

Tribal society in Ireland, 401, 404

Trinity College, Cambridge, 123, 171

Trinity House, 103, 157, 642

Tunstall, Cuthtaert, Bishop of Durham, im-
prisoned under Edward VI., 260, 262;
restored, 276; preaches against Tyn-
dale's translation of the Bible 283

Turberville, George, 469

Turkey, English trade with, 656 seq.

Turnips, 488

Tusser, Thomas, 486; quoted, 237, 239, 240

Tyburn, executions at, 63, 65, 66

Tye, Dr. Christopher, musical composer.
699, 700

Tyndale (Tindale), William, New Testa-
ment, 78, 81, 282; at Cambridge, 114;
literary influence of, 134

Typhus, 767, 768



Udall (Calvinist minister), 611, 618 620

Udall, Nicholas, 135, 462

Uniforms, military, 96; beginning of, 622

Uniformity, Act of (1559), 430

Universities, new learning at, 112114;
revolution at, 122; life at, under Henry
VIII., 240; education, ibid.; under
Elizabeth, 520; dramatic performances
at. 772, 773. See Cambridge, Oxford

Usury, legalised <1536), 12, 172; regulation
of, 742, 743



Vagabondage, treatment of, 170, 553 355,
358, 361: causes of, 357; under Eliza-
beth. 485, 506. 752, 753; legislation
against, 753756, 762; and publio
health, 770

Van Clee-f, Joost, 342

Vegetables, 541

Vergil, Polydore, 134



800



INDEX.



Virginia, 694
Virginals, 148, 243
Vi\ es, l.iuliivii-iis, 124 xeq.
Volpe, Vincent, 336
Voysey, Bishop of Exeter,
under Edward VI., 263



Imprisoned,



Wages, under Henry VIII.. 166, 168, note;

agricultural, 163,'485. 730; regulation of,

496; under Eli/abetli, 730. 744. 748



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