fCho7-?is of Bards without.')
Glory, all glor}'^, on Ayns atterding.
Still in the son may the father we trace;
Justice and valour together extending
The sway of his sceptre and fjuiie of his raceâ€”
* \%Yiiva rrt/aâ€” Young King- + The stn^e directions in the
-or CÂ«sar. orit^inul are not more explicit,
and tlie comment is silent.
( 103 )
?ou of the moDarch the universe filling,
Son of the God of the mist-sheddinjj niffht.
Son of the sage,* Avhom the great Brahma wiillnof
Called with creation to life and to light.
Long may the Goddess of Glory emblazon.
The diadem raised by your father to fame.
Long may the Avorld be delijited to gaze on
The fortune allied to your merit and name.
Long may the halo of Lakskmif dear glowing
Shoot round you its splendors unclouded and wide ;
Like Gcniga from snow crested pinnacles flowing
And rolling majestic to Ocean's far tide.
Mem. (To Urvasi.) No ordinary fate dear Sister blesses j'ou
With such a son and Lord.
Urv. I own my happiness.
Come my dear child and offer to the queen.
Your elder mother, filial homage.
One moment : we will presently together.
Kar. The splendours of your son's inauguration
Bring to my memory the glorious time
When Mahascna was anointed chief
Of all the heavenly hosts.
Pur. To you I owe
* Or tlie son of Purnravax. the + The "foddess of Prosperity
son of Bjiddha,\he son of Chan- Wealth nnd Power.
dra or the nu)nn,the son of llie i Kurlikeya, the Son of Sivn,
sngc-Z/r/oiieof the willâ€” engen- who shortly after his birth was
dered sous of the creator Bruh- appointed general of llic armies
ma. of heaven, ajjainst t!ie Dailj/wi
or Tiuiui luulcr TdraJ.a.
( 101 )
Kur. Is tliere ought else, Indra can do
To serve his tVicnd.
Pur. To Iiold iTie in esteem
Is all I covet â€” yet haply may thi>3 clianceâ€”
I\Iay leai-ning and prosperity oppose
No more eacli other, as their wont, as foes :
But in a friendljf bond together twined
Ensure the real welfare of mankind.*
* A sinsj!il:u" hut rh;ir:icteiis- the fraiislnlion h;is beerj made
tic concluiliog I)eiie(.liction ; one from two copies of the text,
copy adds a stanza desider;itive and one of tJie comment, all of
of nniveisii] prosperity but it them full of hliinders -. the sens;;
does not occur in another. It has tliert-fore often been madÂ«
luay be here observed that out conjccturally-
If it was necessary to peruse the preceding drama with a
liberal allowance for national peculiarities, it is equally re-
quisite in the present instance to adapt our faith to tlie
national creed, and to recognise, for poati'al and dramatic
purposes, the creations of the mythology of the Hindus.
In this respect, however, no very violent demand is made
u))on our imagination , as we have none of the monstrous
extravagances of the system forced upon om* credulity. The
intercourse of heroes and of goddesses is the familiar theme
of our youthful studies, and the transformation of Urvasi
into a vine, is not without abundant paralells in the meta-
morphoses of Ovid, The perso)iages and situations of the
suiierh uman portion of the Drama are both elegant and pic-
C 105 )
turesque, and the grouping of the Nymphs upon the peaks
of the Himalaya, or the descent of Ndreda through the fields
of ether, might be represented with as much beauty as fa-
cl ty by the splendid machinery of the theatres of Europe.
There is also a peculiarity in the mythos of this Drama
which identifies it with the dramatic compositions of anti-
quity. Trivial as the incidents may appear, unimportant
as may be the loves of the hero and the heroine, both per-
sons and events are subject to an awful control, whose inter-
ference invests them with a dignity superior to their natu-
ral level. Fate is the ruling principle of the narrative ; and
the monarch and the nymph and the Sovereign of the gods
himself, are pourtrayed as subject to the inscrutable and in-
evitable decrees of Destiny.
The simplicity of the story does not admit of much display
of character, but the timid constancy of Urvasi is not unhap-
pily contrasted with the irresolute haughtiness of the Queen :
the Poet too has shewn himself not unacquainted with the
springs of human feelings, and his observations, that the hus-
band who is imfaithful, is most profuse in his professions of
regard, and that wor.ien are too sagacious to mistake coun-
terfeit for genuine affection, are equally shrewd and just.
The chief charm of this piece, however is its poetry : the
story, the situations and the characters are all highly imagi-
native and nothing, if partiality for his work does not mislead
the translator, can surpass the beauty and justice of many
of the thoughts. To select one as an example were to dis-
parage a number of other passages, and they may be left to
the critical acumen and taste of the Reader,
MALA TI AND MABHA VA^
THE STOLEN MARRIAGE.
TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL
Horace Hayman Wilson, Esq.
Secretary to the Asiatic Society of Bengal, i^c-
y. HOLCROFT, ASIATIC PRESS,
No. 3;, Council House Street.
Ndlatiand Miidhnva or The Loves of the j-outh yjddhava
and the maiden Mulat'i, has been already introduced to the
knowledge of European readers, as an outline of the plot and
a translation of part of the fifth Act were published by JMr.
Colebrooke in his Essay on Sanscrit and Prakrit Prosody.*
The Specimens then given were calculated to convey a
favourable impression of the merits of the Drama, which
the perusal of the entire piece will probably confirm.
The story of Mul'ati and Mddhavu is one of pure inven^
tlon, and the piece belongs to the class of compositions termed
PruL-aratia. It is referred to as an example of the class by
all the works on Rhetoric ;. the oldest of which it con'^o^quently
precedes. The history of the Drama, however, or more cor-
rectly of its author, is attended Avith more certainty than
most of the topics of the literary history of the Hindus.
By the introductions to Mdlati and Mudhava, and the
other dramas of the same writer, the Uttara Rama Cher'Ura,
and the Vira Cheritra, we are made fully acquainted with his
origin and family. It appears from these accounts that
Bhavabhuti, also named Srikantha or he in whose throat
* Asiatic Researches vol. x.
( u )
Eloquence resides, -was the son of a native of the South of
India, a Brahman of Bcrar or Beder, and a member of the
tribe of Brahmans who pretend to trace their descent from
the sage Kasyapa of whom it is said that some are still to
befound in the vicinity of Condavir. Thesiteof Bhavabhuti's
birth place is full}' corroborated by llie peculiar talent he dis-
plays in describing nature in her mns^nificence, a talent very
unueualinlliiidu bards who delightto traceher in her minuter
beauties, and onewliich lie no doubt derived from his early
familiarity Avith the eternal mountains and forests of Gond-
It appears, liowever, that tlie plaae of Bhavabhuti's nati-
vity vas not the scene of hi^ literary triumphs, and that
these were attained under the patronage of the princes of
Hindustan. Tlie precision with which he delineates the topo-
srraphical features of Ujayin and its vicinity,leaves little doubt
of his having spent some time at that city, for accuracy iu
this respect could have been obtained at any time in India
only by actual obstrvation. 'ihe B/ioJa Prabtnidha indeed
i)Kbides Bhavabhuti amongst the M'riters at the Court of
Bhoja at Dhdr but as intimated elsewhere, **" this work can
only be received as an authority for the priority of the wri-
ters described iu it to the date of its own composition ;
the grouping whetlier as regards place or time being altoge-
ther fanciful. A preferable authority, the text of the Dasa /i?/-
])cilia, refers Bhavabhuti to some period anterior toMuNjA
the predecessor of Bhoja by its alluding clearly to Ma ^
lull and Mdi^hava, and from it therefore we gather that the
play was composed before the eleventh century â€” how long
anterior to that date we have also evidence to substantiate,
* Sanscrit, Dictionary, Preface, p.
( in )
and fromtheHistory of iJLfir^mir, we learn that Bwavabhuti
flourished in the 8th century, being patronised by Yaso-
VERMA the sovereign oi Kanoj who reigned about A. D, 7^v).
The date thus given to the compositions of Bitavabhuti i^
quite in harmony with their internal evidence. The manners
are purely Hindu without any foreign admixtureâ€” the
appearance of women of rank in public, and their exemption
from any personal restraint in their own habitations, are very
incompatible with thepresenceof ^IMohammedan Rulers. 'I'he
licensed existence of Bauddlia ascetics, their access to the
great, and their employment as teachers of science, are other
peculiarities characteristic of an early date, Avhilst the Avor-
ship o^ Siva in his terrific forms, and the prevalence of the
practices of the Yoga are indications of a similar tendency.
The Liiiga worship of Sivd, we know, was every where the
predominant form of the Hindu Faith, when the Moliamme-
dans first invaded India. With respect to the Yogis by
â€¢whom mystical rites were mostly cultivated, it may be observ-
ed that there are many reasons for giving them a remote
date â€” the excavations at Elephunia and Ellora appear to be
their work â€” thesectis now almost extinctiii Hindustan â€” and
the Kasi Kliand a Avork probably of seven or eight centuries
remote, states that the Yoga cannot be practised in the present
ao-e. Mysticism in fact gave way, first to the philosophy of
Sankaua Aciiarya in the seventh or eighth century, and was
finally expelled by the new doctrine of Bhakii or faith which
was inivodiicedhy Rdmdnuja and the Vaishnavas in the
eleventh century, and has since continued to be the ruiins^
dogma of every sect of Hindus.
The style of Mdlati and Mddhava may also be referred to
tliÂ£ period at which we may conclude that it was written. It
( Iv )
is free from the verbal quibbling and extravagance of com-
bination Avhich the compositions of the time of Bhoja offer,
but it comes very near to them : although classical it is highly
laboured; although forcible it is difFiise, and is not unfre-
quently obscure. It abounds in the most complicated
prosody, and is cited by Mr. Colebrooke for a specimen of the
measure called Dandaha or a verse of 54 syllables, and a
stanza consequently containing 216 : the author is also fond
of an iniseasonable display of learning, and occasionally sub-
stitutes the phraseology of logic or metaphysics for the lan-
guage of poetry and nature. At the same time the beauties
predominate over the defects, and the language of the drama
is in general of extraordinary beauty and power. The ble-
mishes of the composition have materially affected the trans-
lation, and while it is very probable that the obscurity of
some passages has led to an inexact interpretation of their
import, the prosaic prolixity of others has involved the ne-
cessity of considerable compression and occasional omis-
sions. The latter when of any importance will be particu-
larised as they occur.
Mcilaii and Madhava divides with Suhuntald the honoiir
of being still occasionally, although not very commonly, read
by the Pandits-~Copies of it therefore are not very scarce.
That used for the present translation was transcribed from
Mr. Colebrooke's as being singularly free from errors. It had
the advantage also of being illustrated by two excellent
commentaries. The most copious of these is the work of
Jagaddiiara the son of Rftn.vdhaka described as a learned
teacher, the Prince of Pandits and poets, and administrator
of Law : the other is by a royalJiand the Rdjddhirdja Ma-
i,anka: wehaveno further particulars of these commentators,
except that the first is known to have been a Maiiuda Bi ah"
man, and not very ancient,
MALATI AND MADHAVA.
DRAMATIS PERSON jE,
Mudhava, The son of Devardta, studying at PadmdvatT,
in love with Mdluti.
Mcdaranda, His friend, in love with Madayantikd.
Kalahansa, Mddhavd s servant.
Aghoraghanla, Priest of Chdnmnda, a terrific Goddess*
Mdlati, The daughter of the Minister of State Bhurivasu,
in love with Mddhava.
Madayantikd, The sister oÂ£Na7idana, and friend of M^la^
ii in love with Maharanda.
KdmanddVi, Priestess oÂ£ Buddha, nurse of Mdlati and
Preceptress of Mddhava
Kapula Kiaidald, Priestess of Chdmundd,
Sauddmini, Disciple of Kdmajidaki, and Possessor of Ma*
gical powers- â€¢
Luvangifcd, Foster sister oÂ£ Mdlati.
Disciples of Kdmandakij
C 2 )
PERSONS SPOKEN OF.
The Sovereign of Padmavati
Nandana, His favourite, the brother of MadaymitiJci,
Bhurivasu, His Minister, the father of Malati.
Bevardia, The father of Mddhava and minister of Knn-*
SCENE, â€” Ujjayini (Ougein) designated most usually
as Padmuvati, and its vicinity.â€” Timeâ€” a few days.
MALATI AND MADHAVA,
May the trepidations of ^i/Â«Â«j/a/irt'** countenance, attended
by the cry of terror, long preserve you ! those trepidations
which at the dance of Sulapdnif proceeded from the en-
trance into his nostrils of the Lord of serpents Avith contract-"
ed hood, frightened at the cry of Kumara'sX peacocks, upon
hearing the sound of the tabor struck by the delighted
Na7idi\\, and whence the regions were filled with the buzzing
of bees, flying away from his temples.
May the tresses interwoven with a circular garland of
serpents, for flowers, where the waters of the Munddldni^
are flowing over the lower chaplet of skulls worn in the crest,
luminous with the light of the eye of the forehead sparkling
* Ganesa, (j A'^ffl7jÂ«?j is an atteadaut npoa
+ Siva or the God who holds Siva.
a trident in his hand. ^ The Ganges of Heaven
+ Kdrtikeya the son of Siva supposed to trickle through the
and Parwati the deity of war, tresses of^tfa.
represented as riding oa a Fea>
( 4 )
like lightening-, ami of -which the moon is confounded -with
the filaments of the lotus, preserve thee!*
* Tlie perusal of the preced- happens to be the lip of
iiifj Dramas will have partly Ganesa's elephant trunkâ€” his
prepared the Reader to under- entrance into which disturbs the
stand this l)enediction, but it Bees that are supposed to sotHa
involves a number of Hindu on the temples of an elephant,
common places, and may require This is the purport of the first
explanation to be rendered in- verse,
telligible. In tlie second the author refers
Siva for the amusement of to the mode in which the hair is
Pdrvati liis bride originated a delineated in tiie figures of 5/i;Â«,
particular dance, to the musical and as it is worn by the asce-
accompaniment of the tabor tics who profess his worship. It
struck by his attendant Nandi â€” is allowed to grow long, and is
his sons were presentâ€” A'ar- then divided into three or four
tikeya mounted on his Peacock tresses which are braided toge-
and Ganesa with the head and ther, and coiled upon the ante-
trunk of an elephant â€” Siva rior part of the crown of the
is embellished with a collar headâ€” the apex of the coil
of the hooded snake twining projecting forwards a Jitl'e
round his neck and surmounting on the right sideâ€” i'/ya also
his head. The Peacock is sup- wears round his head a braid
posed to be particularly delight- of Snakes and a chaplet of skulls,
ed by the approach of the rainy and he has a half moon on
season, and the bird of /Tar- his forehead : in the centre of his
tikeya mistaking the deep forehead is his third eye whose
sound of the drum for the roll- glances are of flame, and over
ing of thunder indicative of a his head flows the Ganges with
storm, screams with delight, the water lily floating amongst
The Peacock is considered the its waves,
natural enemy of Snakes, and In these allusions the author
the Snake of 5/'t'a alarmed at the refers to the popular personifi-
approach of his mortal foe, de- cation of â€¢S'/i's â€” untinged with
Berts his place on the neck of any references to his mystical
the deity, and makes for the first worship,
hiding place he can liudâ€” this
( 5 )
What need of prolixity â€”
Ma7iagcr (Looking to the East J Ha ; the Celestial Liimi-
nary enlightening all the divisions of the world, is completely
risen. I salute him.* (Bowing) Oh thou the universal form,
and the vessel of all auspicious light, be propitious to me,
and enable me to support the burthen of the drama : remove
fioni me. Lord of the world, thus prostrate, every sin, and
augment all that is favourable to success. (Looking off the
Stage.) Ho, Mdnsha,\ the auspicious preparations are com-<
plete ; from all quarters persons of distinction have come to
celebrate the Festival of Kdlapri>januth,% and I have baen
commanded by these wise and learned auditors, to represent
to them some new dramatic tale. This is not difficult. The
Actors are present.
Actor, We are not informed Sir of the wishes of the
* We may infer from this of the Yamunaâ€” anA KaJaprlya
that the Hindu Dramas were JVdthâ€”his Lord or God, implies
represented early in the morning, a Linga the construction of
+ One term hy which an ac- which is atlrihuted to the Sun.
tor is to be addressed. The. more usual word in these
:}: Who this deity is, is not compounds is hwara as Sojnes-
known to the Pundits of the wara, Rutneswara, t^isweswara,
present diayâ€”Malanlca takes no &c. but A''dlh is the terra more
notice of the name â€” Jagaddhara especially employed by a partt i
is content to say it is that of a cular sect, that of the Yogis or
sort of divinity worshipped in Pdsupatas the oldest sect pro-
that countryâ€” It is proI)ably the bably now existing amongst the
appellation of a Siva Linga. Hindus, and with whose tenets
In the Varaha Parana, Kdla and practices Bfiavabliuti ap-
Prii/a is said to be a form of pears to have beeu thoroughly
the sua worshipped to the South acqnaiated.
Manager. Say Marisha Avliat are tlose qualities which
the virtuous, the wise, the venerable, the learned, and the
Brahmans require in a Drama.
Ac/or. Profound exposition of the various passions, pleas-
ing interchange ot mutual affection, loftiness of character â€”
expression o' desire, a surpi-ising story and elegant language.
]\fa7i. 7 len I recollect one.
AcLor. What is it Sir.
Man. There is in the South, and in the province of * FÂ£-
derhJui, a ^ity named Fadma nagaici, where dwelt certain
Erahmans of the family of Kosyapa^ and followers of the
T'dtiri portion of the Vedas according to the teacher Chat
rana ; taking precedence at festivals, maintaining the five
fires, observers of religious obligations â€” drinkers of the So-*
???/; juice â€” possessing names of note and learned in \\\.QVedas.\
These Brahmans constantly reverenced the study of holy
* Viderhha is always idenli- of created things. His share ia
lied with Berar but the limits creation was no unimportant
of the province in that case one as he was the father of the
included the adjoining district Gods and Demons, Beasts, birds,
of Beder, in which the name reptiles and man. He is suppos-
of Viderbha or B'tderbha is ed by some modern writers to be
traceable. Local traditions also a personification of the remains
sissert that the ancient Capital of the anlldeluvian race who
still called Beder is the same as took refuge in the central Asia-
T^iderhha. We do not find a Pad- tic chain, in which traces of his
w2flM/7.!rar in the maps. name so plentifully abound, as
+ The various allusions con- \\\\.\\q Koh-kas or Caucasus, Ihe
tained in this short description Caspian, and CashrrJr. It is
require explanation â€” Kcisyapa asserted that thirteen Gotras
was a sage, the son of Murichi or families of Brahmans owe
the son of Brahma, and one of their orig-in to as many divine
the Pnijupalis or rrogeuitors sages called after their namesâ€”.
( 7 )
\)n-it, for the knowledge of truth ; wealth, foi* the celebration
Kasyapa is one of the number, teacher of the Vajur, swallowed
The tfiswaldj/ana Sutra of the the fragments of tliis work, which
Rig Veda contains the enumer- he had compelled his disciple
ation of the Gotras, and their Yajnavalkya who had offeniloi
sub-divisions, but in a very him to disgorge. This porl'.o-i
involved and unintelligible style of the Veda was thence named
â€” tlie popular enumeration of Taittirfya. Tne legend seems
them however is not uncommon, lo have been invented by the
but it is nearly if nut wholly Pauranic writers to disguise
confined to the South of India their ignorance of the real pur-
vhere several of the reputed port of the designation. Cftflrflna
representatives of these tribes is supposed by one conrimen-
yet exist â€” especially about tator to be either a branch of
Gooty and Condavir. J\''anda- the Vedas, or some particular
varam it is said was a grant teacher, and by the other to im-
made to tlie 13 Gotras h^ \.\\Q ply a verse or foot, meaning that
Sovereign of India. Amanda, in they were familiar with the
the year of Kali 980, but if Metres of the Vedas. We are
there is anv foundation for the already familiar with the three
grant, it is of much more recent fires a Brahman should maintain
date, J\''anda having lived in the (Vikrama^nA. Urvasi Introdnc-
fourth century, before the Hon p. 9 ) the other two as men-
Christian era. The Vedas ss i'loned in a Suktaoi the Rig Veda
explained by different teachers, and the ^paslumha Sittra arethe
branch out into innumerable Sabhya mnd avasathya, ihe pre-
Schools to whicli different tribes else purport of which names is
of Brahmans in the South of not known to the Pundits, nor
India are hereditarily attached: explained in the B7ms//j/fl, the li-
in upper India every classification teral sense would be the Fire of
of the kind has long been for- the assembly and the Fire of
gottenâ€” a very principal divi- the village, as if a sacrificial
sion of the Ferfas is that named fire was sometimes maintain-
in the textâ€” the Tailtiriya ov ed in common. â€” The Sorna
â– white Portion of the rff///r. It juice is the juice of the Acid
derives its name from Tiltiri a Asclepias, drinking which is an
partridge in which shape accord- essential part of the ceremonial
ing to the Vishnu Purdna, the of the Vedas. The term ren-
sage Vaisampayana, the first dered, taking precedence at
( s )
of i'cligious rites;* wives for the propagation of offspring"
iind life for the practice of devotion.
Of this family the Grandson of one whose well selected
name was Bhatta Gopala, and the Son of the pure in fame
'NUakantha, whose auspicious appellation was Bhavahhuti
surnamed Srikantha, and whose mother was Jalukarni, a
poet familiar through friendship with actors, has given us a
Drama composed by him, replete with all qualitie?. To
which indeed this sentence is applicable. How little d(^
they know who speak of us with censure. This entertain-
ment is not for them. Possibly some one exists or will exist
of equal merit with myself, for time is boundless and the
world is wide.
>?Again : what avails it to boasta knowledge of the* Fogtf, of
the SdnIchi/a,foÂ£ the XUpanishad' s or of the Vetlas; no benefit
festivals is Panlcli Fi'wana under four heads as Ihe Rig^
a very anitigticiis expression. Yajur, Sdmti, and AtharvaF'edas.
Pure in tiie row or rangeâ€” They comprehend a practical
that is Jagaddhara sa'^s, in the and philosophical portionâ€” the
place where there is foodâ€” or ritual of the former is little
in other words they were ^gra- known or practised.
*7io;7jia/i the first feeders. lie also * One of ihe Schools of phi-
quotes a text, without mention- losopby teaching the eternity of
ing his authority, to shew, liiat matter and spirit as well as of
the term implies a Brahman God, and the obtaining of final
â– who has read the Ynjur, Sdina, liberation from life by ascetic
and Atharva Vcdas. Malanka practices.
passes it over unnoticed, and it t Another system of Philo-
seems likely tliat neither he nor sophy teaching the eternity of
Jagaddhara understood it any matter and spirit independant
piore than the term Charana. of God â€” founded by Kapila.
The Fedas are well knownâ€” ^ The UpanisJiads are trea-
they consist of an infinite num- tises on the unity of God and
ber of distinct tracts classed the ideulitj of Spirit, forming
( 9 )
accrues from them in a dramatic composition. Fertility of
imagination, melody of expression, and richness of meaning,