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LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
DAVIS



THE TINEINA



OF



SOUTHERN EUROPE



BY

H. T. STAINTON, F.R.S., SEC.L.S.



LONDON :

JOHN VAN VOORST, PATERNOSTER ROW,

MDCCCLXIX.



LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

DAVIS



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS,
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.



PEEFACE.



THE object of the present volume is to supply the Entomologist who
visits Southern Europe with one portable volume comprising all that
has been written on the Tineina of that portion of the globe.

The aim has been to reproduce accurately the records of each
observer, but at the same time to place them, if possible, more
clearly and distinctly before the reader than they appeared when
originally published.

The descriptions are reproduced in the actual words of the
respective authors, it being thought that he who is trying to make
out a species will always prefer to refer to the original than to any
translation however perfect. A translator, indeed, who has not the
actual insect before him is always liable to make errors which may
altogether vitiate the description ; for, though correctly translating
the words, he may, from misapprehending their meaning, give a
very different signification to the passage.

The new matter in the volume is really extremely limited, less
than a tenth being devoted to the chapter which treats of the
author's doings in Southern Europe.

But it is thought that the synthetic arrangement of all that has
been done in the last twenty-five years, and the addition to that of
all that had been written by previous authors, even going back to
the year 1750, on the Tineina of Southern Europe, will much
facilitate the further study of these insects.

I would gladly have added another chapter as an epitome of the
more interesting Southern forms included in this volume ; but the
extent to which the subject had already swollen, and a lurking
doubt whether the proposed epitome might not itself grow to
rather unreasonable dimensions, induced me to leave that chapter
unwritten.

My best thanks are due to all those who have so liberally assisted



IV PREFACE.

me with specimens or information during the progress of this
volume.

And I have also to thapk the subscribers to the Natural History
of the Tineina ' for the patience with which they have waited for
the appearance of vol. xi. (the first of the new series) ; the printing
of that volume is nearly completed, and, but for the probability of
delay in the colouring of the plates, would most likely be issued
simultaneously with this which has an advantage in that respect,
not having any colourer to wait for.

The single Plate which accompanies this volume is nearly a fac-
simile reproduction of the original plate in the first volume of the
* Memoires de Mathematique et de Physique presentes a 1' Academic
Koyale des Sciences/ one or two details only being omitted so as to
enable the original quarto to be reproduced in an octavo form.

I shall hope now soon to be able to turn my attention to the
promised volume on the Tineina of Scandinavia ; but I hope next
summer to have more breathing-time for outdoor entomology ; for I
must confess that this summer, with the two volumes going through
the press, I have found very little spare time, and, not having set an
insect for the last two months, the Psoci on my setting-boards are
nearly starved.

"When Professor Zeller started from Glogau one cold January
morning twenty-five years ago, little did he foresee that one of the
results of his then journey would be the appearance of the present
volume ; I have endeavoured here and there to give it some flavour
of the sunny south, recognizable, perhaps, by those who have visited
the Mediterranean region ; and if I succeed in inducing one British
entomologist to make his first Southern trip, I shall feel that my
labour has not been thrown away.

H. T. STAINTON.



Mountsfield, Lewisham, near London,
October 4th, 1869.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

PROFESSOR ZELLER.

Sect. Page

Professor Zeller's visit to Italy and Sicily in 1844. 1



CHAPTER II.

HERR JOSEPH MANN 53

I. Tineina collected in Tuscany in 1846 54

II. near Fiume in 1853 90

III. in Upper Carniola in 1854 105

IV. in Corsica in 1855 116

V. in Sicily in 1858 126

VI. in Croatia in 1866 132

VII. in Dalmatia in 1850, 1862, and 1868 132



CHAPTER III.

DR. STAUDINGEB 135

I. Letters from Dr. Staudinger 136

II. New Tineina collected in Spain in 1857 and 1858 140

HI. inl862 163

CHAPTER IV.

MONSIEUR PIERRE MILLIERE.
New Tineina from the South of France . . .166



VI CONTENTS.

CHAPTER V.
REV. HENRY BUBNEY AND OTHERS.

Sect. Page

I. Tineina collected by the Rev. Henry Burney at Mentone,

1864-65 190

II. Tineina collected by Professor Rosenhauer in Andalusia in

1849 199

IH. Tineina collected by Count v. Hoffmannsegg in Andalusia in

1865 199

IV. New Tineina collected by Herr Erber in Dalmatia and the

Island of Syra in 1867 202

V. Tineina received by Dr. J. Delaharpe from Sicily in 1858 204



CHAPTER VI.

THE AUTHOR.

I. Tineina observed in Italy in February and March 1863 206

II. at Cannes and Mentone in March 1866 207

HI. in February and

March 1867 216

IV. Larvae of Tineina received from Southern Europe in 1868 .... 233
V. Tineina observed in Southern Europe in the winter of 1868-69 234



CHAPTER VII.

GERMAN AUTHORS.

1. South-European Tineina noticed by Herrich-Schaffer in his

' Schmetterlinge von Europa ' 238

[I. South-European Tineina noticed in Herrich-Schaffer's 'Neue

Schmetterlinge aus Europa und den angrenzenden Landern ' 246
III. Species of Butalis from Southern Europe described by Professor

Zeller in the 10th volume of the ' Linnsea Entomologica ' . . 250



CHAPTER VIII.

FRENCH AUTHORS.

Tineina from the South of France noticed by Godart and
Duponchel , 258



CONTENTS. Vll

CHAPTER IX.
ITALIAN AUTHORS.

Sect. Page

I. Tineina noticed by Costa in the Fauna del Regno di Napoli . . 266
II. enumerated by Ghiliani in the f Lepidoptera of the Sar-
dinian states ' . . 277



CHAPTER X.

AUTHORS OP THE LAST CENTURY.

I. South-European Tineina described by Linne" 295

II. by Fabricius 296

III. Tineina described by Scopoli in his ' Entomologia Carniolica ' . . 298



CHAPTER XI.

THE LOST PLEIAD 309

Antispila Rivillei 310

CHAPTER XII.
GEOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY 320

CHAPTER XIII.

BOTANICAL SUMMARY 356

Index of the new Species described in this volume 370

Explanation of the Plate, see page 319.



ERRATA.

Page line

61, 7, for Legorn read Leghorn.

98, 15 from bottom, for drymidis read drypidis.

98, 14 from bottom, for Drymis read Drypis.
108, 6, for turbidella read tabidella.
Ill, 7, for town read castle.

141, 15 from bottom, for alba read albidus.

152, 15, for alba read albidus.

169, 6 from bottom, fop Godartella read Goedartella.

226, 13 from bottom, for Urodela read Urodeta.



THE TINEINA



OF



SOUTHERN EUROPE.

CHAPTER I.

PROFESSOR ZELLER.

PROFESSOR ZELLER'S VISIT TO ITALY AND SICILY IN 1844.

A MOST important event in the history of the Tineina of Southern
Europe (that which, in fact, has gradually led to the dissemination of
a knowledge of these small insects amongst Western, Central, and
Northern Europe) was Professor Zeller's visit a quarter of a century
ago to the Italian peninsula. Exchanging in midwinter the sandy
fir-forests of Grlogau, on the banks of the Oder, for the rocky hills of
the South, terraced with vineyards and olive- plantations, he brought
to bear on the new phase of insect-life he saw around him his
highly concentrated powers of observation.

Much which to a native of Italy, even though he had attained
some proficiency as an entomologist, would have appeared ordinary
and commonplace (for that which we see constantly can seldom
strike us), must to one coming from Northern Germany have pro-
duced a very different impression ; and hence we find, in the pages of
the ' Isis ' for 1847, in which are recorded the observations made by
Professor Zeller on the Lepidoptera noticed on this journey, many an
interesting remark, which may even now prove of value to the philo-
sophical reader in opening out new trains of thought as to the habits
and customs of species, &c.

In the ' Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de
Moscou,' 1854, pp. 3-52, Professor Zeller has given a detailed
account of the Sicilian localities which he visited Messina, Syra-
cuse, and Catania. He arrived at Messina on the 26th January, 1844,
and remained there till after the middle of April. On the 21st of
April he took up his residence at Syracuse, which he left on the
24th of June for Catania, whence, on the 29th-30th June, he made
an excursion to the summit of Mount Etna. Leaving Sicily on the
6th August, he spent fourteen days at Naples, whence on the 22nd
August he proceeded by Terracina to Rome, where he remained only
nine days.

~



SPECIES COLLECTED BY PROFESSOR ZELLER



Species collected by Professor Zeller in Italy and Sicily in 1844,
enumerated in the ' Isis ' for 1847, pp. 801-859, 881-898.

Talceporia ? One case on an oak tree near Trieste.

T. lapidicetta, Z. Two cases on the walls of the dome of St. Peter's
at Rome on the 2nd of September.

Tinea imella, Hb. [a variety noticed p. 15]. Two males taken in
dull weather at sunset on the 29th of April on a grassy place of the
ancient Neapolis near Syracuse.

T. granella, L. One male taken on the 14th of August in the wood
of Camaldoli, near Naples, far removed from human dwellings.

T. pellionella, L. Occurred but rarely ; a pair were taken on the
4th and 8th of May near Syracuse which differed slightly.

T. crassicorneUa. n. sp. [Described, see p. 15.] Two males on the 19th
of May and two on the 7th of June towards evening amongst grass
and flowers on a grassy footpath near the Temple of Jupiter at
Syracuse near the Anapo.

Calantica dealbatella, n. sp. [Described, see p. 16.] I found this spe-
cies in great plenty in the oak-woods to the south of the Lake of Ag-
nano near Naples. I beat it from the leaves of low oaks (Quercus
robur fructu sessili) on the 15th and 19th of August, most freely
towards sunset. It flies rather restlessly, first downwards and then
again gradually upwards to reach an oak-leaf or a chestnut-leaf,
,along which it runs quickly, seeks the underside and there settles
to repose. Sometimes it settles at once on the underside of a
leaf. I also saw them sit on the upperside of leaves, which had a
slanting position. Sometimes, from the force of the wind, they
were obliged to seek shelter on the trunk of a tree ; and in the
evening, when beaten out, many settled on my clothes. When at
rest it seemed to me to have some resemblance to Argyresihia
Goedartella. Its anterior legs are stretched out obliquely in front,
and from its tibiae being so thick it has a peculiar appearence ; the
middle legs are directed obliquely backwards under the wings ;
the hind legs are not visible. The wings are roof-shaped and
raised posteriorly ; the head is kept low down. I also beat out
two pair in copula ; they flew obliquely to the ground : the wings
of the male were half covered by those of the female.

Eriocottis fuscanella, n. sp. [Described, see p. 18.] This flies in April
at Messina and Syracuse. I took the first specimens on the 2nd of
April on the eastern slope of a mountain by the Palermitane
Strasse at Messina ; on the subsequent days it was very plentiful
amongst Arbutus and heath higher up the hill. It flew principally
in the morning, was easily started, and settled, after a compara-
tively short flight, on all sorts of bushes and grass. In repose the
wings form a steep roof, and the cilia of the hind margin stick up.
On the 5th of April I took it high up the Peloro Mountains, on a



IN ITALY AND SICILY IN 1844. 3

sunny, dry, grassy place, amongst Erica arborea, from which. I
frequently beat it out late in the afternoon. Amongst the nume-
rous specimens, I only took two females ; hence they must rest much
more concealed and be reluctant to fly. I saw a few specimens
at Syracuse at the end of April.

Micropteryx caUhella, L. Abundant near Syracuse on the 23rd of
April in a moist meadow, on the flowers of Ranunculus (acris ?).

M. sicanella, n. sp. [Described, see p. 19; afterwards recognized as
Paykullella, Fabricius, see ' Linnaea Entomologica,' vol. v. p. 329.]
This species is not scarce all around Messina in the latter half of
March and beginning of April, in some places abundant. I first
found it on the 18th of March in the Peloro Mountains in the deep
valley above Cascatelli ; it was swarming in the sunshine on Eu-
phorbia characias, then in blossom ; it sat generally on the leaves,
more rarely in the flowers, where, on account of the large involucre,
it was not easy to catch it. When I had ascended some hundreds
of feet higher, I found it on a sunny slope not scarce on the
flowers of Erica arborea, and in one luxuriantly weedy place it
was swarming in the grass. It has quite the habit of aruncella.
In dull weather I beat it rather freely at this place from the heath-
blossoms into my net, and then secured it in the forceps. At
another spot it was flying amongst CoroniUa emerus and bramble
bushes.

M. fastuosetta, Z, A single male beaten from an oak bush on the
slope of a mountain near Messina, on the 2nd of April. It is
a small specimen, but certainly referable to this species. There
were no sloe-bushes near. As this species also occurs in Livonia,
it has a very wide range.

Nematopogon sericinellus, n. sp. [Described, see p. 20.] In April
around Messina; scarce on the mountains by the Palermitane
Strasse in the thickets of oaks mixed with Cytisus and Cistus.

Adda viridella, Scop. Scarce near Messina on the eastern slope of
the Peloro Mountains along the Palermitane Strasse in mixed
thickets of Quercus pubescens at the end of March and in April.
In one mountain -ravine HerrNymann, a Swedish botanist, observed
a whole swarm hovering round and settling on blooming Euphor-
bia characias. I have never found Adela viridella on flowers ;
it always swarmed in fine weather rather high up on the twigs of
oaks. But that it was this species that Nymann saw is certain,
as he brought back a specimen.

Nemotois Latreillellus, F. This pretty species is already on the wing
at Syracuse at the end of April (I even took a female on the 30th
April), but principally in May. Its favourite localities are grassy
and flowery sheltered meadows and mountain-slopes, whether
on dry or moist ground. It lives gregariously. In bright weather
it swarms on different flowers in the sunshine, being most partial
to those of Scabiosa columbaria ; in dull weather it sits on the
flowers, and is then very easily captured. As it does not conceal
itself, its beauty is soon damaged by the rain, and by the end of

B 2



4 SPECIES COLLECTED BY PKOFESSOE ZELLEK

the month its period of flight is over for the year. It occurs
also near Messina, probably first in May.

N. mollellus, Tr. I took a single female near Syracuse on the 30th
April on a flower in the road towards the peninsula Magnisi.

Plutella cruciferarum, Z. Everywhere round Messina and Syracuse
throughout the entire spring and summer in fields and grassy places.
At Messina, on the sunny slope of the Castellaccio, I took a this
year's specimen as early as the 9th of February, at a spot where
much Clypeola maritima was growing.

At Naples I took a specimen on the 18th of August.

Ypsolophus verbascellus, S. Y. I found the larvae in the spring at
Messina high up the mountains, abundant on a species of Verbas-
cum which is common there. In habits they were quite similar to
those we find in Germany. At Syracuse I took the imago singly
and scarce in May and June. At Messina a small male, which
had not flown, on the 25th July. Hence this species is there, as
with us, double -brooded.

Y. exustellus, n. sp. [Described, see p. 21.] I took a pair of this
species at Syracuse on dry limestone near the Capuchin Monas-
tery on the 17th and 21st of June ; three specimens, which all
appear to be females, I took in the Campagna to the south of Rome
in dry grass on the 28th of August. Its habit was similar to that
of Y. humerettus.

Y. striateUiis, S. Y. Not scarce near Syracuse on the western slope
of the ancient Neapolis, which is clothed with small weeds of all
sorts, in places where Rumex bucepTialopliorus grew abundantly,
in May and the beginning of June. I took a pale specimen on the
24th of April. [The dark variety is described, see p. 22.]

At Glogau I once met with the species in plenty at the end of
May in a sandy field covered with llumex acetosella ; but it is most
plentiful, as already mentioned in the ' Isis,' on the flowers of Tana-
cetum vulgare.

Anchinia brevispinella, n. sp. [Described, see p. 22.] This flies near
Syracuse on the slopes and meadows of the ancient Neapolis, not
very scarce in grass at the end of April and throughout May ; it
has the habits of Anchinia bicostella.

(Ecophora LewenJioekella, S. Y. A fine female taken on the 15th of
April near Messina in the grass of a mountain-field. It is of the
usual size and markings ; the cilia of the hind margin are at basal
half purple- coloured, those of the costa violet.

(EcopJiora KnocJiella, Tr. ; (E. punctivittella, Costa, p. 14, tab. 5. f. 1 .
I took two males and one female on the 26th of June at the foot
of Mount Etna above Catania at Trecastagne in an oak bush on
lava-ashes; I found a small female together with a male at
Camaldoli near Naples on the 16th of August on the blossom of
yarrow, and took two other small males in the pass of Itri on the
23rd of August, and in the Campagna to the north of Rome on
the 3rd of September. Hence it appears to be double-brooded.



IN ITALY AND SICILY IN 1844. 5

(E. chenopodiella, Hb. One male and two females on the 9th, 10th,
and 17th of May near Syracuse, on cultivated parts of Acradina
and Neapolis. They belong- to a very dark variety.

(E. gravatella, n. sp. [Described, see p. 23.] I took five specimens
(4 tf , 1 $ ) near Messina on the north side of Castellaccio, starting
them out of dry grass on the 23rd and 25th of July.

One male (rather different) was taken on the 14th of September
on the Karst at Trieste.

(E. dissitella, n. sp. [Described, see p. 24.] A pair taken on the
25th and 26th of April near Syracuse on meadows round the
Syraca.

(E. tributella, n. sp. [Described, see p. 25.] I took a fine pair of
this plainly marked species on the 4th of May near Syracuse in
grass on the weedy slopes of the ancient Neapolis.

(E. terrenella, n. sp. [Described, see p. 25.] I collected six speci-
mens (one of which is a female) in dry grass on the Castellaccio
near Messina on the 22nd, 23rd, and 26th of July. On the 28th
of August I took a male near Rome, in the Campagna towards
Albano, likewise in a dry grassy place ; it has the anterior wings
brighter and more shining, and the posterior wings of a more violet-
grey ; but, from its other characters, I cannot look upon it as a dis-
tinct species.

(E. roscidella, n. sp. [Described, see p. 26.] I beat several specimens
from young oak trees on the 15th and 19th of August near Naples
above the Lake of Agnano and at Camaldoli.

\_(E. oleella, Boyer, which is not enumerated in the ' Tsis ' of 1847,
is thus mentioned in the Ent. Zeit. 1850, p. 148 : " I have my-
self taken a fine male at Syracuse, on the 21st of June."]

Hyponomeuta malinellus, Z. A bad specimen, with no cilia, taken on
the 16th of August in the vicinity of Camaldoli near Naples ; it
flew beneath a large apple-tree. The wings appear narrower than
in the ordinary malinellus.

H. Evonymi, Z. On the same day I beat a specimen from a spindle
bush on the hill at Antignano near Naples. It is smaller than
the specimen of malinellus and less worn ; on the underside of the
anterior wings is a very fine white line on the costa before the
apex.

Psecadia sexpunctdla, Hb. On the 25th of April I found a male
which was drowned in a cattle -trough near the Temple of Jupiter
at Syracuse.

P. echiella, S. Y. On a species of Ecliium I found a small larva
near Syracuse on the 12th of May, but did not breed it.

Depressaria assimilella, Tr. I caught a specimen on the 15th of
August to the south of the Lake of Agnano in the chestnut- wood,
on the borders of which the food of the larva (Spartium scoparium)
grows abundantly.

It is a rather large male, with very pale anterior wings, on
which the two black spots arc quite distinct ; but the dark blotch



6 SPECIES COLLECTED BY PKOFESSOK ZELLER

beyond them is wanting ; the last joint of the palpi has only a
few dark scales in the middle. In other respects it is an ordinary
assimilella.

D. peloritaneUa, n. sp. [Described, see p. 27.] This species is very
abundant in the mountains around Messina. After hibernation
I met with it several times in thickets on the mountains by the
Palermitane Strasse, at the end of February and in March, for
the most part much wasted. On one of those scarce, calm, mild
April evenings it flew up there rather abundantly, but the speci-
mens were quite unserviceable. In a similar locality I took a
perfectly fresh specimen on the 10th of July on the north side of
a high mountain ; it was first started as I trod down the fern with
which the slope is there covered. The larva probably feeds there
on Spartium junceum or Erica arborea ; the earliest time of
appearance is July. Doubtless it is only single-brooded ; but the
development is very irregular, as in several of our commonest
Depressarice, such as laterella, some of which also hybernate.

Depressaria thapsiella, n. sp. [Described, see p. 28.] This probably
occurs in all localities where Thapsia yarganica grows. At
Messina this plant occurs both on the sea- coast and on the slopes
and in the ravines of the Peloro Mountain ; and I found this
larva on it everywhere, most freely in the higher places, of very
different sizes alter the middle of March. The young Iarva3 not
unfrequently live in multitudes, not in a common web, but yet so
close to one another that one might easily fancy they had a com-
mon web; they especially inhabit the youngest, innermost leaves,
which they eat, and hence come constantly nearer together. By
degrees they commence operating on the older leaves ; and as they
spin webs on them and devour the margins they form a large
compressed knob, which is readily perceived from a distance.
The more adult Iarva3, often mixed with the younger ones, live
more scattered on the ends and margins of the largest leaves, in
a white silken tube which they have placed between two leaf-
tips. From time to time they seek out other dwellings. They
generally sit with the head directed downwards. They are
extremely lively, like all the other Depressarice. One plant is
sometimes frequented by from 50 to 60 larvaB. [Description of
the larva, see p. 29.]

By the 3rd of April great numbers had already changed to the
pupa state, whilst Iarva3 which were very young were still occur-
ring. For pupation they form a light silken cocoon on the floor of
the cage, and cover it externally with dirt. The larva-skin comes
off in three or four days. [Pupa described, see p. 30.]

The first imago was hatched in Syracuse on' the 30th of April ;
the others followed up to the 4th of June : hence the period of
pupation lasts from three and a half to four weeks. At Syracuse
I also found traces of the abodes of the larvae on the leaves of the
Tlwpsia. At large I never saw any symptoms of the imago.

D. ferulae, n. sp. [Described, see p. 30.] I collected a few larva? of



IN ITALY AND SICILY IN 1844. 7

this insect on the 15th of April on the mountains near Messina,
on some plants of Ferula communis, on the leaves of which they
lived. I have not noted what they were like in my journal, and
cannot now remember it. They changed to the pupa state along
with D. thapsiella ; and my five specimens of the perfect insect
emerged at Syracuse on the loth, 16th, 18th, and 19th of May.
The species does not seem to be at all abundant, since I only
found the larvae in a single locality.

Depressaria veneficella, n. sp. [Described, see p. 31.] This occurs at
Syracuse on Thapsia garganica, where the Iarva3 are abundant in
the unexpanded umbels still enclosed within their sheaths : it de-
vours the flowers and the tender stems ; in the latter it bores holes,
so that not unfrequently the stems become black and die off. It
eats out the inner pith of the stem, into which it bores at intervals.
When the blossoms have unfolded, it spins them together and
remains amongst them. In company with these larvae I also



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