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H. Kirke (Harry Kirke) Swann.

A dictionary of English and folk-names of British birds; with their history, meaning, and first usage, and the folk-lore, weather-lore, legends, etc., relating to the more familiar species online

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Online LibraryH. Kirke (Harry Kirke) SwannA dictionary of English and folk-names of British birds; with their history, meaning, and first usage, and the folk-lore, weather-lore, legends, etc., relating to the more familiar species → online text (page 16 of 24)
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name in North America having apparently been " Wild
Pigeon." On the British side it occurs in Jenyns (1835)
and as Passenger Turtle in Selby (1833).

PASSERINE OWL : The LITTLE OWL.

PASSERINE WARBLER: The GARDEN- WARBLER. Found
in Bewick (1797).

PATRICK or PERTICK: The COMMON PARTRIDGE. (Scotland.)
See Partridge.

PEA-BHID : The WRYNECK. (Provincial. ) Swainson says it is
from its sharp utterance of the sound " pea-pea."

PEAR-TREE GOLDFINCH. A bird-fancier's name for a supposed
large variety of the GOLDFINCH, reared in pear-trees.

PEASE CROW : The COMMON TERN. (Provincial.)

PEASE WEEP, or PEESEWEEP : The LAPWING. (Scotland and
Northumberland.) From its cry. According to Swainson
the name has also been applied to the GREENFINCH,
because one of its notes resembles that of the Lap\ving.

PECTORAL SANDPIPER [No. 378, American Pectoral
Sandpiper; No. 379, Siberian Pectoral Sandpiper]. This
species is now divided into two forms, of which the Arctic-
American race has occurred many times in our islands, but
the Asiatic is only known to have occurred once with
certainty. The name Pectoral Sandpiper is found in
Jenyns, Yarrell (1st ed.) and later authors.

PEEP o' DAY: A name for the LITTLE GREBE. (East
Cottingwith, Yorkshire.)

PEEP: The SANDERLING. (Boulmer, Northumberland.)
From its note. Also the MEADOW-PIPIT (Forfar).

PEEPY LENNART. A Holy Island name for the TWITE.
(Bolam.)

PEERIE WHAUP : The WHIMBREL. (Shetlands.)

PEESNIPS : The LAPWING. (Cheshire.)

PEETLARK : The MEADOW-PIPIT. (Cheshire.)

PEEWIT : The LAPWING. (See Pewit.)

PEEWIT GULL: The BLACK-HEADED GULL. (See Pewit
Gull.)



PARTRIDGE PELICAN. 175

PEGGY or PEGGY WHITETHROAT : The WILLOW- WARBLER.
(Cheshire, West Yorkshire, Shropshire.) Peggy is also
applied to the WHITETHROAT (Notts, and Yorkshire)
and the GARDEN- WARBLER, BLACKCAP, WREN and
CHIFFCHAFF (Yorkshire).

PELICAN. Fr. Pelican from Lat. Pelecanus. This name, now
restricted to the genus Pelecanus, appears in ancient times
to have been applied to several other birds noteworthy
on account of their bills, the true Pelican being in fact
called Onocrotalus by most ancient writers from Pliny to
Turner, while Willughby has "Pelecan, Onocrotalus sive
Pelecanus, Aldrov." Thus we find Turner giving Pelecanus
as a synonym of the " Shovelard " or SPOONBILL, and
he cites Hieronymus's " Pelecani " as being apparently the
same. The Pelican of Aristophanes, however, is the Wood-
pecker, or joiner-bird, which with its bill hewed out the
gates of " Cloud-Cuckoo-town." The derivation, in fact,
is from IleycKaw, signifying " to hew with an axe," and
the Woodpecker was so called from its pecking, the Pelican
from its large bill, and the Spoonbill from the remarkable
shape of its bill. That some other birds were also so called
is certain, and to which species to refer the legend of the
Pelican feeding its young with its own blood is very un-
certain. Houghton ("Natural History of the Ancients,"
p. 191) thinks that the legend refers to a vulture or eagle,
and cites the story of Horapollo that the vulture, if it
cannot get food for its offspring, opens its thigh and allows
them to partake of the blood. He thinks the story was
adapted and magnified from the Egyptian fable by the
ecclesiastical fathers in their annotations on the Scriptures.
Augustine, for instance, says that the male pelicans " are
said to kill their young offspring by blows of their beaks,
and then to bewail their deaths for the space of three days.
At length, however, it is said that the mother bird inflicts
a severe wound on herself, pouring the flowing blood over
the dead young ones, which instantly brings them to life."
Many other writers relate the same story, with variations,
and in some accounts the fable is that the female bird feeds
her living young in this manner, in which may be traced a
return to the Egyptian original. Hieronymus, whose
Pelican is, as before mentioned, referred by Turner to the
Spoonbill, says that " Pelecani, when they find their young
killed by a serpent, mourn, and beat themselves upon their
sides, and with the blood discharged, they thus bring back
to life the bodies of the dead," which of course is another



176 DICTIONARY OF NAMES OF BRITISH BIRDS.

variation of the story. Whitney, in his " Choice of Em-
blems," gives a woodcut illustration of a bird like an eagle
piercing her breast with her hooked bill, surrounded by the
young in the nest whose mouths are open to receive the
blood ; the lines below being :

The pellican, for to revive her younge,
Doth pierce her breast, and geve them of her blood.
This fable in fact served as a symbol of Christ's love to
men, and with the substitution of a real Pelican for the
bird, it exists to the present day in ecclesiastical art. What
species of bird the eagle or vulture of Whitney and other
old writers may be is uncertain, but there is little doubt
indeed that the substitution of the Pelican for the other
bird in the fable is due to the erroneous idea that the name
indicated the Pelican and not some other species. In
fact attempts have been made to account for the legend
by explaining that the Pelican feeds its young with the
fish from its pouch, and that during the process the red
nail or tip of the lower mandible, pressing against the
breast, might lead an observer to suppose that the bird was
piercing its own breast. Bartlett (" Land and Water," April
3rd, 1869) made an ingenious attempt to lay the origin of
the fable upon the Flamingo, which he says disgorges a
blood-like fluid. The Pelican is not a British bird, although
several doubtful records of the Great White Pelican
(P. onocrotalus) in our islands are extant.

PELLILE : The REDSHANK. (Aberdeen.) From its cry.

PEN : The female of the MUTE SWAN. (See Cob.)

PENDDU. A Welsh name for the BLACKCAP ; lit. " black
head."

PENDEW: The HAWFINCH. (North Wales) lit, "thick
head."

PENGOCH: The LESSER REDPOLL. (North Wales) lit. "red
poll." Bengoch is an equivalent form.

PENGUIN : The GREAT AUK. Found in Ray's " Synopsis,"
also in Willughby, Edwards, and other early writers ; lit.
"Pin -wing." According to Nelson and Clarke "Pen wings"
is an old Redcar (Yorkshire) name for the species.

PENLOYN: The GREAT TITMOUSE and the COAL-
TITMOUSE. (North Wales) lit. "black head."

PENLOYN-Y-GORS. A Welsh name for the MARSH-TITMOUSE ;
lit. " marsh coal head."

PENNY-BIRD. A n Irish name for the LITTLE GREBE . (Lough
Morne and Carrickfergus.)



PELLILE PHEASANT. 177

PEN Y LLwrN. A Welsh name for the MISTLE-THRUSH ;
lit. " chief of the grove."

PERCHER. A young ROOK, after it has left the nest.

PEREGRINE FALCON [No. 233]. Peregrine, from Lat.
peregrinus wandering, is sometimes used as the name
of the species, but it is an adjective, not a substantive.
The name Peregrine Falcon appears in Willughby (1678)
being anglicized from the Falco peregrinus of Aldrovandus,
who gives a good figure of it. Ray remarks that it " took
its name either from passing out of one country into another,
or because it is not known where it builds." In falconry
the female used to be called Falcon-gentle and the male
Tiercel-, Tassel- or Tercel-gentle (see " Tiercel ").

PERRY HAWK : The PEREGRINE FALCON. (Ryedale, York-
shire.)

PET MAW. A name for the COMMON GULL and the KITTI-
WAKE at Redcar, Yorkshire.

PETRELL. Pennant gives this as a Flamborough name for the
KITTIWAKE GULL.

PETRISEN. A Welsh name for the PARTRIDGE.

PETRISEN GOESGOCH : The RED-LEGGED PARTRIDGE.
(North Wales) lit. " red-legged partridge."

PETTYCHAPS. (See Greater and Lesser Pettychaps.)

PEWEEP or PIE WIPE : The LAPWING. (Norfolk.)

PEWIT or PUTT : The LAPWING. A common provincial name,
imitative of its cry.

PEWIT or PEWIT GULL : The BLACK-HEADED GULL. From
its cry. The first occurs in Willughby and the second in
Pennant. It occurs as " Puit " in Fuller's "Worthies"
(p. 318). Peewit Gull is a present name for the species
in North Wales.

PHALAROE: The GREY PHALAROPE. (Yorkshire coast.)
A corruption of Phalarope.

PHEASANT [No. 466]. Mid. Eng. Fesaunt and Fesaun, Fr.
Faisan, from Lat. Phasianus. Originally introduced into
Europe from the banks of the River Phasis, now Rioni, in
Colchis. The name occurs in Turner (1544) as Phesan, and
in Barlow's plates (1655) as " Feasant." Pheasant occurs
in Merrett (1667), and also Willughby. Plot (1677) spells it
"Phesant." As regards its introduction into England
nothing definite is known, except that the bird appears
to have been known here before the Conquest, and Newton
thinks that it must almost certainly have been brought

N



178 DICTIONARY OF NAMES OF BRITISH BIRDS.

hither by the Romans. It seems to have been early under
protection for, according to Dugdale, a licence was granted
in the reign of Henry I to the Abbot of Amesbury to kill
Hares and Pheasants, and that later they were artificially
reared and fattened appears from Upton, who wrote about
the middle of the 15th century, while Henry VIII seems
from his privy purse expenses to have had in his household
in 1532 a French priest as a regular " fesaunt breder," and
in the accounts of the Kytsons of Hengrave in Suffolk for
1607, mention is made of wheat to feed Pheasants, Partridges
and Quails. In ancient times Pheasants were taken in
snares as well as by Hawks. In Barlow's prints (1655)
this bird (called " Feasant Phasianus ") is shown being
pursued by a Hawk.

PHEASANT DUCK : The PINTAIL. (Beverley, Yorkshire.)
PHILIP or PHIP : The HOUSE-SPARROW. (Provincial.)
Swainson says it is from the note. It may originate,
however, in Skelton's poem " Philip Sparrow." The names
are also applied to the HEDGE-SPARROW.
PHILLIPENE : The LAPWING. (Ireland.)
PHILLIP'S FULMAR : SCHLEGEL'S PETREL. (Godman.)
PHILOMEL: The NIGHTINGALE. The name is frequently
met with in poetical and other allusions to this bird, as well
as several times in Shakespeare, and arises from the classical
tale (to be met with in Ovid's " Metamorphoses," bk. vi,
fab. 6) of the transformation of Philomela, daughter of
Pandion, King of Athens, into a Nightingale. Philomela,
finding herself deceived by Tereus, had her tongue cut
out by him to hinder her from revealing the truth ; being
finally turned by the gods into a Nightingale, whence the
name of Philomela and the poetic allusion to her supposed
sad recapitulation of her wrongs. It was formerly supposed
that the bird sang with its breast impaled upon a thorn,
thus accentuating " the well-tun'd warble of her nightly
sorrow." This popular error is alluded to by Shakespeare
in " The Passionate Pilgrim " :

She, poor bird, as all forlorn,
Lean'd her breast up-till a thorn,
And there sung the dolefull'st ditty,
That to hear it was great pity.

Sir Philip Sidney, also, in one of his sonnets, says that
this bird

Sings out her woes, a thorn her song-book making.
Fletcher and Pomfret, also, among the later poets, allude
to it.



PHEASANT PIE. 179

PlANET, PlEANNOT, PlANNOT, PlNOT, PYNOT, PYENATE, PlANATE

or PYANET. Provincial names for the MAGPIE (North

England), from Lat. pica. Pyanet occurs in Merrett (1667)

and Pianet in Willughby and later authors. (See " Pie.")
PIBHINN (pronounced pee veen.) A Gaelic name for the

LAPWING. (Western Isles.) From its cry.
PIBYDD DDF : The PURPLE SANDPIPER. (North Wales)

lit. "black piper."
PIBYDD GWYRDD : The GREEN SANDPIPER. (North Wales)

lit. " green piper."
PIBYDD LLEIAF : The LITTLE STINT. (North Wales) lit.

" lesser piper."
PIBYDD LLYDANDROED : The GREY PHALAROPE. (North

Wales) lit. "broad-footed piper."
PIBYDD RHUDDGOCH : The DUNLIN. (North Wales) lit.

"ruddy piper."

PIBYDD Y TRAETH. A Welsh name for the COMMON SAND-
PIPER, and also the SANDERLING (North Wales) ;

lit. " piper of the sand." Another name for the first

species in North Wales is Pibydd y dorian (= piper of

the streamside).
PICARINI : The AVOCET. Montagu gives it as a provincial

name.

PICK: The BAR-TAILED GOD WIT. (Norfolk.)
PICKATEE: The BLUE TITMOUSE. (Notts.)
PICK-A-TREE. A Northumberland name for the GREEN

WOODPECKER. (Wallis.)

PICKCHEESE : The BLUE TITMOUSE. (Norfolk.)
PICKEREL: The DUNLIN. (Scotland.)
PICKE-TA or PICCATARRY: The ARCTIC TERN. (Orkneys

and Shet lands.)
PICKIE : The MISTLE -THRUSH. (Teesdale.)

PlCKlE, PlCKIE-BURNET, PlCKIE-MAW, PlCKMAW, PlCKMIRE,

PICK-SEA, or PICTARNIE. Scottish Border names for the
BLACK-HEADED GULL.

PICTARNIE: The COMMON TERN. (East Lothian, Fife.)
Occurs in Sibbald as " Pictarne."

PIE. A provincial name for the MAGPIE. Occurs in Turner
(1544) as "Py," and in Aldrovandus (1599) as "Pie,
Pij." Mid. Eng. pie or pye, from Fr. pie, Lat. pica,
Welsh pioq, Scott, piet, a Magpie. The name is applied also
to many other birds which present more or less of black
and white in their plumage. (See "French Pie," etc.)

N2



180 DICTIONARY OF NAMES OF BRITISH BIRDS.

PIED CHAFFINCH : The SNOW-BUNTING. (Albin.)
PIED CROW : The HOODED CROW. (Provincial.)
PIED CURRE. An old gunner's name for the GOLDENEYE
in parts of the South and West of England.

PIED DIVER : The SMEW. (Provincial.)

PIED FINCH, PITEFINCH, or PYDIE : The CHAFFINCH.
(Cheshire.) From the pied plumage of the male. Other
variants in the Midlands are Pea Finch and Pine Finch.

PIED FLYCATCHER [No. 116]. Appears to be found first
in the 4th ed. of Pennant. In the folio edition it is called
Goldfinch, as in Willughby and Edwards.

PIED MOUNTAIN FINCH : The SNOW-BUNTING. Occurs in
Willughby and in Albin.

PIED OYSTER-CATCHER : The OYSTERCATCHER. So called
by Pennant, Montagu and other old writers.

PIED WAGTAIL [No. 81]. It is described by Turner (1544)
under the heading of Culicilega of Aristotle, and he gives it
the name of " Wagtale " merely. It occurs in most old
authors as White Wagtail, Pied Wagtail first appearing in
Bewick (1797) although its distinctness from the White
Wagtail of the Continent was not pointed out by Gould
until 1832. In Gaelic its name, according to Gray, is
Breac-an-t'-sil, signifying a plaid, from the resemblance
of its plumage to that article. In Cornwall, where it is
known as the " tinner," one perching on a window-sill is
said to be a sign of a visit from a stranger. Bolam gives
it as a Border belief that the bird ought always to wag its
tail nine times on alighting, and before beginning to run
about or feed ; should the number be less or more, it is very
unlucky for the person who is counting.

PIED WHEATEAR [No. 1721. This Asiatic and South-east
European species was first recorded for the British Islands
in the " Annals of Scottish Natural Hist.," 1910, p. 2.

PIED WIGEON. A provincial name for the GARGANEY and the
GOLDENEYE. (Montagu.)

PIED WOODPECKER : The GREAT SPOTTED WOODPECKER.
(Bewick.)

PIE-FINCH : The CHAFFINCH (Upton-on-Severn) ; the HAW-
FINCH (Notts.).

PIE-NANNY: The MAGPIE. (Yorkshire.)

PIENET : The OYSTERCATCHER. (Provincially.) A diminu-
tive of " Pie." Also the MAGPIE (see Planet).



PIED PINTAIL. 181

PIET, PYET, PIOT, or PYOT : The MAGPIE. Turner (1544)
has " Plot," and Merrett (1667) has " Pyot." Piet is also
applied to the DIPPER. (See " Water-Piet.")

PIE-WYPE or PIE-WIPE : The LAPWING. (See " Wype.")

PIGEON FELT: The FIELDFARE. (Berks., Bucks., Oxon.,
Cheshire.) From the blue-grey lower-back.

PIGEON GULL: The BLACK-HEADED GULL. (Yorkshire
coast.)

PIGEON HAWK: The GOSHAWK (Rutty); also the
SPARROW-HAWK (Yorkshire). Occurs in Montagu for
the latter species.

PIGEON OF THE NORTH. A name for the LITTLE AUK. (Hett.)

PIGEON PLOVER : The GREY PLOVER. (Humber district.)

PIGMY CURLEW or PIGMY SANDPIPER : The CURLEW SAND-
PIPER. So called from its being supposed to resemble
a miniature Curlew. Montagu includes the species under
the name of Pigmy Curlew, which is a Norfolk name for
the species.

PIG MYNAWD. A Welsh name for the AVOCET.

PILA GWYRDD : The GREENFINCH. (North Wales) lit.
" green finch."

PINE-BUNTING [No. 44]. A bird inhabiting the pine forests
of Siberia, which has lately been recorded once from Fair
Isle (Shetlands).

PINE-GROSBEAK [No. 32]. So called from its frequenting
pine woods. Grosbeak is from Fr. grosbec ("great bill").
The name is found in Bewick (1797). It is the Pine Bull-
finch of Selby and the Common Hawfinch of Fleming, while
Edwards calls it the Greatest Bullfinch.

PINE MAW : The BLACK-HEADED GULL. (Antrim.)

PINK, PINKETY, PINK-TWINE:. Provincial names for the CHAF-
FINCH. (England.) From its call-note.

PINK-FOOTED GOOSE [No. 278]. First described and named
by Bartlett (" P.Z.S.," 1839, p. 3), the name being adopted
by Yarrell and succeeding authors.

PINNOCK : The HEDGE-SPARROW. (Provincial). From its
piping note (Swainson). The BEARDED TITMOUSE is
also known as " Bearded Pinnock."

PINTAIL [No. 296]. The name Pintail is first applied by
Pennant (1766) who calls it Pintail Duck. Willughby and
Ray call it the " Sea Pheasant or Cracker." The name
arises from the pointed appearance of the tail, the two middle
feathers of which are elongated and finely pointed.



182 DICTIONARY OF NAMES OF BRITISH BIRDS.

PINUT: The MAGPIE. (Notts., Cheshire.) A corruption

of Planet.
PIODEN Y M6R or PIOGEN Y MoR : The OYSTERCATCHER.

(North Wales) lit. " sea-pie."
PIOGEN, PIODEN, or PIA. Welsh names for the MAGPIE ;

lit. " Pie."
PIOGEN GOGH, PIOGEN-Y-COED : The JAY. (North Wales.)

The first signifies " red magpie," the second " wood magpie."

PIOGHAID. A Gaelic name for the MAGPIE.

PIPE or POPE : The PUFFIN. (Cornwall.)

PIPIT: The MEADOW- PIPIT. FT. Pipit from Lat. pipio,
lit. a " piper " or nestling ; pigeon is from the same root.

PIPIT LARK : The TREE-PIPIT. (Pennant.) Montagu's Pipit
Lark is no doubt the MEADOW-PIPIT.

PIRENET or PIRENNET : The SHELD-DUCK. (Scotland.) A
corruption of " Pied ent " ( Pied Duck).

PIRRE : The COMMON TERN. (Ireland.)

PISAN CUCKOO : The GREAT SPOTTED CUCKOO. (Latham.)

PIT MARTIN: The SAND-MARTIN. .(Craven, Yorkshire.)

PIT SPARROW. A local Cheshire name for the SEDGE-
WARBLER and also the REED-BUNTING. From their
frequenting small ponds locally called pits ; Holland also
gives Spit Sparrow for the Reed -Bunting in Cheshire.

PLOUGHMAN'S BIRD : The REDBREAST. (Lofthouse, near
Wakefield.)

PLOVER : The LAPWING, generally. From Fr. Pluvier, Old Fr.
Plovier, probably from Lat. pluvia. rain.

PLOVER'S PAGE : The DUNLIN is so called in parts of Scotland
and in the Shetlands (Saxby), from its habit of flying in
company with the GOLDEN PLOVER. In the Orkneys the
name is given to the JACK SNIPE (Dunn).

PLUM-BIRD or PLUM-B UDDER : The BULLFINCH. (Shrop-
shire.) From its habit of picking the buds of fruit trees.

POCHARD, POCKARD or POKER. See COMMON POCHARD.

POKE PUDDING, POKE BAG, or PUDDING BAG : The LONG-
TAILED TITMOUSE. (Gloucestershire, Shropshire, Nor
folk.) From the shape of the nest (poke= pocket).

Polish Swan. An aberrant phase of the MUTE SWAN, in
which the cygnets are white, instead of dark grey. It was
first described by Yarrell (" P.Z.S.," 1838, p. 19) as a
separate species.



PINUT POTTERTON. 183

POLLAIREUN. A Gaelic name for the DUNLIN in the Long
Island ; signifying " bird of the sand-pits " (Gray).

POMATORHINE SKUA [No. 440]. It is the " Pomerine
Skua " of Selby and Yarrell (1st ed.), and the Pomerine
Gull of Gould ('" Birds of Europe," pt. n, 1832). It is first
noticed as a British bird in the " Sale Catalogue of Bullock's
Collection " (April, 1819, lot 61, p. 32) where it is referred
to as " allied to the Arctic, but greatly superior in size."

POOL SNIPE : The REDSHANK. (Willughby.) Albin calls it
the " Poole Snipe," but the derivation is no doubt from the
former word (pool, or pond, snipe).

POOR WILLIE : The BAR-TAILED GODWIT. (East Lothian.)
Imitative of its call-note. Also called Poor Wren.

POP. A name for the REDWING according to Swainson.

POPE. Willughby gives this as a Cornish name for the
PUFFIN. The BULLFINCH is also so called in Dorset.
Swainson thinks in the latter case it is a derivation of
Alp. It is also applied to the RED-BACKED SHRIKE in
Hants.

POPELER. An old name for the SPOONBILL.

POPINJAY: The GREEN WOODPECKER. (Provincial.)
Dutch Papegay. Properly a Parrot, but probably used to
denote any brightly plumaged bird. Occurs in Turner as
" Popiniay," and in Aldrovandus as " Popiniay " and
" Popingay." Shakespeare has : " To be so pestered with
a popinjay " (" Henry IV, act i, sc. 5) which has been held
to refer to a parrot, but without any good reason, for the
reference is obviously to the human popinjay (i.e. an idle
fop). He elsewhere ("Cymbeline," act in, sc. 4) speaks of a
gaudily-dressed person as a Jay, which is, of course, equally
a term of contempt or derision foi an over-dressed foppish
fellow, in a word, a popinjay. A popinjay was formerly
a gaudily-painted bird set up as a target for archers. The
name is, or was until recently, in provincial use for the
Green Woodpecker, which on the wing presents a clumsy
and gaudy appearance.

POPPING WIGEON : The GOLDENEYE and the RED-
BREASTED MERGANSER. (Drogheda Bay.) Because
they pop up and down so suddenly (Swainson).

POST-BIRD: The SPOTTED FLYCATCHER. (Kent.) On
account of perching on a post waiting for flies.

POTTERTON HEN : The BLACK-HEADED GULL (Aberdeen.)
Swainson says, on the authority of Mr. Harvie-Brown,
that it is from a loch of that name, now dried up.



184 DICTIONARY OF NAMES OF BRITISH BIRDS.

POVEY : The BARN-OWL. (Gloucestershire.)

PRAHEEN CARK : The HOODED CROW. (Ireland.) Signifies
the " hen crow."

PRATINCOLE [No. 354]. The name first occurs in Pennant
(ed. 1776) as a rendering of Kramer's name Pratincola
(1756).

PRIDDEN PRAL. A west Cornwall name for the GREAT TIT-
MOUSE and BLUE TITMOUSE ; signifies " tree babbler."

PRINE : The BAR-TAILED GOD WIT. (Essex.) From its
habit of probing the mud for food (Swainson).

PRINPRIDDLE: The GREAT TITMOUSE. (Staffordshire.)
According to Poole's Glossary. Swainson also makes it
an equivalent of " Pridden pral " in Cornwall for the LONG-
TAILED TITMOUSE.

PROUD-TAILOR : The GOLDFINCH. (Midlands.)

PROVENCE FURZELING. Macgillivray's name for the DARTFORD
WARBLER.

PTARMIGAN [No. 465]. The name is from the Gaelic
Tarmachan. Occurs in Willughby (1678) as " White Game
or White Partridge." Sibbald (1684) however called it
Ptarmigan, and he is followed by most subsequent authors.
According to Inwards it is a Scottish belief that the fre-
quently repeated cry of the Ptarmigan low down on the
mountains during frost and snow indicates more snow and
continued cold.

PUCKERIDGE : The NIGHTJAR. (Hants.) Newton thinks it
is possibly connected with A. Sax. puca, a goblin or demon.
In Gilbert White's " Observations on Birds," published in
the "Naturalists' Calendar" (1795), it is related that in
Hampshire, where it sometimes goes by this name, " The
Country people have a notion that it is very injurious to
weanling calves, by inflicting, as it strikes at them, the
fatal distemper known to cow-leeches by the name of
puckeridge." In west Sussex and west Surrey it becomes
" Puck-bird."

PUETT. An obsolete Cheshire name for the LAPWING.
(Holland's " Glossary.")

PUFFIN [No. 449]. The word is apparently a diminutive
(=puffing) and was possibly given at first to the young of
this bird, which for long was known only by various local
names in different parts of the coast. The name would
therefore apply to the downy covering of the young birds,
e.g. a diminutive of "puff" or "puffy." The Welsh



POVEY PURRE. 185

name, however, for this bird is Pwffingen, but whether
derived from the English name or whether it is the origin
of the English name needs investigation. It occurs in
Kay, or Caius (1570), as the " Puphin or Pupin," and he
accounts for the name by remarking that " this bird our
people call the Puphin, we say Pupin from its ordinary
cry of ' pupin.' ' Albin, Edwards, Pennant and later
writers call it the Puffin, which spelling is found in
Willughby (1678), but that the name was not a general
one in the latter writer's day is shown by his referring to it
as " the bird called Coulterneb at the Earn Islands ; Puffin
in North Wales ; in South Wales Gulden-head, Bottle-nose
and Helegug ; at Scarburgh, Mullet ; in Cornwall, Pope ;
at Jersey and Guernsey, Barbalot." Swainson gives Puffin
as an Antrim name for the RAZORBILL.

PUFFINET. Albin gives it as a Earn Island name for the
BLACK GUILLEMOT.

PUFFIN OF THE ISLE OF MAN : The MANX SHEARWATER.
(Willughby.)

PUFFIN OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT : The PUFFIN. (Edwards.)

PUGGY or JUGGY WREN : The WREN. (West Surrey.)

PUIT : The BLACK-HEADED GULL. (Norfolk.) Found in
King's "Vale Royall " (1656). From its note (see Pewit


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