H. Wilberforce (Henry Wilberforce) Clarke.

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^







THE PERSIAN MAXUAL.



CLARKE.



s



*& /. -. X4 \ '

.. - X >



THE

PERSIAN MANUAL,

A POCKET COMPANION



INTENDED TO

FACILITATE THE ESSENTIAL ATTAINMENTS OP CONVERSING WITH

FLUENCY AND COMPOSING WITH ACCURACY, IN THE MOST

GBACEJUL OF AIL THE LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN

THE EAST.



FART I. A CONCISE GRAMMAR OF THE
LANGUAGE,

With Exercises on its more prominent peculiarities, together with

a Selection of Useful Phrases, Dialogues, and Subjects for

Translation into Persian.

PART II. A VOCABULARY OF USEFUL
WORDS,

ENGLISH AND PERSIAN,

SHOWING AT THE SAME TIME THE DIFFERENCE OF IDIOM
BETWEEN THE TWO LANGUAGES.

BT

CAPTAIN H. WILBERFORCE CLARKE,

"Royal Engineers.



LONDON:
WM. H. ALLEN & CO., 13, WATERLOO PLACE, S.W.

1878.



LONDON :
GILBERT AND EIVINGTON, PBINTEBS,

52, ST. JOHN'S SQUABE, E.C.



Wirult, 1- SI. .,



WHO ENCOURAGED ME IX



BOYHOOD, YOUTH, AND MANHOOD,



THIS WOBK IS, WITH AFFECTION,



PREFACE BY THE AUTHOR.



THIS work is divided into Two Parts :
Part I. Section 1. The Grammar.

2. Progressive Lessons and Exer-
cises.

3. Miscellaneous Dialogues and
Exercises.

Part II. Vocabulary.

2. Sections 2 and 3 of Part I. and the whole of
Part II. are entirely original.

The Grammar is, in part, compiled from the Per-
sian Grammars by

Dr. Lumsden, LL.D., 1810.

Mirza Muhammad Ibrahim ShirazI, 1841.

Mr. A. H. Bleeck, 1857.

Dr. D. Forbes, LL.D., 1862.

Its arrangement is entirely new ; much original mat-
ter has been introduced ; and the whole rendered as
concisely as possible.

The Exercises and Sentences (English to be turned



X PREFACE.

into Persian) have been taken from Dr. Forbes'
Manual of Hindustani. It was considered that these
exercises and sentences were possibly as good and as
well arranged as any others which could be devised,
while, by adopting them for this work, the student
would have the advantage of being able to compare
the Hindustani with the Persian idiom. The great
success which Dr. Forbes' Manual of Hindustani
has obtained was a further inducement to adopt the
same plan.

3. The aim throughout this work has been to
gather under each sentence as many useful idioms,
expressions and synonyms as possible. That portion
of a sentence which may be represented by other
equivalent expressions is enclosed in brackets ;
and the equivalent expressions also placed within
brackets and separated by semi-colons are put at
the end of the sentence. Thus, on page 126 of the
Vocabulary, against the word "robbed," it is to
be understood that the expressions " duzd burda ;"
" dast-burd-i-duzd gardida;" "ba sirkat rafta;"
"duzdida shuda," may each be substituted for the
expression " ba duzdi rafta," in the sentence.

This plan of rendering the sentences will, it is be-
lieved, give great aid to the student in mastering
the language. He will see at a glance the several



PREFACE. XI

ways in which a sentence may be rendered, will
observe the force of words, and will be able to com-
pare idiom with idiom.*

4. It has been customary to regard Persian as a
language easy of attainment ; this is far from being
the case. A certain degree of proficiency may easily
be reached ; but to obtain a thorough knowledge of
the language is exceedingly difficult, owing to

(a) The vast number of words (said to be 80,000)
in the language ;

(<5) The ambiguous expressions in which a Persian
delights ;

(c) The want of translations ;t

(d) Want of properly qualified teachers.*

That there are defects in this work is most readily
allowed ; yet all that care and labour could do to
prevent error has been given to the task. The critic
will remember that this is the first attempt ever

* In his Hindustani Manual Dr. Forbes rendered the English
sentence in one way only. For Hindustani this may be suffi-
cient ; but a rich language, such as the Persian, requires more
generous handling.

f The only Persian books translated into English are the
Gulistan, the Amvar-i-Suhaili, and the Shah-Namah.

J This is a most serious difficulty as regards Persian and
Arabic.



Xli PREFACE.

made by anyone to bring out a work, systematically
arranged, treating of the rendering of English into
Persian.

5. At the present time, the only books which at-
tempt to treat of the rendering of English sentences
into Persian are the following :

(a) "The Persian Munshi," by Dosa-Biya,i Su-
rabji, a Parsi.

This book contains 1117 sentences, rendered in Hindustani,
SindhI and Persian. The sentences are not arranged alphabetically,
nor so as to express the rendering of a certain dominant word ;
they are simply grouped together under six heads, Introductory,
Mercantile, Medical, Judicial, Military and Miscellaneous.

The work is roughly lithographed on bad Indian paper. The
renderings in lithographed oriental character are not easy for a
beginner to decipher. But for the arrangement and the way
in which it is got up it would be an excellent work. It can
be obtained from Messrs. Thacker and Co., of Bombay, for
6J rupees.

(6) " Modern Persian," by an Officer of the Hai-
derabad Contingent, revised by MIrza Zainul 'Abadm
Shirazi.

This is a small book, printed in Bombay in 1871 ; it contains
1769 sentences, without any arrangement whatever ; the vowel
points in the oriental character (which is not transliterated)
have all been omitted, making it very difficult for a beginner to
pronounce the words. It may be obtained from Messrs. Thacker
and Co., of Bombay, for 10 rs.



(c) "The Conversation Manual," by Captain G.
Plunkett, E.E.

This is a book, printed in London, containing 670 sentences
and a bare list of 1500 words, which are rendered in Hindustani,
Pushtu and Persian. Eoman character only is used. It. is a
small book and necessarily covers but a small extent of each of
the three languages. It may be obtained from Messrs. Kichard-
son and Co., Cornhill, London, for 6 rs.

The three books, briefly described, labour under
one defect, which is, that each sentence is rendered in
one way only. The student is not afforded the op-
portunity of contrasting idiom with idiom, word with
word ; nor of exercising his powers of observation.

The Persian Manual now offered to the public
contains:

In Section 2, Part I., 555 sentences.

3, Part I., 333
In Vocabulary, Part II., 1969



Total number of sentences, 2857

This number 28.57 represents the actual number
of English sentences rendered into Persian ; but
almost every sentence is expressed in several ways.
The actual number of Persian sentences probably
amounts, at least, to 2857 x 3 = 8671, all methodi-
cally arranged.



A bald list of words is of little use ; the student
requires to know how to use them.* It is hoped that
a study of this Manual may save the student much
unnecessary drudgery with a native teacher ; and
that the tables of Persian weights and measures, the
digest of regulations regarding examinations in Per-
sian and Arabic, and the lists of Persian and Arabic
books may prove useful.

6. I here beg to record the service which I have re-
ceived, in correcting the proof-sheets of this work,
and generally in bringing it out, from

(a) Maulawi Allah BaKhsh, who passed twenty-
five years of his life in Persia, acted as Arabic in-
terpreter during the Abyssinian campaign, and is
now Instructor in Persian in the High School of
Karachi in East India.

() Shaikh Muhammad Sadik, Hajiu-1-haramam,
a native of Tahran, who served me in the Abyssinian
campaign, and followed my fortunes at divers seasons
in India.f

I mention the names of these men not only be-
cause they deserve to be named, but also as a gua-

* This is especially the case with regard to Arabic words used
in Persian.

f " Hajm-1-haramain " is the title of a Musulman who haa
made a pilgrimage to Makkah and Madlna.



PREFACE. XV

rantee that the Persian renderings of the sentences
are idiomatic as well as grammatical.

7. The student's attention is drawn to the excel-
lent manner in which the "Work has been got up by
the Publishers. I freely acknowledge the great
obligation under which I rest for the care and trouble
which they have exercised.

H. WILBERFORCE CLARKE,
CAPTAIN, R.E.

Karachi, May 1877.



The following Table gives a list of Exercises in
this Manual, which- will be found rendered in Persian
in Forbes' " Persian Grammar." The other exercises
have been taken from the " Gulistan" and "Arabian
Nights' Entertainment."



No. of Exercise


Forbes' Persian Grammar.




in this Manual.


Page.


No. of Story.




24


1


5




27


3


14




28


8


30




29


6


22




37


12


50




38


6


23




39


11


39




43


12


41




44


13


43




45


10


35




46


11


37




47


14


46




48


10


36




49


17


51




50


25


66




51


26


67




52


19


55




1











PERSIAN MANUAL



PART I.



SECTION I.
ON THE LETTERS AND PARTS OF SPEECH.

1. The Persian Alphabet consists of thirty- two
letters. Of these twenty are common to the Persians
and Arabs, eight are peculiar to the Arabs, and four
to the Persians.

These thirty-two letters are to be considered as
consonants, and are written from right to left ; con-
sequently their books and manuscripts begin at what
we call the end.

The letters often assume a different form according
to their position in the formation of a word. Thus
there will be in many cases three distinct forms ;
namely, the initial, the medial, the final.

In the following Table we have in column 1, the
names of the letters in the Persian character; in
column 2, the names of the letters in the Roman
character; in column 3, the detached forms of the
letters ; and, in column 4, the corresponding English
letters.

1



( 2 )


THE PERSI-ARABIC ALPHABET.


1. 2.


A


4.


6.

COMBINED
FOKM.


6.

BXEMPLIFICATION8.


NAME.


| | POWEB.


"3


!i "3










w




_c


"3 -


Final.


Medial


Initial.








S


;^








i all alif


1


o, etc.


I


v ^


1


i


L


*


vl


gr? le


^r




C.A






^


L_A*


^r


J


(^ P e


v


J


v


c ^


"* J


!-'


V^"


^5-


^i


"












J


c ^






t fe


o


<


lOi


i -*


^ J


CJjJ


e^-o


La


( *J


-^












J


C J





" J


*


C


/




s.




E r




jf


f


us che





cli


P


f


*


e^


^


4?


^4


^ &*


C


\


f-


*


-


c^


^


>'


Ml x-


^ Mi*


C


kh


^


s.


i.


^Ai


d


Js


>


-














*




J


Jb dal


>


d


A


J-


d


oU


t"


U




Jli =f


i


*


A


j.


J


SI)


XX


>


r*


l> re




r


i/->


SJ


^


-A*


S*


*/


*_J
















'{


&^


,


*


J


z


/->


S->


j


J^





(V?


>5














3


C'


G-"




J


zh


LTj


i/J


J


J^


>*;


v jc


vJJ


^ .m


LH


s


u-


-.


-


c^


hH


^


<


..^.i shin jji


sh


^


Mk


***


^


tri


J "


^



THE PERSI-ARABIC ALPHABET. 3


1. 2.


a


4.


5.

COMBINED


6.
EXEMPLIFICATIOKS.




gw




FOBM.




NAME.


g

|8


POWEB.


1


I !


FinaL


Medial


Initial




jLo sci(L


u-


,


u*


-


-


**


^


O x


^


^ zdd


yi


?


u*


-


-


&y


o4


>r


L


Jj t.o,e


s.


t


k


k


k


^U


Cl


u^e


J.


Jj& zo,e


k


2


k


k


b


kU*.


kL


>


jfr


^j-jC 'ain


e


'fl,etc.


e


X


c


^


e?


^


&


^-jjc ghain





gh


6





c


/


f


^


J~c


<jf e


M


f


UJ


i


i


ujlT


^


>1


J


uJ\5 kaf


J


k


J


ft


i


J 1 ^


<3?


>:


Jj


v_& A"/


J


k


el


{


r


e)l


sb


J^


c^" 1


1 yi/"


^


9


^


<


^


erf,


;


X


i


f V //


J


I


jr


1


j


JL.


j^


Jje


sj


^s* mm


r


m


r


r.


*


r u


r:


c^-




't












j




o -




O y nun


u


n


c;


A*


- i


cyi


cH^


x ^


P 5














J


*


1




j\j wdw


^


to


J


j


J


Jj


^


JA


**-J


^he


1


h


A


<*


A


iU


^


w


>*


yg


-


a. etc.








(^U-


J


J-*


Jj























4 PRONUNCIATION OF THE LETTERS.

2. It will be observed that 1 , J , J, j , j , J , j , do
not alter in shape, whether initial, medial, or final;
neither do they unite with the letter following to
the left. The letters b, k, do not alter ; but they
always unite with the letter following to the left.
The eight letters peculiar to Arabic are <^>, ^,
fjc, \s , la, c , Jf. They appear only in words

purely, or originally, Arabic. The four letters pecu-
liar to Persian are (>, -. , j , ^J.

PRONUNCIATION OF THE LETTERS.

3. cu t. The sound of this letter is softer and more
dental than that of the English t ; it is identical
with the Sanskrit if .

iJL> s is sounded by the Arabs like th in the
words thick, thin; by the Persians as s in the words
sick, sin.

-. ch has the sound of ch in the word church.

-. h is a strong aspirate like h in the word haul; f
it is .uttered by compressing the lower muscles of
the throat.

-^ kli has a sound like ch in the word loch, as
pronounced by a Scotchman.

J d is more dental than the English d.

j z is sounded by the Arabs bike th in the words
thy, thine ; by the Persians as z in zeal.



PRONUNCIATION OF THE LETTERS. 5

. r is sounded as r in the French word pardon,
j zh is pronounced like j in the French word jour ;
or as z in the word azure.

i sh is sounded as in shun, shine.

fjc s has a stronger and more hissing sound than
our s.

^ 2 is pronounced by the Arabs as a hard d or
dt; by the Persians as z.

L, k t and z in Persian are sounded like eu t, and

) z :

c gA is like the letter r as pronounced by a
Scotchman.

Jf resembles the letter c in cp, ca/m.

CJ k is sounded like A; in king, Calendar.

d/ # is sounded like g in go, give ; never as g in
gem, gentle.

J Z is sounded like I in law. When alif is com-
bined with it, the two take the form of ^ or ^.

^ n at the Beginning of a word, or syllable, is
sounded like n ; at the end of a word or syllable, if
preceded by a long vowel, it has a soft nasal sound
bike that of n in the French word gar^on. When

followed by the labials t_j b, i_j p, t i /, it assumes

the sound of m, as in the word Juu^, gumbad, not
guiibad.

* /i is an aspirate like h in heart, hand ; but at
the end of a word, if preceded by the short vowel



6 PRONUNCIATION OP THE LETTERS.

a (faihoC), it lias no sensible sound, as in <)Jlj, dand,

'***
"a grain." In this case, it is called .J^* .J^

ha,e-muMtafi } or obscure h.

In a few words, where the fatha is a substitute
for the long vowel alif, the final 8 is fully sounded ;
as

<x shah [for sl shah] " a king."
JUa mali [for U mah] " a month."
^ ra/i [for s^ rah] " a roa.d."

It is sounded in 13 dah, " ten," and all its com-
pounds. It is imperceptible in the words & ki and
&s>- chi, with their compounds, whether conjunctions
or pronouns. A Persian word ending in the obscure
5 h will have the h omitted when written in
Roman characters ; as aUiU nama [not namah] " a
letter," or " written communication."

4. It is difficult to distinguish between the
sounds of the letters forming one of the following
groups :

a . 1 ]o eu t^ j ^ ^ CL;

The Persians never attempt to pronounce them
as the Arabs ; they content themselves by sounding
them according to the Persian letters, to which they
most nearly assimilate.



VOWELS AND ORTHOGRAPHICAL SIGNS, 7

Observation

5. When s and h, or z and h, represent two

'C

separate letters following each other, as in JvfJ

as,hal, " more or most easy/' and .Ifcfl az,h(ir,
" plants/' a comma will be inserted, as shown in
the examples.

At the end of Arabic words s li is often marked
with two dots, thus 'i, and sounded like t. In such
words the Persians generally convert the 'i into
t^_> t; sometimes they leave the 'i unaltered, and
frequently they omit the two dots, in which case
the letter becomes imperceptible in sound.

YOWELS AND ORTHOGRAPHICAL SIGNS.

6. The primitive vowels in Arabic and Persian

are three in number.

*fr*
The first is called <fcsr^ fatha, and is written

thus _ , over the consonant to which it belongs. It
is represented by the letter a in calendar.

x-G^

The second is called tj^ kasra, and is written
thus ~ , under the consonant to which it belongs. It
is represented by the letter i in sip, or fin. In the
Roman character it is represented by i unaccented.

The third is &*o zamma, which is written thus
, over its consonant. Its sound is like that of
in the words pull, push ; or like oo in foot, hood ;



8 VOWELS AND ORTHOGRAPHICAL SIGNS.

its sound is never that of u in use, perfume. In the
Eoman character it is represented by u unaccented.

In Persian these three short vowels are called
respectively

jj : zdbar, " above."

->: zer, "beneath."

i <( j? i. ))

^ pesh, in front.



7. When a consonant is accompanied by one of

the three vowels, fath a, kasra, or zamma, it is said

'z f
to be t^J^rs^" mutaharrik, or moveable.

In Persian and Arabic, the first letter of a word
is always accompanied, or moveable, by a vowel.
When, in the middle or at the end of a word, a
consonant is not accompanied by a vowel, it is said
to be ,j-U sakin, quiescent, or inert. Thus in the

0/0^

word +-> mardum, the * is moveable by fath a ;
the . is inert, having no vowel ; J is moveable by
zamma, and, finally, the * is inert. The symbol ,
called +:- jazm, is placed over a consonant to

' o/o^

show that it is inert, as in the example ^^> mar-
dum, a man*''

In Persian the last letter of a word is generally
inert ; hence jazm is omitted.



LONG VOWELS OR LETTERS OF PROLONGATION. 9

THE CONSONANTS I y c , ^ , AND ^ .

8. At the beginning of a word or syllable I (alif)
depends for its sound on the accompanying vowel.

c ('airi) depends for its sound on the accom-
panying vowel; its place of utterance is in the
lower muscles of the throat, thus :



'ab , C^ 'ib , (^.^c. 'ub,

are different in sound from

^ f

c_>l ab, L__>! ib, c >! ub.

j (waw) has the sound of w in the words we,
went.

The modern Persians pronounce the waw like v
in words such as *y& shavam, ^jj^ shavL

^ (ya) is, in sound, like y in the words you,
yet.

LONG VOWELS OR LETTERS OF PROLONGATION.

9. When I , inert, is preceded by a letter move-
able by fatha, the fatha and alif coalesce and give
a lengthened sound, as J6 Mr, "work;" the sound
is like that of a in war.

Alif, inert, is always preceded by fatha ; hence



10 LONG VOWELS OR LETTERS OF PROLONGATION.

dlif, not beginning a word or syllable, has always a
lengthened sound.

10. When ^, inert, is preceded by a consonant

moveable by zamma, the zamma and ^ coalesce and

form a sound like u in rule.

When ^ ,* inert, is preceded by a consonant,

moveable by fatha, the fatha and . coalesce, and

form a sound like ou in sound-
When j , inert, is preceded by a consonant move-

* * When j is preceded by ^ , moveable by fatha and fol-
lowed by alif, the sound of j is almost imperceptible, as
in the words

khwab, "sleep," pronounced Jch.db.
khwdham, " I desire," pronounced kh,dham.
In such cases the j will not be sounded, and in the
Eoman character it will be represented by w.

When j , preceded by ^, moveable by fatha, and some-
times by zamma, or Jcasra, is followed by any of the nine

letters : <j SUU-'L/'J>> I> V ) t ^ ie J
occasionally loses its sound, as in the words :

.jji. pronounced Tfhad, not khaud or Jchawad.
.jji. pronounced kfiyd, not Jchiid.
^ji. pronounced khesh, not Jchiwesh.
This rule applies only to words purely Persian. In the
Eoman character, the w will in such words be omitted, and
the vowel marked with a dot, as M<



SUMMARY. 11

able by kasra, no union takes place, and the ^ retains
the sound of w, as ly (siwa).

11. When ^j (2/0), inert, is preceded by a con-
sonant moveable by kasra, the kasra and ya unite
and form a long vowel, like i in the word machine.

This sound of ya, is called ya,e m'ariif, " familiar
ya." In Persia yd has sometimes the sound of ea
in the word bear ; this sound is called ya,e majhul,
" unknown ya," or ya,e 'ajami, i. e. " Persian ya."

When (_$ (?/), inert, is preceded by a consonant
moveable by fatha, the fath'a and ya unite and form
a diphthong like ai in the German word kaiser, or
as i in wise.

When ^ (ya), inert, is preceded by a consonant,
moveable l)y*zamma, no union takes place ; and the

13 - /

ya retains its sound of y, as in the word j*u^
muyassar, " obtainable."

SUMMARY.

12. From what has been said we have :

x' t

Three short vowels, Jo bad, Jo bid, Jj bud ;
> > '(,

Three long vowels, j'j fcaci, Jjj &zci, J^j &cZ ;

o* C-^

Two diphthongs, Jju laid, Jy laud;

Two long vowels peculiarly majhul, "unknown," or

O

'ajami, " Persian," Jjj be1,j*. roz.



12 RULES FOB, READING.

RULES FOR READING.

13. There are very few Persian works, manuscript
or printed, in which all the vowels are marked.

The primitive short, vowels -, ~, _, as well as
_ and _ are almost always omitted. The following
remarks may be of service :

(a) The last letter of every word is inert, hence
the mark _ (jazm) is omitted.

(&) The short vowel 1 (fatha} is of more frequent
occurrence than kasra or zamma; hence, in print-
ing, it is omitted.

(c) The short vowel _ (fatha) should be supplied
for every consonant in a word, except the last and
those marked with _, or one of the vowels.

(d) The letters 1, ^, ^, are generally inert, when
not initial ; hence they are not marked with jazm.

, (e) When ^, ^, not initial, are moveable conso-
nants they are marked with their proper vowels.

(/) When ^ (10010) or ^ (ya) follow a consonant
unmarked by a short vowel, or by jazm, they have
the majhul or 'ajamt sound ; as

jye mor, an ant." -x sher, " a lion."

(g) When ^ is preceded by a consonant moveable
by zamma, and ya by a consonant moveable by kasra,
the sound is m'aruf, or known ; as

4)***, sud, " gain." | ^Ji shir, " milk."



RULES FOR READING. 1 3

(7i) When waw and ya follow a consonant marked
with jazm, they are consonants, and are sounded
as j (iv) and ^ (y) .

(i) When waw and ya follow a consonant, move-
able by fatha, they form diphthongs ; as

*$ kaum, "a tribe." | ^ sair, "a walk."

14. Some symbols have still to be noticed. They
are : madda, hamza, tanwtn, tashdid, the definite
article of Arabic nouns, and wasla.

(a) SJK (madda) [^] signifies extension, and
when placed over an alif gives it a broad and open
sound, almost equivalent to that of a in water. The
madda is used to avoid the meeting of two alifs at
the beginning of a word.

Thus, instead of L-J! 1 , the Persians write L_J! ab,
" water."

(ft) 8^ (hamza) [j or -] is used, instead of alif,
when one syllable of a word ends with a vowel,
and [according to our ideas of orthography] the
following syllable begins with a vowel ; that is, vir-
tually with an alif. Thus we have :
f- -*

^Ij pa,e, instead of ^lU ;

jjl fa } ida, instead of sjlli .

In Persian the sound of hamza is that of alif; in
Arabic the sound of hamza is that of 'ain. Strictly,



14 RULES FOR READING.

hamza ought to be used whenever a syllable, begin-
ning with a vowel, is added to a root in the way of
inflexion, as :

*j JoJ didem, " we saw," from root, did ;
^jj badl, " badness," from root, bad.

This rule is seldom observed.

Practically, hamza in the middle of a word is
equivalent to our hyphen in such words as re-open. ;

At the end of words, terminating in the imper-
ceptible 3 , hamza has the sound of e.

In the Roman character, hamza will be repre- J
sented by a comma between the vowels, as in SJJU j

fa,ida.

(c) ^fi (tanwln) [-, ~, -] signifies the using
of the letter ^. It is formed by doubling the
vowel point of the last letter of a word. The vowel
is then pronounced as though it terminated in ^ n.
In the Roman character it will be represented by
n. In Arabic, tanwln serves to mark the inflexion
of nouns ; thus the symbol :

- (double zamma) marks the nominative^) .

/ sing. &
~ (double ~kasra) marks the genitive > , ,

^ (double fath a) marks the accusative }
In Persian only the _ (double fath a) (accusative
form) is used, and that adverbially ; as



RULES FOR READING. 15



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