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Egin, town on W. Euphrates, i. 449, ii. 386, 390

Eleazar, katholikos, i. 262, 263, 270

Elizabetpol (Gandzak), i. 364, 365

Elizabetpol, Govt, of, i. 447, 449 ; 97, 103 note, 113,
114, 115, 447, 449, 455

Elliot, Capt. , British Consul at Van, ii. 304, 314

Elmali Dere or Vale of Apple Trees, district between
Khinis and Tutakh, ii. 263, 399

Elmali Dere, Lake Van, ii. 142

f2mlekli Dagh, Gori Mokri, i. 434

Enghil Su, Lake Van, see Anguil Su

Enzakh, Armenian hamlet. Lake Van, ii. 137

Ephesus, Council of, i. 312 note, 314 note

Ephraim, katholikos, i. 264 note 5

Erazgavors, town in Shirak, residence of Sembat I.,
i; 341- 345 . .

Erimenas, Vannic king, known only from an inscrip-
tion on a shield found at Toprak Kala, ii. 66, 75



504



Armenia



Erishat River (Irshat), Lake Van, ii. 24, 44

Erivan, the town of gardens, visited and described,
i. 142, 143-146, 153, 206-227, 229, 427, ii. 404.
Derivation of the name and history, i. 209-210,
446. Industries, 226. Material prosperity of the
Armenian inhabitants, 225, 467 ; yet there does
not exist a single bookseller's shop, 225. Pop. of
the town, 209 ; of the province, 447, 451. Schools,
see under Education. View of from the north.
Fig. 42, p. 208

Erkizan, quarter of Akhlat, ii. 45, 284

Erovant, Armenian Arsakid king, ist cent., i. 209

Ertev, village, Pasin district, ii. 193

Ervandakert, ancient Armenian fortress on the
Arpa Chai, i. 319, 324

Ervandashat, ancient Armenian city on the Arpa
Chai, i. 319, 324

Erzen, see Artze

Erzerum (Karin, Karnoy Kaghak, Theodosiopolis),
fortress and capital in Turkish Armenia, visited
and described, ii. 198-224, 244, 245. Derivation of
the name, 223. History, 221-224, 204-205. Climate,
20S and cp. i. 107 note, 427. Trade, ii. 205-207,
i. 32 ; pop. of the town, ii. 206-207, ^'''d cp. i. 67,
128 ; of the province, ii. 413. Schools, see under
Eeincaiion. View of from the south, Fig. 164,
p. 207, from the north, Fig. 165, p. 208. Mileage
to Khinis, 174 note ; to Trebizond, 225, 240.
Route to Rizeh, 382, i. 431, and to Olti, ibid.
Suggestions for railway comminiication, ii. 206, 382

Erzerum, plain of, area and elevation, ii. 209.
Connection with other Armenian plains, i. 146,
ii. 401

Erzinjan, ancient Armenian town and Turkish
military station on the Western Euphrates, i. 348
note, 431, 432, ii. 204, 227, 228, 234, 386, 390,
404, 413, 418. Statue of the goddess Anahid at
E. destroyed by St. Gregory, i. 294

Eugenius, Saint, of Trebizond, i. 36

Euphrates, Western (Kara Su, P'rat), its sources in
the Diimlii Dagh, i. 431, ii. 209, 401 ; fed by the
Central Tableland, ii. 398 ; its course through
Armenia, i. 146, ii. 201, 203, 222, 227, 228 and
note, 230, 404, 406 ; its valley apportioned to the
Roman Empire, i. 306

Euphrates, Eastern (Murad), its sources and prin-
cipal affluents, ii. 406 ; 373, 398 ; course through
Armenia, i. 420, ii. 2, 9, 10, 12-15, 264-273, 277,
342, 343, 346-355 ; _ 183, 175, i77_; the ancient
Arsanias, ii. 41. Tiridates and his people bap-
tized on the banks of, i. 296

Eusebius, Bishop of Nicomedia, i. 300

Eyerli Dagh, Erzerum, ii. 202, 245, 381, 398

Eyub Pasha, Kurd Hamidiyeh, ii. 5

Eznik, i. 301 note i

Ezra, katholikos, i. 270

Faddeff, General, Governor of Kars, i. 399, 400,

4°3. 417 . . , . .

Fallmerayer, J. P., historian of Trebizond, 1. 33,

34. 19 . . .

Fars (Shiraz, Persepolis), 1. 286, 287, 340 note 5
Fath Ali, Shah of Persia, i. 217
Fathlun I., Beni-Cheddad, i. 365
Fathlun II., i. 365

Faustus of Byzantium, i. 291 note i, 303, 311
Feodoroff, companion of Parrot, i. 198 note i
Fergiisson, J., History of Architecture, i. 263, 368,

372 note
Fethulla Bey, chieftain bf Hasananli Kurds, ii. 276
Finlay, G., History of Trebizond, i. 33, 34
Flora and fauna. The flora in Armenia is as a
rule composed of the species familiar to the
traveller in Europe, ii. 246, 248 ; 208, 253, 256,
265, 268, 269, 303. It is perhaps most remarkable
on the sandy slopes of Ararat, i. igo, 191, as also
on the higher seam.?, i. 181. The great mountain
masses appear to have their distinctive flowers,
ii. 362, and see Bingol, Niinrud, Sipan. Wealth
and variety of the flora in the regions bordering
Armenia on the side of the Black Sea, i. 18, 51,
432, ii. 236, 239, 241, 242, 382



Of big game there is little, ii. 302, 304, 339 ;
but partridges are -found in abundance on the
mountains, i. 161, 181 ; and the plain of Alash-
kert is a nursery of wild fowl, ii. 3, 9. Wild
geese are frequent on the rivers, ii. 346, and
pelicans on some of the lakes, 323, 344. The
Nimrud crater is a nursery for all kinds of butter-
flies, ii. 303. Remarkable about Lake Van are
the rollers {coracias garrulus), ii. 280. Lizards
dart among the rocks, i. 74

Forests, scarcity of in Armenia and causes, ii. 405

Fraser, Miss, member of the American Mission in
Van, ii. 92

Frat river, see Eup/iTafes, Western

Frese, General, Governor of Erivan, i. 143, 226,
246, 248, 253

Freshfield. Mr. D. W., i. 198 note

Gagik, Kinglet of Van (Artsruni) and ri\al of King
Sembat I., Bagratid dynasty, i. 345, 346, 348,
349, 350. Builds the church at Akhtamar, ii. 131
note 2.

Gagik I., Shahanshah, King of the Bagratid
dynasty, i. 354-355. 360, 373.. 382, 383

Gagik II., King of the Bagratid dynasty, i. 362

Galerius, Roman Emperor, i. 300

Galicia, emigration of Armenians to, i. 367

Gandzak, see EUzahctpol

Ganibuk, village, Khamur district, ii. 348

Garchigan, district and caza. Lake Van, ii. 138, 139

Gargalik, village of Sipkanli Kurds on the Murad,
ii. 267

Garni, ruined town, village and river, district of
Ararat, i. 201, 264

Garni Chai, Mush, ii. 166, 170, 175

Garuts, see Kars

Garzik village. Lake Van, ii. 141

Garzoni, Maurizio, Roman Catholic missionary in
Kurdistan in the 18th century, ii. 149

Gegham, Lake, see Sevati Lake

Gelarash Dagh, spur of the Ala Dagh, ii. 16

Gelat, Monasterj' of, district of Kutais, i. 45, 46, 47

Gelzer, Prof. H., i. 277, 292, 295, 299, 300, 309, 310,
notes

Genj, District of, ii. 392

George I. of Georgia, i. 360

George III. of Georgia, i. 365, 366

George IV., katholikos, i. 236, 254, 263, 267, 273

Georgia, i. 429, 432, 433; 37, 39-51 ; 448. Glance
at the Georgian kingdom during the Middle
Ages, i. 337 seg. passim. It abdicates in favour
of the Tsars, 446

Georgians, overlap into Armenia, i. 55-85, 86, 443.
Numbers in Armenia, 451, 455 (often classed as
Turks, iltid. and ii. 417). Their Church accepts
the Council of Chalcedon, i. 313. Unites with
the Russian Orthodo.x Church, 463. Their
curious method of catching fish, i. 76. Their
language, ii. 68 note 3

German colonists, their origin in Transcaucasia,
i. 96-99 ; met with in Armenia, 410

Gez, village near Erzerum, ii. 227

Ghubanoff, Michael Vasilievich (Dukhobortsy),
brother of Lukeria Vasilievna, i. loS

Giaour Dagh, northern border of Armenia, i. 430,
ii. 243

Ginal Dagh, i. 434

Girdim Dagh, Turkish Armenia, ii. 386, 392

Glak Vaiik (Changalli), ii. 180 note i

Gobet, Mussulman village, Akhaltsykh district,
_ i. 74

Godorebi, Mt. of the Abul-Samsar volcanic system,
i. 95

Gukcheh Lake, see Scran Lake

Giil Bashi, hamlet on Mush plain, ii. 319

Gol Bashi, Pool of, a source of the Kara Su, ii. 319

GiJleh, district in northern Armenia, i. 430, 431,

, 437. 439. 443 .
(>olgat, Armenian village, Alagiiz district, i. 133
Gi'ili, Armenian hamlet. Lake Van, ii. 138
Giiljik, Lake, ii. 3S7 ; indications of a rise in tlie
level, 53 note



Index



505



Gop, Lake (Bulama, Lake of Shailu), near Bilejaii

Dagh, ii. 337, 343, 344. Analysis of its water,

Appendix II.
Gop, large Armenian village, district of Bulanik,

ii. 344, 345. Mileage to Charbahur, 353 note
Gopal, Armenian village, Akh Dagh district, ii.
, 258, 259
Gopal Su, tributary of the Hingijl Su (Khinis),

ii. 260
Gorelovka, see Diikhohortsy
Gori Mokri Mts., Northern Armenia, i. 87, 433
Goschen, Rt. Hon. G. J., ambassador to Turkey,

ii. 410
Goshkar Baba (shoem.aker to the Prophet), grave

near Bingol Dagh, ii. 372
Gotimeria Dagh, Northern .Armenia, i. 430, 431
Gotni, Kurdish village, Mush plain, ii. 163
Gotok, village of settled Kurds, vilayet of Bitlis,

ii. 142
Gozme Gedik Pass, Mush plain, ii. 396
Grand-Comneni, line of Greek emperors at Tre-

bizond, i. 35-36
Graves, Mr. R. W., British Consul at Erzerum,

ii. 8, 199, 413 note 2
Greeks in Armenia, i. 122, 129, 331, 332, 451, 455;

in the northern peripheral region, i. 432, 4s5, ii.

236, 237-244
Greene, Mr. F. D., American missionary' at Van,

ii. 92, 95
Gregory, Saint (Lusavorich or The Illuminator), i.

259-261 ; 2S8-301 ; 200, 201, 204, 254, 262, 264

note 5, 265, 269, 271, 283, 284, 306, 311, 348, ii.

178 and note 2
Gregory Magistros, persecutes the Thonraki, i. 285
Grigor, grandson of .St. Gregory, i. 267
Grigor (Pahlavid), father of Vahram, i. 381, 382,

383 note 3
Grigor, son of Vahram, i. 385
Gudubgokh (Surb Vakob), Chapel near Lake Van,

ii- 137
Gugoghlan, Kurdish village, Shushar district, ii.

^ 375 .

Gujaretis, Valley of the, i. 433

Gumbet Dagh, i. 430, 431

Gumgum, village and capital of the caza of Varto,

ii. 183, 356, 371
Gumgum Su, affluent of the Bingcjl Su (Charbahur),

ii. 358, 367, 368.
Gumri, see Alc.xajidropol
Gumiishkhaneh, town in vilayet of Trebizond and

capital of Greek diocese of Chaldia, ii. 69, 240,

243, 382 ; famous for its silver mines, 243. Com-

mimications, i. 432
Gundemir, ancient Armenian village, Bingol dis-
trict, ii. 182, 358, 359
Gunduz, Armenian hamlet, plain of Khinis, ii. 257
Gunek Su, affluent of Eastern Euphrates, ii. 389,

392, 406
Giinther, Mr. R. T., ii. 43 note, 48 and Appendi.x II.
Gurgi Boghaz (Georgian Gates), Erzerum-Olti, ii.

203, 227, 245
Gurgur, name given to the passage of the Murad

out of Mush plain, ii. 177. Ruins of a fortress

there, ibid.
Guria, Province of, i. 42, 43
Gutschmid, Alfred von, i. 278, 287, 288, 289, 291,

292, 295, 300, 301, notes
Guyard, M. Stanislas, ii. 56
Giizel Dere, Beauteous Valley, Bitlis district, ii.

45, 143, 402
Giizul Dere, village on Alagoz, i. 135
Gypsies, in Garchigan, ii. 139 note, .^t Gopal,

260. Are they the remnant of a Hindu colony?



Hadrian, Roman Emperor, i. 12, ii. 40
Haidar Bey, village near Lake Van, ii. 28
Haini, town of, ii. 388, 396
Haji Khalil, village, Alagoz district, i. 135
Hakkiari, district of, ii. 88, 421 note, 424
H.alys River, i. 4 ; its delta is celebrated for tobacco,
il'iii.



Hamdun, Arab emir, i. 353

Hamidiyeh, irregular cavalry recruited by the
Turkish Govt, among the Kurds and Karapa-
pakhs, ii. 5, 6, 13, 14, 17, 26, 88, 172, 184, 187,
195, 219, 255, 260, 266, 276, 283, 314, 344, 356,
357, 421, 422, 423

Hamilton, W. J., i. 33 ; 32, 367 notes

Hamsi Keui, Upper and Lower, villages, Machka
Dere, ii. 241, 236 note

Hargin, village on Lake Van, ii. 27, 29

Hasan Kala, ancient town in Pasin, ii. 61, 174, 193,
219

Hasan Keif, primeval village on the Tigris, ii. 395

Hasuna, village of Hasananli Kurds at the foot of
Kartevin Dagh, ii. 268, 275

Ha.\thausen, A. von, i. 235 ; 66, 90, 234, 273, notes

Hayk, city of, result of excavations at, ii. 71

Hayk, son of Togarmah, grandson of Japhet, re-
puted progenitor of the Armenians, i. 318, ii. 70,
78, 274

Haykaberd, ruins of an Armenian fortress near the
passage of the Murad from Mush Plain, ii. 177

Hayotz-dzor, district of, Lake Van, ii. 71, 394

Hazo, town of, ii. 429, 431

Heraclius, Roman emperor, i. 314, ii. 222

Heraklea, Black Sea, 1. 2

Hieron Oros, see Icros

Hincks, Dr., ii. 56 note i

Hindu refugees, their temples at Surb Karapet de-
stroyed by St. Ciregory, ii. 178 ; the gjpsies in
Armenia are said to be their descendants, ibid.^
and their language is known as Sanskrit among the
Armenians, ibid.

Hindu Kush Mts., i. 423, 424, 425, 435

Hipsinek, Armenian village, Akantz district, ii. 23

Hittites, The, ii. 61

Hiznavuz (Kiznaus), Armenian village near Edg-
miatsin, i. 316

Honentz, family of, i. 375

Hoseyn Ali Khan, Sirdar of Erivan, i. 214, 217

Hoseyn Pasha, chief of the Haideranli and ruler of
territory of Patnotz, ii. 17, 20, 21

Hrazdan or Zanga River, see Zanga

Huns, The, i. 287, 303

Iberians, The, i. 395, ii. 68 note 3
Ibn-Alathir, Arab historian, ii. 29 and note 2
Ibrahim Pasha, adjutant of Kurd Hamidiyeh, ii

344 ^ ,

Ibrahim Sheikh, unknown ruler at Vostan, Lake

Van, ii. 125-126
leros (Hieron Oros), cape near Trebizond, i. 8, 13,

33
Igmal, village on Lake Van, ii. 27
Iki Kube, quarter of Akhlat, ii. 284-287
Ilantash or Karatash, plateau of, near Akantz, ii.

28 _
Ildigiz, Atabeg governor of Azerbaijan, i. 366
Ilija, village in Erzerum district, ii. 227
Imeritia, i. 42, 45, 47, 430

Ineboli, ancient town on the Black Sea, i. 3, 4, 6, 35
Innaknean Vank (Changalli), ii. i3o note i
Inuspuas, Vannic king, ii. 72, no note
Iris, river flowing into Black Sea, i. 4 ; its delta is

celebrated for its Indian corn, ibid.
Isa, Arab governor, i. 340
Isaac the Great, katholikos, i. 312
Iskandar Pasha, ii. 289
Iskele, harbour of Van city and name of a gate, ii.

36, 49, 108 note
Ismail I., Shah, i. 210, ii. 78
Ispahan, i. 264 note 5, 440

Ispir, town on the Chorokh, i. 431, ii. 68 and note 3
Ispuinis, Vannic king, ii. 60 and note 3, 72. In-
scription of, no note, 112
Issaverdens, i. 277 note 2, ii. 222

Jacob, Saint, Bishop of Nisibis, his attempt to

ascend Ararat, i. 184, 185 ; 269
Jacob (James IV.), katholikos, i. 262, 268 note
Jagluya Mts., near Kagj-zman, famous for their

rich pastures, i. 419



5o6



Armenia



Jaila, Armenian hamlet, Alexandropol district, i.

"9 . .

Jala, Armenian village, Shuragel district, i. 330
Javresh Dagh, Kighi district, ii. 389
Jejen Dagh, ii. 203, 227, 230, 245, 382, 400, 403
Jejen Dagh, Pass of (Khoshabpunar), ii. 382 and

240 note
Jelal-ud-Din, Sultan of Kharizme, ii. 295, 296
Jellap, Armenian village and posting station, Alex-
andropol district, i. 122
Jelu Dagh, Kurdistan, ii. 388, 395
Jenghiz Khan, Ani sacked by, i. 366, 377
Jerusalem, Armenian patriarchate of, ii. 453
Jesuits, see Missions
Jevizlik, town of, Dei'rmen Dere, ii. 238 ; mileage

to Trebizond and Baiburt, 225 note, 240 note
Jezireh, town in Kurdistan, ii. 433
Jezirok, village on Lake Nazik, ii. 323
Jil Gol, Lake of Rushes, Sipan district, ii. 331 ;

outlet of the waters, 341 ; increase in the level,

ibid., and 47 note i
John Katholikos, Armenian historian, i. 335, 341,

344. 345. 346. 347. 348. 350, 352
John the Baptist, Saint (Surb Karapet), cult of in

Armenia, i. 283-284, 295
John the Philosopher, katholikos, i. 284
John Sembat, Bagratid dynasty, i. 355 seq., 373,

John Zimiskes, Byzantine emperor of Armenian

descent, i. 353, 354
Jude, Saint, the apostle, i. 277 note 2
Julfa, village on the Araxes, i. 434, 435, 444
Julfa, New, i. 233 note 2, 264 note 5
Justinian, Roman Emperor, i. 27, ii. 222

Kabak-Tepe or Kizilkaya, Kars district, i. 394
Kagdarich, village on the Western Euphrates, ii.

228
Kagyzman, town near the Araxes, i. 148, 413-417,

419. 459- Pop- of, 417 ; account of town and

castle by Evliya, 416 note
Ka!a-i-Zerin, see Zcrnak

Kalaji, Kurdish village, Shushar district, ii. 251
Kalajik, village of, Lake Van, ii. 38, 112
Kalajik, castled crag of, near the Vavuk Pass, ii.
.243

Kala Su, Pasin district, ii. 193
Kamarlu, village of Armenians and Tartars, Ararat

district, i. 154, 201, 203
Kanjean, village in the Elmali Dere, ii. 399
Kanlija, near Alexandropol, cuneiform inscriptions

found at, ii. 61, 73
Kanly Dagh, Northern Armenia, i. 437
Kara Ali, Circassian village, plain of Melazkert, ii.
,277
Karabagh, country forming an Armenia in miniature

on the side of the Caspian, i. 434 ; 254, 423, 445,
^449. 453. 454- Kurds in, 455 and cp. 364
Karachanta, Mussulman village, Alexandropol dis-
trict, i. 122
Karachoban, Armenian village on Bingol Su, ii. 257
Karadagh, northern Azerbaijan, i. 434, 435
Karaghun, Kurdish hamlet, Sipan district, ii. 342
Kara Hasan Su, affluent to the Western Euphrates,

ii. 228
Karaja Dagh, Mesopotamia, ii. 388
Karakach Dagh (Gori Mokri, Northern Armenia),

i. 87, 434, 438, 441
Karakala, ruins on the Araxes, i. 318, 319, 321
Karahisar; town of (Shabin Karahisar), i. 431,

ii. 204
Kara Kala, see Bingd'l Dagh
Karakaya Dagh, Tauric Armenia, ii. 386
Karakilisa, Alashkert, ii. 2-10, 266. Kaimakam of,
,.7-8. 255

Karakilisa, village near Lake Van, ii. 23
Kara Mehemet, Armenian village on plain of

Ale-vandropol, i. 122
Karaogli, village on Murad, ii. 346, 347
Karapapakhs or Black Caps, ii'. 6, 14, 266 ; i. 455,

456, ii. 5, 267
Karass, Scotch mission at, i. 99



Kara Su, Ararat, i. 156, 183, 187, 201

Kara Su, Mush plain, ii. 162 note, 176, 317, 319

Kara Su, Western Euphrates, ii. 209, 228, 406

Karatash, see Ilantash

Kara Vank, Armenian village on Aghri Dagh,
i. 418

Karchkhal Mts., Pontic region, i. 430

Karembe, Cape (Black Sea), i. 3

Kargabazar Heights (Pasin), ii. 193, 203, 227, See
also i. 431, 432

Karin, see Erzertun

Karkar Dagh (Lake Van), ii. 388

Karke, Mt. (in Taron), site of heathen temples,
i. 295, 296. .Site identified, 296 note 2

Karlik Tepe, Trebizond, i. 34

Karmuch, Armenian village near Akhlat, ii. 45, 299

Karniarch, mountain and landmark near Alaguz,
i. 138, 140, 317

Karnirash, hamlet of Kurds, foot of Nimrud, ii. 319

Karri Chai, tributary to the Kur, i. 443

Kars (Karutz), ancient fortified city and modern
fortress in Northern Armenia, visited and de-
scribed, i. 393-408 ; 39, 61, 330, 331, 332, 333,
442, 459. History, 395:399. 352, 353, 354, 356,
358, 360, 364. Elevation, 439. Pop. of the
town, 405, 406. Do. of the province, 451. View
of, 406. Plan, 395. Railway from Tiflis recently
completed, 40 note

Kars, river of, curiosities attending its course,
i. 442, 394, 413 __

Kartevin Dagh, ii. 16, 263, 265, 268, 277, 333, 337,
397, 401.

Kasagh River (Abaran Su), i. 242, 245, 316

Kastamuni, town in Asia Minor, i. 3, 6, 35

Katranideh, Queen of Armenia, wife of Gagik,

}■ .373

Kazikly Dagh, northern border, ii. 240, 382
Keban-Maden, Euphrates, ii. 390
Kegham, Lake, see Sevan La/ce
Kekeli, Armenian village, Bilejan district, ii. 343
Kelkid-Chiftlik, town on the Lycus, ii. 234
Kelkid .Su (Lycus), i. 431, ii. 406
Kemakh (Ani), the burial-place of Armenian Arsakid

kings, ii. 390. Fane of Aramazd destroyed by

St. Gregory, i. 294
Kemurly, Upper and Lower, Kagyzman district,

.'• 413, 414. 416

Kerasun, Black Sea, i. 6, 18, 431
Keremitlu r)agh, fortified hill near Erzerum, ii. 203
Kerim, notorious brigand in the Caucasus, i. 153
Kerkiir Dagh, volcanic pile on the flank of Nimrud,

ii. 50, 160-161, 312, 316, 317
Ker Porter, Sir R., i. 201 note, 319, 323, 324, 367,

Kersik or Kersuk .Su, Elmali Dere district, ii. 263 ;

confluence with the Murad, 265
Kerwanserai, Kurdish settlement, slopes of Alaguz,
J- '35 . . . ..

Keser Su, tributary of the Tigris, li. 148
Keshish Gol, on the slopes of Mt. Varag, ii. 64 ;

stele near with inscription of Rusas L, itiiii.
Kestano (Bejano), Plain of Akhalkalaki, i. 87 note
Ketivan, Mohammedan village near Hasan Kala,

-"• '93

Kety Dagh, Karabagh border, i. 434

Keupek Dagh, Terjan district, ii. 386

Khach Dagh, Terjan district, ii. 386, 393

Khachkar Mts., i. 430

Khadrak station, valley of Balakhor, ii. 234

Khaldians, subjects of the old Vannic kings, their
history, language and art, ii. 56-65. Character
of their civilisation, 53, 65, 71, 76, iii, 116. Was
there any racial or cultural link between them
and the Chaldees? 70. Approximate date of
their overthrow, 65, 66. The remnant known to
Greek writers as Chaldians and the mountainous
country to which they were driven as Chaldia — a
name which survives to the present day, 68, 69

Khaldis, supreme god of the old Vannic kings and
their people, ii. 57

Khalias Dagh or Mergemir, ii. 263, 269, 337, 389

Kluuna Dagh, ii. 384



Index



507



Khamur Dagh, seen from Koshk, ii. 13, from
Tutakh, 14 ; from Bashkent Ova, 185 ; from the
Palandoken Pass, 247 ; from Khinis plain, 257 ;
from the village of Demian, 277. Ascent of the
principal ridge, 348-351. Geological composition
ofj 257, 349, 371. Monument on the summit,
350 ; view of the surrounding country, 351. Con-
nection with Bingol, 350, 371. Photograph, 252,
Fig. 177
Khancharli, village of, Northern Armenia, i. 119
Khanik, Circassian village, Sipan district, ii. 278
Khanikoff, N. V., his ascent of Ararat, i. 199
Khan Mahmud, Kurdish chieftain, ii. 78
Kharaba, ruins of village on the site of Ali Mur,

district of Khinis, ii. 252
Kharaba, quarter of Akhlat q.v., ii. 284
Kharput, ancient Armenian town on a hill near the
banks of the Murad, ii. 390 ; pop. 391 ; do. of
the province, 413, 425. Large number of villages
in the vicinity, 391 ; products of the neighbour-
hood, ibid. The Americans have a flourishing
Mission and a well-equipped College, ibid.; 388,
396. Plain of, 390
Kharshut River, ii. 234, 236, 242
Khashkeui, Armenian village on Plain of Mush, ii.

165
Khashlu, village, Bilejan district, ii. 345
Khedonun, village of Jibranli Kurds, ii. 250
Kherbesor, village, Shushar district, ii. 252, 373
Kherbesor cliffs, Bingol plateau, ii. 373, 398
Khertvis, town at the junction of Kur and river of

Akhallcalaki, i. 76 ; 66 note, 74, 85
Khindris Plain, ii. 389, 392

Khinis, town of, visited and described, ii. 186-188,
253, 254-255. Pop. 187. Emigration of Armen-
ians from the district, 219. Mileage to Mush and
Erzerum, 174 note. Do. to Tutakh, 255 note
Khinis, plain of, ii. 186, 188, 256-258, 351, 401. A

seat of the Thonraki, i. 285
Khinis, river of, a component of the Bingol Su, ii.

186, 188, 253
Khizan, region south of Lake Van, ii. 397
Khodzko, J., his ascent of Ararat, i. 199
Khojabek, Armenian village, Akhalkalaki district,

i. 105
Khorasan, village at the narrows of the Ara.xes, i.

146, ii. 194
Khorasan, Province and Mts. of northern Persia,

i. 423, 426
Khoren Stephaneh, monk at Edgmiatsin, i. 248
Khor Virap, Monastery near the Ara.xes, visited,
i. 200, 203, 204. Erected on the site of St.
Gregory's dungeon, ibid.
Khoshab River (Enghil Su) Lake Van, ii. 44, 50,
122, 394. The waters of the Khoshab basin are
taken to the suburbs of Van by the Shamiram Su,
60
Khosha Vank (Kizil Kilisa), Armenian village on

the Arpa Chai, i. 328
Khosha Vank, Monastery of (Horomos), visited

and described, i. 387-390 ; 328
Khoshkhosh, Queen, her tomb at Varag, ii. 115
Khosrov Pasha, donor of a pulpit to the mosque at

Vostan, ii. 125
Khosrovidukht, sister of King Tiridates, i. 259,

261, 264
Khozapin, Lake, Northern Armenia, i. 87 note
Khram, Valley of the, i. 89
Khram Mts., i. 433
Khrimean, Katholikos Mekertich, i. 236, 242, 246-

248, 249, 250, 251-256, ii. 86, 96, 103, 115, 408
Khvandzeh, wife of Shahanshah, i. 375
Kiaya, the head man of a Christian village, ii. 176

note 2
Kiepert, Prof. H., ii. 383 note, 408
Kighi Su or Peri Su, ii. 389, 392, 406
Kighi Kasaba, town of, ii. 390, 393
Kighi, district of, view of the from the hill of
Gugoghlan, ii. 376. Eastern limits, 380. Charac-
teristics, 393, 405
Kilich Gedik Mts., ii. 2, 12, 13, 262, 263, 264, 266,
337



Kilisa Deresi, Armenian Church on the Plain of

Khinis, ii. 188, 253
Kimball, Dr. Grace, of the American Mission at

Van, ii. 92
Kindirantz, capital of the caza of Garchigan, ii. 138-

140
Kindirantz, plain of, natural phenomenon which is

repeated every year, ii. 139
Kinneir, Macdonald, ii. 151, 231 note
Kip (ji)l, crater lake on Ararat, i. 199
Kirakos, katholikos, i. 264 note 5
Kirk Bulakh River (Forty Springs), Erivan, i. 209
Kirk Deirmen, pass near Erzerum, ii. 202
Kirklar, a quarter of Akhlat, ii. 284
Kirklar Gol, pool on summit of Sipan, ii. 334
Kisir Dagh, Chaldir, i. 394, 438, 441
Kitowa Dagh Pass, ii. 240, 242, 382
Kizilbash, people usually classed as Kurds but
professing a distinctive form of religion, ii. 418,
419 ; numbers in Armenia, 414, 416 note ; 12, 185,
187, 252, 390 _

Kizii-Goch River, tributary to the Arpa Chai, i. 119
Kizilkaya, see Kabak Tepe
Kizilkilisa, village on the Arpa Chai, i. 328
Kiziltash, cuneiform slab near Artemid, ii. 120, 121
Kizvag, village on Lake Van, ii. 315 ; menaced by

increase in le\'el of water, 52
Klupfi"ell, IVL de, i. 38
Knapp, Messrs. G. C. and George, American

missionaries, ii. 154
Koblian Chai, tributary of the Kur, i. 57
Kobulety, station, i. 42

Koch, K. , i. 107, 436, 437, 443, ii. 176, 210, 2ir
Kohanam Dagh (Sepuh), i. 348 note
Kolchis, i. 7, 18, 42, 432, ii. 239; glances at the

history of, i. 62, 343, 344, 345, 349
Kolibaba Mt. , Khamur, ii. 333, 348, 350, 372



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