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of Tavora, Malagrida with seven other Jesuits, and
many other individuals of all ranks of Hfe, were
arrested as implicated in the attempt to murder.
The laymen had but a short trial, and, together with
the marchioness, were publicly executed ten days
after their arrest

King Joseph certainly believed that the real cul-
prits had been seized, and in his gratitude he created
Carvalho, Count of Oeyras, and encouraged him to
pursue his campaign against the Jesuits. On January
19, 1759, the estates belonging to the society were
sequestrated ; and on September 3rd, all its members
were expelled from Portugal, and directions were sent to
the viceroys of India and Brazil to expel them likewise.
The news of this bold stroke was received with admi-
ration everywhere, except at Rome, and it became
noised abroad that a great minister was ruling in
Portugal. The elder Pitt, who was anxious that
Portugal should join in the Seven Years' War, pub-
licly acknowledged the ability of the Count of Oeyras,
and at his demand apologized for the infraction of
the law of nations, which had been committed by the
English Admiral Boscawen's attack upon the French
squadron under La Clue, in the Portuguese harbour
af Lagos.

The Count of Oeyras had no desire to take part in
the general war raging in Europe, and refused to
accede to Pitt's wishes, until the King of Spain, ac-
cording to the arrangement of the "Pacte de Famille,"
attacked Portugal, as being a declared enemy of the
Franco-Spanish alliance owing to the Methuen treaty
with England. The Spaniards under the Marquis of


Sarria invaded the northern provinces of Portugal in
1762, and captured in rapid succession the towns of
Miranda, Braganza, and Almeida. Then the Count
of Oeyras appealed to the English statesman, and not
in vain. English soldiers and munitions of war were
at once despatched to Lisbon, and, at the special
request of the minister, a general in English pay,
the Count of Lippe-Buckeburg, with some English
officers and sergeants, were sent to reorganize the
Portuguese army as Schomberg had done in the century
before. The Count of Lippe, assisted by the energy of
the Portuguese minister, quickly formed the Portuguese
troops into a disciplined army, and on the arrival of
Brigadier-General John Burgoyne, a gallant cavalry
officer, who had distinguished himself at Belle-isle,
but who is better known in English history from
his surrender at Saratoga, to take command of the
English troops, the allied army advanced. They were
uniformly successful ; the Spaniards lost all their
former advantages ; they were defeated at Valencia
de Alcantara, where the English took three standards
and a Spanish general ; and on October 5th Burgoyne
gtormed the entrenched camp of Villa Velha, and
ended the campaign. The Spaniards were now quite
ready to give in, and on February 10, 1763, peace was
signed between Portugal and Spain. The Count of
Oeyras had learnt a lesson from the contrast between
the two campaigns, and when Burgoyne and his
English .soldiers returned to England, the Count of
Lippc-Buckcburg was requested to remain, and he not
only reorganized the Portuguese army, but put all the
Portuguese fortresses on the Spanish frontier, and


especially Elvas, in thorough repair, according to the
received ideas of fortification.

On the conclusion of this short war, the Count of
Oeyras once more turned his attention to the Jesuits,
and in 1764 the Jesuit priest Malagrida was burnt
alive, not as a traitor, but as a heretic and impostor,
on account of some crazy tractates he had written.
The man was regarded as a martyr, and all com-
munication between Portugal and the Holy See
was broken off for two years, while the Portuguese
minister exerted all his influence with the Courts of
France and Spain to procure the entire suppression of
the society, which he hated. The king supported him
consistently, and after another attempt upon his life
in 1769, which the minister as usual attributed to the
Jesuits, King Joseph created his faithful servant
Marquis of Pombal, by which title he is best known
to fame. The prime ministers of France and Spain
cordially acquiesced in the hatred of the Jesuits, for
both the Due de Choiseul and the Count d'Aranda
had something of Pombal's spirit in them, and
imitated his policy ; in both countries the society,
which on its foundation had done so much for
Catholicism and Christianity, was proscribed, and
the worthy members treated with as much rigour as
the unworthy ; and finally in 1773 Pope Clement
XIV. solemnly abolished the Society of Jesus. King
Joseph did not long survive this triumph of his
minister, for he died on February 24, 1777, and the
Marquis of Pombal, then an old man of seventy-seven,
was at once dismissed from office.

To analyse the internal reforms and general


measures of improvement introduced into Portugal
by Pombal is almost impossible in a single paragraph,
so far-reaching were his endeavours, so unlimited his
energy. He has often been compared with Richelieu,
chiefl}', it seems, because of his rigorous suppression
of the Tavora plot ; but the men whom he really
resembled were the benevolent despots and their
ministers who abounded in Europe before the out-
break of the French Revolution. He firmly believed
that the greatest happiness of a people depended
upon the maintenance of an absolutist monarchy,
which could do more good than representative
institutions, and his struggle with the Jesuits was
mainly due to the fact that they were so wealthy and
independent, especially in Brazil, as to hamper the
power of the Crown. The class of statesmen and
politicians to which he belonged included such
monarchs as Frederick the Great of Prussia, the
Emperor Joseph H., Leopold, Grand Duke of
Tuscany, and Charles HI. of Spain, and such great
reforming ministers as Aranda in Spain and
Tannucci in Naples ; and like them he believed
that real good could only be done by an absolute
monarch, who had the interests of his people at heart.
The greatest evidence Pombal gave of this royal
concern for the people was in the famous decree of
May 25, 1773, by which slavery was abolished in
Portugal, or rather by which grandsons of slaves, and
all children of slaves born after that date, were
declared free, and which at the same time abolished
all distinctions between " old " and " new " Christians,
by which latter term the descendants of the converted

a Si

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pombaCs reforms. 3C^7

Jews and Mohammedans were still called, and made
all Portuguese subjects alike eligible for civil, military,
and ecclesiastical offices. In Brazil, however, he made
no attempt to put down slavery, believing, like all his
contemporaries, that negroes were made on purpose
to be slaves ; but even there he repeated and enforced
the edicts against making slaves of the natives of the
country. In matters of internal administration he
advocated and maintained efficiency and economy,
and at one blow in 1761 he swept away more than
three-quarters of the petty offices which hampered
the administration of justice. The law courts were
made accessible, and lawsuits cheap ; and in 1769 he
robbed the Inquisition of its power by making it an
open and public court, subject to the rules which
regulated other courts. In matters of police he showed
the same vigour, and by stern repression prevented
the machinery of the law from being used to further
private revenge. He recognized the importance of
education, and reorganized the University of Coimbra
in 1772 by abolishing the teaching of the dark ages
which still continued there and introducing the
modern element ; and though he expelled the great
teaching order of the Church, he maintained the
educational establishments of the Jesuits, and turned
their college at Lisbon into a school for the training
of the young nobility. Of the reforms in the army,
which he carried out with the help of the Count of
Lippe-Buckeburg mention has already been made,
and he was equally energetic with regard to the
navy, over which department he placed the most
energetic of his subordinates, Martinho dc Mcllo e


Castro. Nor was the great minister careless of more
material affairs ; he showed a taste for architecture
and building ; under his superintendence the part of
Lisbon which had been ruined by the earthquake rose
from its ashes in redoubled beauty, adorned with fine
streets, squares, and buildings, generally designed by
the famous Portuguese architect Joaquim Machado de
Castro. He did not neglect to encourage agriculture
and viniculture, which must ever be the source of
livelihood of the greater number of the Portuguese
people, and he introduced the silkworm into the
northern provinces, and made special regulations for
the management and encouragement of the bold
fishermen of the Beira and the Algarves. In his
attempt to introduce manufactures the Marquis of
Pombal was not so successful ; the Portuguese are
not a manufacturing people, and the system of
protection which he enforced only roused the
opposition of English merchants, who protested
against it as a breach of the Methuen treaty, and
made manufactured articles dearer than they had
been during the first half of the century. Yet some
of the native industries which he established or
protected were not unworthy of his care, and the
glass-works of Leiria, the lace of Vianna, and the
potteries of Aveiro enjoyed a great and deserved
reputation. In commercial matters he showed the
result of the lessons he had learnt during his official
residence in London, for he founded the Royal Bank
of Portugal in 175 1, and established the Oporto
Wine Company, ' against which infraction of their
monopoly the English wine merchants loudly in-


v^eighed. He encouraged trade with Brazil b)-
granting concessions to the gold seekers and planters
of that great colony ; and the importation of gold,
sugar, and tobacco brought back to Lisbon some of
the prosperity of the sixteenth century. In Asia he
was clear-sighted enough to perceive that any
attempt to contend for a share of the Indian or the
spice trade was bound to be of no avail ; but he was
the first of Portuguese statesmen to perceive the
value of the little settlement of Macao in the Canton
river. IMost of the Chinese trade, which had been
yearly growing in value, was in the hands of the
factory of the English East India Company at Canton,
but the jealousy of the Chinese Government was
such that the Company had no assured position
there. But Macao was a free port ; most of the
factors and writers of the East India Company
resided there, and Pombal, seeing that the tea trade
passed through Portuguese territory, greatly en-
couraged it, and took care that it should pay due
toll to the Portuguese authorities and contribute to
the wealth of the Portuguese Crown. Nor was the
great minister insensible to literature and the fine
arts. He founded the "Arcadia de Lisboa " in 1757,
for the propagation of the teachings of the school of
the French encyclopaedists ; and it was under his
influence and protection that Diogo Barbosa Machado
compiled his " Bibliotheca Lusitana " and Damiao
Antonio de Lemos wrote his " Historia dc Portugal,"
a work which stands midway between the naive
annals of Bernardo de Brito and Antonio Brandao,
and the modern scientific histories of Alexandra


Herculano and Rebello da Silva. Of music he was
particularly fond ; he persuaded the king to build the
opera house at Lisbon, and to invite the famous singer
Caffarelli, the confidant of the King of Spain, to sing
there, and to him was dedicated the best Portuguese
opera, the "Alessandre nell' Indie" of David Peres.

Such were some of the reforms, schemes, improve-
ments, and tastes of the great minister ; they made
him the friend of his sovereign and the adored of
the people ; but, on the other hand, his persecution of
the Jesuits and his rigorous treatment of the leading
noblemen, whom he had often imprisoned without
trial, made him many personal enemies, and when his
patron died he knew that his own fall was at hand.
King Joseph had died without male issue, and was
succeeded on the throne by his eldest daughter,
Donna Maria Francisca, who had married in 1760
her own uncle Dom Pedro, a younger brother of
King Joseph. By this arrangement it was hoped
that all disputes as to the accession would be avoided ;
the husband and wife were crowned together, and
coins were struck in the joint names of Maria I. and
Pedro III. Both the king and the queen were feeble
and weak-minded, and the reins of government
fell into the hands of the widow of King Joseph,
Donna Marianna Victoria, a fanatical Catholic who
had always resented the influence of Pombal and
opposed his policy. By her advice the great minister
was at once dismissed from office and ordered to send
in his accounts, while his enemies were released from
prison. Their names will show how powerful was
the enmity he had to expect, for among them were


Dom Miguel de Annunciacao, Bishop of Coimbra ;
Dom Joao Amberto de Noronha, Count of San
Lourenco ; Dom Joao de Almeida Portugal, Marquis
of Alorna, a former Viceroy of India, and brother of
the Marquis of Tavora ; Dom Martinho de Masca-
renhas, son of the executed Duke of Aveiro ; Dom
Jose, illegitimate brother of the late king and Grand
Inquisitor of Portugal ; Antonio de Andrade Freire,
the Chancellor ; Dom Frederico de Sousa Holstein ;
and Dom Joao de Braganza, Duke of Lafoes. These
men at once surrounded the new sovereigns and gave
utterance to complaints against Pombal ; the pro-
ceedings in the case of the Tavora plot were reversed,
and the prosecution of the late minister pressed on with
bitter hostility. Yet his enemies hardly dared to con-
demn such a benefactor to his country to any severe
penalty, and after being driven about from pillar to
post for four years, the old man, now more than
eighty years of age, was condemned to be banished
twenty leagues from Court. Had his relentless
persecutor, the widow of King Joseph, been alive, his
punishment would doubtless have been more severe,
and, as it was, the queen dared not pass such a light
sentence until after her mother's death. The old
minister did not long survive his disgrace, and
died at Pombal on May 8, 1782, at the age of eighty-
three. To the credit of Pedro and Maria let it be
admitted at once that in consideration of his father's
long and eminent services the young Marquis of
Pombal was fully confirmed in all the honours and
estates which had been conferred upon the minister
by King Joseph.


It need hardly be said that the fall of Pombal left
many aspirants to his high place. The three
Secretaries of State, Martinho de Mello e Castro,
Thomas Xavier de Lima Brito, Viscount of Villa
Nova de Cerveira, afterwards Marquis of Ponte de
Lima, and Ayresde Sa e Mello ; the Intendant of the
Treasury, Pedro Jose de Noronha, Marquis of
Angeja ; and the Intendant of Police, Diogo Ignacio
de Pina Manique, had all been trained in official work
by Pombal, and were all eager to succeed their
master in power. None of them, however, were
successful, for the great nobles who had been recalled
to Court were determined to have no such supreme
ruler again over them, while they were too jealous of
each other and too inexperienced in affairs to take
office themselves. Matters went on therefore at the
commencement of the new reign much as they had
done under the management of Pombal ; his spirit
remained amongst the ministers, and in such
measures as the commercial treaty with Russia, the
lighting of Lisbon by oil lamps, and the abolition of
imprisonment for debt, the impulse he had given to
all reforms is clearly to be seen. The " Arcadia de
Lisboa " was indeed allowed to disappear, but in its
place the Duke of Lafoes established the " Academia
Real das Sciencias " in 1779, which did even better
work for literature by its publication of the works
of the early Portuguese chroniclers. In carrying out
these measures the king and queen had little share ;
Pedro III. was a silly and vicious man, and Maria
'Vancisca was a woman of weak intellect, completely

■bservient to her confessor, Ignacio de San Caetano


who found her greatest happiness in raising vast
sums of money and sending them to the Latin
convent at Jerusalem. The only important event
in which they took a part was their conference with
the Court of Spain at Badajoz in 1785, when an
arrangement was come to about the disputed frontier
in South America ; and when Dom John, the second
son of Pedro and Maria, was betrothed to Donna
Carlotta Joaquina, grand-daughter of Charles III. of
Spain. In the following year Pedro III. died, and
his death, followed as it speedily was by those of her
confessor and of her elder son, Dom Jose, who had
married his aunt. Donna Maria Benedictina, completely
upset the small amount of intellect possessed by
Maria Francisca. It was observed in 1788 that she
was quite unfit to transact any business ; and in 1792,
when the progress of the French Revolution was
setting all Europe in a blaze, Dom John found it
necessary to take the management of affairs into his
hands, though he was not declared regent until 1799.
To turn from the history of Portugal in the
eighteenth century to the history of the Portuguese
possessions in India is a melancholy task ; for these
possessions instead of being a source of pride were
a source of expense and anxiety to the home
government, and they were maintained rather from a
recollection of ancient greatness and as a base for
mission work than for any actual advantage derived
from them. In 1739 Bassein, the "Capital of the
North " as it was called, a city which had been
second only to Goa in commercial and political
importance, was captured by Chimnaji Apa, a


Maratha general, after a three months' siege, and
with it fell Thana and all the possessions of the
Portuguese on the north-west coast except Daman
and Diu. In 1741 the Marathas and the Bhonslas of
Sawantvvarl over-ran the country round Goa and
threatened the city, but in the moment of difficulty,
the Marquis of Lourigal arrived with twelve
thousand men, and first defeated the Marathas at
Bardez, and then made Khem Savvant, the ruler of
Sawantwari, tributary. His successes were followed
by those of the Marquis of Castello Novo, who
captured Alorna, Tiracol, Neutim, Rarim, and Satari;
and the Marquis of Tavora, who took Sadashivgarh.
But the Portuguese Government had no desire to
make fresh conquests which it would need fresh
supplies of money from home to defend, and the
Count of Ega was ordered to surrender most of the
conquered towns to their former owners. Meanwhile
commerce had entirely deserted the Portuguese
possessions, which were given over to the Church ;
and Captain Hamilton in his travels, after speaking
of the poverty of the Portuguese inhabitants, says
that he counted no fewer than eighty churches and
convents in Goa, and that there were no less than
thirty thousand priests in the city and territory.
Revenue there was none, and the two thousand
European soldiers who defended the ancient capital
of Alboquerque had to be paid out of the Portuguese
treasury. The last blow was given to what little
commerce still remained by Pombal's suppression of
the Jesuits, and in 1759 "Golden Goa," which had
become unhealthy and ruinous, was left to priests and


monks, and the seat of government was removed to
Panjim. Pombal, with his practical insight, saw that
nothing was to be made out of the Portuguese
possessions in India, and spent all his efforts in
Asia in promoting the prosperity of Macao ; and in
1794, when Portugal was in difficulties in Europe,
the Viceroy of Goa asked for the protection of
English troops, and Goa was garrisoned by the
English East India Company throughout the con-
tinuance of the great war with France.

Very different was the history of Brazil during this
century : while India was a source of expense, Brazil
was the great source of wealth to the Portuguese
treasury, and was to be the refuge of the royal
family when it became impossible for it to remain
longer in Lisbon. Throughout the century there was
a steady influx of immigrants to Brazil from Por-
tugal, and the population of the great colony rapidly
increased in numbers. Most of these immigrants
settled down as sugar or tobacco planters, and the
labour upon the plantations was completely in the
hands of the negro slaves, who were imported in vast
numbers. The trade in slaves was kept entirely in
the hands of Portuguese merchants, in spite of the
efforts of the I'Inglish slavers, and was not only looked
upon as a lucrative calling, but as the chief employ-
ment for the Portuguese sailors. It was this trade
alone which made it worth while for the Portuguese
Government to keep up its establishments on the
coast of Guinea, and Pombal encouraged it as the
only means of supplying Brazil with labourers. The
slaves in Brazil were not treated unkindly ; their


masters were bound to feed them ; and were not only
allowed, but were obliged to sell them their liberty,
on the offer of a certain fixed sum of money. These
freed slaves and the mulattoes, who were very nume-
rous, often accumulated considerable wealth, and were
treated as citizens in every respect, except that they
could not hold any civil or municipal office. They
were even enrolled as soldiers, but the mulatto regi-
ments were kept distinct from the European, and
officered from among the wealthy members of their
own class. The native Brazilians were treated even
more favourably, and by the great decree of 1755
they were not only forbidden to sell themselves as
slaves, but were made citizens in every respect, and
allowed to receive their Education at the University
of Coimbra. The importance of the discovery of
gold in the interior has been mentioned, and the
revenue to the Portuguese Crown from the king's fifth,
in spite of much fraud, was estimated at ^^300,000 a
year. The opening up of the interior led, about the
year 1750, to the conquest of the Paulist Republic.
This curious little state had been formed round the
city of St. Paul about the commencement of the
eighteenth century by fugitives from Brazil and from
the more oppressive Spanish Governments of Chile
and Peru. The town was originally founded far up
in the heart of the virgin forests beyond the jurisdic-
tion of the Portuguese and Spanish officials, where
the inhabitants led a wild, romantic life, tempered
only by lynch law. But by degrees the march of
civilization brought them in contact with the Portu-
guese Government, and the discovery of diamonds in


the vicinity led to the suppression of the little republic.
This discovery of diamonds further increased the
wealth of the Portuguese Crown, and in addition to
the royal right to every diamond above twenty carats
weight, the king was estimated to make an income
of 2 1 00,000 a year by a contract entered into with
a syndicate of English diamond buyers. Nor were
other precious stones lacking, for rubies, emeralds,
and topazes were all discovered in such large quanti-
ties in the latter half of the eighteenth century as to
seriously lower their price. The great colony was
ruled most wisely ; only a few of the superior officers
were sent from Portugal, and most offices were filled
from among the settlers themselves. It was not even
found necessary to send troops from Portugal, for a
regular army of sixteen thousand men, and a militia
of over twenty thousand were easily raised and paid
in the country itself. The only troubles which beset
the colony were caused by the indefiniteness of its
boundaries, and Portugal found it necessary to yield
much territory, which has since developed into
wealthy and prosperous republics to the encroach-
ments of Spain. Its importance was recognized by
the title of Prince of Brazil granted to the eldest son
of the King of Portugal since the days of John IV.,
and it became a safe refuge for the exiled royal family
when events in Europe made it necessary for it to fly
from Lisbon.

In literature the Portuguese writers of the eigh-

Online LibraryH. Morse (Henry Morse) StephensPortugal → online text (page 23 of 29)