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Gazetteer and business directory of Crawford County, Pa., for 1874 online

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done neatly and in a satisfactory manner.
Call and test his work.

Harris & Kro., dealers in Dry
Goods, at Roberts' New Block, Spring St.
Titusville, are among the largest dealers
in western Pennsylvania. Their mam-
moth store is at all times filled to over-
flowing with foreign and domestic dry
goods of all .styles. Their facilities for
purchasing stock is such as to enable
them to supply retail customers at the
lowest possible' rates, a fact which thous-
ands of their customers already know.
Give them a call and be convinced. See
card on colored page 1.

The rambridff*^ In«l<^x, published
by D. P. Robbins. at Cambridgeboro, is a
neat and well printed paper. Its literary
and local columns are well conducted and
make it a welcome visitor at the homes of
its many subscribers. As an advertising
medium, merchants in that locality ap-
pear to understand its value. Mr. Robins
is supplied with type suitable for execut-
ing neat job printing. See card on page

v., \j. Crnftib. dealer in Family Gro-
ceries and Notions, at Cambridgel)oro,
prints a card on page 148, the cut in which
represents the principle on which ho
transacts busiu^'ss, and as a consequence
he is sure to prosper.

The Courier, published by J. E. &
W. A. Rupert, at Conneautville, is adver-
tised on page 228. This paper was estab-
lished in 1847, and during a long series of
years it has been a welcome visitor to
many homes that would not willingly dis-
pense with its weekly advent. It is just
the paper for the farmer and general
reader, and its large circulation makes it
a first rate advertising medium. Its job
department is capable of turning out
superior work, at reasonable rates.

J. O. FSurlins^ham, proprietor of
Variety Hall Drug House, at Spartans-
burg, keeps on hand pure Drugs, Medi-
cines, Paints, Oils, Fancy Articles and
everything usually found at a good Drug
Store. For quality of goods and low
prices Mr. B. will not be surpassed. He is
also Justice of the Peace, Land and In-
surance agent. See card on page 246.

What are Crumbs of Comfort ?

— Why, Crumb's Carbolic Ointment and
Crumb's Carbolic Extract, two wonderful
medicines prepared by the Niagara Phar-
maceutical Co., at Westfield. It is an
old saying that "the proof of the pudding
is in the eating," and so it is with these
medicines ; for the proprietors have
found them so valuable in allaying pain
and curing disease, that they freely offer
trial packages of the medicine gratuitous-
ly. They " cast their bread upon the
waters." &c. Read the advertisement on
page 148, and then secure some of the
medicine, is the best advice we can give

J. J. I>avi«, dealer in Anthracite and
Bituminous Coal, at Meadville, advertises
on page 148. When your supply of this
needful article is low, remember the office
and yard is corner of Poplar St. and Rail-

J. H. "W'^lialeii, dealer In Boots and
Shoes, at 72 Spring St., Titusville, adver-
tises on page 18. Mr. W., is a practical
I mail and makes us good work as can be
I made. Those desiring a neat fitting and
1 servi( nbie boot or shoe can be accomoda-
I ted at his store.


J. «-



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Crawford County Mutual Tnsura7ice Company.

At the time of the organization of this Company in 1840
but few facilities for insurance indemnity were afforded to the
citizens of the County ; and the great need of reliable protec-
tion being felt a few of the prominent citizens procured from
the Legislature the Charter for the Company. The following
being the incorporaters and first Board of Directors: — John
Reynolds, David Dick, Eliphlet Betts, Norman Callender, An-
drew Smith, Horace Cullum, John McFarland, Edward A. Key.
nolds and John P. Davis.

Mr. John Reynolds was the first President, and was con-
tinued as such (with the exception of two years,) till 1856, hav-
ing served the Company 14 years i:i that capacity. Mr. Norman
Callender discharged the duties of Secretary and Treasurer un-
til 1861, a period of 21 years.

Hon. John Dick was president of the Company from 1860
till the time of his death in 1872, when the Hon. Henry C.
Johnson was elected his successor and continues to hold the

The business of the Company is conducted on the purely
mutual plan, and its unparalleled success has placed it in the
front rank of Pennsylvania Insurance Companies, and has
demonstrated the fact that properly conducted Mutual Insur-
ance is not only the safest but by far the cheapest means of
protection. Prom a small neighborhood affair the business has
extended until at the present time the assets of the Company
amount to over 1325,000,00.




CRAWFOBI) COUNTY was formed from Allegheny,
March 12, 1800, and provisionally embraced for judicial pur-
poses, the present counties of Crawford, Erie, Mercer, Venango
and Warren, with Meadviile as the county seat. Erie was con-
stituted a separate judicial district April 2, 1803; Venango,
April 1, 1805; and Warren, March 16, 1819. This county con-
tains thirty-four townships and covers an area of 594,076
square acres. It is situated on the west border of the State,
ht^ing bounded on the north by Erie county, on the East by
Warren and Venango counties, on the south by Venango and
Mercer counties, and on the west by the State of Ohio. Its
length is forty-one miles and its breadth, twenty-four. Its sur-
fnce is undulating, and but little, if any, that is not tillable.
The soil is generally of a good quality, better adapted to graz-
ing than to grain raising. That in the western part is gener-
ally superior to that in the east. The soil in most of the
vafleys is very productive, and that of French Creek was suffi-
ciently manifest at an early day, to attract the attention of Gen.
Washington, who alluded to its fertility and extent in the notes
kept of a visit made by him to Fort LeBoeuf, (now Waterford,
Erie Co.,) in 1753. The cereals and other crops are cultivated
to considerable extent, though dairying and stock raising are
the chief sources of wealth and profit to the agriculturist. There
are not less tlum thirty-three cheese factories in the county at
the present time, (1873) and the number is being rapidly in-
creased. It is well watered and was formerly well timbered,
though much of the latter has been cut and sent to market.
Large quantities of timber still remain to supply the numerous
saw mills in the county.

Tne census for 1870 shows that this county stood frsi in the
State in the number of farms, none of which exceeded 500 acres;



that it had the greatest nimiber of farms containing between
twenty and fifty and fifty and one hundred acres; and that,
with two exceptions, it had the largest number containing be-
tween ten and twenty acres, while it had only six containing
less than three acres, and 273 containing between three and ten
acres. It also stood first in the number of pounds of cheese
made and hops raised; second in the number of acres of wood
land, being exceeded only by Somerset; third in the value of
home manufactures, and in the number of pounds of maple
sugar made ; fourth in the value of forest products, the number
of working oxen, the number of bushels of spring vv^heat raised,
the gallons of milk sold and of maple molasses made; seventh
in the number of horses, and the number of tons of hay raised ;
eighth in the number of acres of improved land, in the value of
animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, in the number of
milch cows and in the number of pounds of wool produced
and butter made ; ninth in the value of all live stock,
and the number of sheep fed; tenth in the value of farm
productions, including betterments and additions to stock,
and in the number of bushels of buckwheat raised; twelfth
in the cash value of farming implements and machinery,
and in the number of bushels of oats raised ; thirteenth in the
number of bushels of potatoes raised ; sixteenth in the cash value
of farms; and seventeenth in the value of orchard products, and
in the number of pounds of bees wax and honey gathered. It
exceeded Nevada, the District of Columbia and each of the Ter-
ritories in the number of acres of improved land; Nevada,
Ehode Island, District of Columbia and each of the Territories,
except Arizona (?) and Washington, in woodland ; Florida,
Nevada, District of Columbia, and all the Territories in the
cash value of farms ; all the latter except Ehode Island in the
cash value of farming implements and machinery; all the lat-
ter, including Rhode Island, with the addition of Alabama,
Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, South Carolina and Texas in
the value of orchard products; Connecticut, Delaware, Louisi-
ana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Nebraska, Nevada, Oregon,
Rhode Island, District of Columbia and all the Territories, ex-
cept Montana, in the value of home manufactures; Nevada,
Rhode Island, District of Columbia, and ail the Territories in
the value of all live stock; all the latter, except Montana, in
the number of milch cows; Delaware, Florida, Nebraska, Ne-
vada, Rhode Island, District of Columbia and all the Territo-
ries, except Colorado and New Mexico, in the number of sheep;
Nevada, Rhode Island, District of Columbia, and all the Terri-
tories, except Washington, in the number of swine; California, j
Florida, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Nebraska, New Hamp- |


shire, Rhode Island, Yermont, District of Columbia, and all
the Territories, except Washington, in the number of bushels of
spring wheat raised; Connecticut, Minnesota, Mississippi, Ne-
vada, and Washington Territory, in addition to the latter,
in the number of bushels of winter wheat raised; Nevada,
Oregon, Rhode Island, District of Columbia and all the
Territories, except New Mexico, in the number of bushels
of Indian corn raised; Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida,
Louisiana, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Nevada, Rhode Island,
South Carolina, Texas, District of Columbia, and all the
Territories in the number of bushels of oats raised; in addition
to the latter, California, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota,
Missouri, Nebraska, North Carolina, Oregon, and Virginia
in the number of bushels of buckwheat raised; all the latter,
except Alabama, California, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Mas-
sachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina,
Oregon, Texas and Virginia in the pounds of wool shorn ;
Florida, Louisiana, Nebraska, Nevada, Oregon, Rhode Island,
South Carolina, District of Columbia and all the Territories
in the pounds of butter made; in addition to the latter, Ala-
bama, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Ken-
tucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina,
Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and W^est Virginia in the number of
pounds of cheese made ; in addition to the latter, (excepting ,
Kentucky, Maryland, New Jersey and Rhode Island,) Iowa,
Minnesota and Missouri in the number of gallons of milk sold ;
all the latter, (in addition to Rhode Island,) with the exception
of Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota,
Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, Tennessee, Virginia and
West Virginia, in the number of tons of hay raised; all the
states and territories, except California, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,
Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire,
New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont and Wisconsin, in
the number of pounds of hops raised.

The streams, though numerous, are none of them very large.
French Creek is the principal one. It flows in a southerly
direction through the central part of the county and unites
with the Allegheny at Franklin. It was formerly known as Ven-
ango (or In-nan-ga-eh.) It is a beautiful, transparent and rapid
stream, being for many miles from its mouth less than a hundred
feet wide, and at some seasons is navigable to Waterford for
boats carrying twenty tons, though for a few weeks during the
summer it cannot usually be navigated by any craft larger than
a canoe. One of the first appropriations for the north-western
part of the State, in 1701, was £400 for the improvement of this
creek. Oil Creek flows through the eastern part of the county,


in a southerly direction, making a wide detour to tiie west,
and empties into the Allegheny at Oil City. Its name is de-
rived from the oil springs which exist along its banks, the pro-
duct of which was gathered at the surface in small quantities
and sold at an early day under the name of Seneca Oil, which
was supposed to possess valuable curative properties. Oil Creek
is thus described in 1789, under the head of " Mineral Water,"
by Jedediah Morse, of Charlestowu, Mass., in The American
Universal Geography : —

" Oil Creek, in Allegheny county, one hundred miles above Pittsburgh,
issues from a remarkable spring, which boils like the waters of Hell Gate,
near New York. On the top of the water floats an oil similar to that called
Barbadoes tar. Several gallons may be gathered in a day. It is found
very serviceable in rheumatism, in restoring weakness in the stomach, and
in curing bruises and sore breasts. "When drank, the water of the spring
operates as a gentle cathartic. It is gathered hy the country' people and
Indians, boiled and brought to market in bottles, and is deemed a most
valuable family medicine."

Shenango and Conneaut Creeks flow through the western part,
the former in a southerly direction, near the west border, to the
Allegheny at Beaver, and the latter in a north-westerly direc-
tion, to Lake Erie, at Conneaut, m Ohio. The other principal
streams are Conneautte and Cussewago creeks and Conneaut
Outlet, which are tributary to French Creek on the west, and
Muddy, Woodcock and Sugar Creeks, which are affluents of the
same stream on the east. The Indian name for Cussewago
Creek " signifies ^big snake,' probably from the sinuosity of its
course, though tradition says it was named so from a black
snake seen on its banks." The waters of these streams
are supplemented by those of Conneaut Lake, in the
townships of Sadsbury and Summit, Oil Creek Lake, in
Bloomfield, and Sugar Lake, in Wayne, besides several
smaller bodies of water. The Indian name of Conneaut
Lake "signifies 'snowplace,' and may get its origin from
the snow which remains on the bosom of the lake after
having thawed away in the spring from the adjacent lands."
This lake, like the others named, is a beautiful sheet of water,
three to four miles in length and about a mile in width, and is
"the largest entirely inland lake in the province." It was for-
merly used as a reservoir for the Beaver & Erie Canal, its waters
having been raised about eleven feet above their original height,
by an embankment constructed across the outlet.

Geologically the county presents but little diversity, or but
little of special interest to the geologist. It is underlaid by the
slates and shales common to the Chemung and Portage groups,
and is apparently destitute of calcareous rock, except in very
thin veins. Iron ore has been found in various parts of


the county, and coal exists in the southern part, though it is
doubtful whether in sufficient quantity to give it an economic
value. Considerable quantities of petroleum have been obtain-
ed in the valley of Oil Creek, principally in the vicinity of
Titusville. This county lies upon the verge of the oil-producing
region of the State, a fact from which it derives immense pecuni-
ary advantage, as the products of its more fertile soil find ready
and convenient market in the sterile lands where the oil is mtost

'About four miles west of Conneaut Lake, at the summit
of the old Beaver & Erie Canal, and extending about a
mile and a half along its line, is a formation of quicksand,
averaging some two feet in thickness. ^ The sand lies four-
teen to sixteen feet below the surface of the ground, which is
here a black ash and hemlock swamp, formerly very wet, but
now dry, being drained by the canal. Much difficulty was
experienced in constructing the canal in this locality, owing to
the yielding nature of the sand. Piles eighteen to twenty-four
feet long were driven along each side, forming perfect walls,
with cross timbers for a floor, the whole so compactly and firmly
united as to resist the lateral pressure of the sand. At the
upper end of Conneaut Lake is a formation of shell marl, which
covers an area of about thirty-three acres, and appears to be
seven feet thick at the upper end and two and one-half feet
thick at the lower end. This marl is worked into brick form and
burned, when it makes a pretty good quality of lime, though
not very white. The shells, which are of the genus planorbis,iire
minute and abundant. In the Pymatuning swamp is a some-
what extensive deposit of soft calcareous tufa and shell marl,
similar to that in the Conneaut swamp. This marl possesses a
value as a fertilizer which is little appreciated at the present
time, and will serve to enrich the surrounding lands when a just
estimate is placed upon it. Alfred Huidekoper, in his Incidents
in the Early History of Craivford County, published in 1847,
thus refers to the Pymatuning swamp: —

" * * * From ten to twelve miles in width, it has every appearance
of having once been a lake whose bed had been gradually filled up with
accumulated vegetable matter. Covered with the cranberry vine, with
occasional clumps of alders, and islands of larch and other timber, the
subsoil is so louse that a pole can be thrust into it from ten to twenty^feet.
Ditches that have been cut through it for the purpose of draining, exhibit
fallen timber below ground, and the dead stumps of trees still standing in
place, show, by the divergence of their roots, that the surface of the soil is
now from two to three feet higher than it was when the trees were standing
and growing."

The principal works of internal improvement are the Erie
and Pittsburgh, the Atlantic & Great Western, the Oil Creek &


Allegheny Yalley, the Union & Titusville and the Pennsylva-
nia Petroleum railroads.

The Erie S Pittshurgh R. R. extends through the western
part of the county, from north to south, passing through the
townships of Spring, Conneaut, Pine, North Shenango and
South Shenango, with its northern terminus at Erie and south-
ern, at Pittsburgh. It was constructed in 1867 and '8 ; is owned
and controlled by the Pennsylvania Central K. R. Co.; and does
an extensive business in the transportation of oar and coal.

The Atlantic c& Great Wesier?i R. R. extends in a tortuous
course through the central and western portions of the county,
passing through the townships of Rockdale, Cambridge, Wood-
cock, fiead, Union, Greenwood, Sadsbury and East Fallowfield,
with its eastern terminus at Salamanca, N. Y., and with its
connections reaches all the principal western points. It was
built in 1861 — 2. At Meadville the company have a commodi-
ous depot, with offices and hotel attached, and extensive brick
shops for manufacturing and repairing engines. It is doing a
good general freight business, and under the present manage-
ment is becoming quite popular with ttie traveling public.
The Franklin Branch of this road, which was constructed in
1862-63, and extends from Meadville to Oil City, is owned and
controlled by the same Company, and does an extensive busi-
ness in the transportation of petroleum.

The Oil Creek S Allegheny Valley R. R. extends through the
eastern part of the county, along the valley of Oil Creek, pass-
ing through the townships of Sparta, Rome, Steuben, Troy and
Oil Creek, in a southerly direction. The principal station with-
in this county is Titusville. The principal business of the
road consists in the transportation of oil and passengers.

The Union dr Titusville R. R. extends in a south-easterly
direction through the eastern part of the county, passing
through the townships of Bloomfield, Athens, Rome, Steuben,
Troy and Oil Creek. Its principal business is the transporta-
tion of oil and passengers.

The Pennsylvania Petroleum R. R. is now under construc-
tion. The line extends in a south-easterly direction through
the eastern portion of the county, passing through the town-
ships of Venango, Cambridge, Rockdale, Richmond, Athens,
Steuben, Troy and Oil Creek.

The old Beaver d Erie Canal, which was recently abandoned,
extends through the western part of the county, from south to
north, passing through the townships of West Fallowfield,
Sadsbury, Summit, Summerhill and Spring. The feeder


extends down French Creek from Bemustown, above Meadville,
to a point nearly opposite the month of Conneaiit Outlet, where
it crosses the former stream, and following the course of the
Outlet, which it crosses at the foot of Oonneaut Lake, and
unites with the canal on the line of Sadsbury and Summit.

The County Seat is at Meadville, where it was originally
located on the erection of the county. Its location there was
made contingent upon the security for payment to the trustees
of the county, within four months of the passage of the act, by
the inhabitants and proprietors of that place and its vicinity, of
$4,000, either in specie or land, at a reasonable valuation, for
the use of a seminary of learning within the county, and in
case of default the trustees were authorized to fix the seat of
justice at any place within four miles of Meadville. By an act of
March 5, 1804, the Commissioners were directed to erect a court
house and county offices upon the public square of that town.
March 13, 1800, David Mead was commissioned Associate Judge
of the county, and the following day John Kelso received a
similar commission, and Thomas Ruston Kennedy was appoint-
ed Prothonotary. The first court, of which there is any record,
was held July 6th of that year, by Judges Mead and Kelso, Dec.
20, 1800. David Mead having resigned the position, Wm. Bell
wascommissioned Associate Judge, and officiated in thatcapacity
at the third session of the court, which was held at Meadville,
April 6, 1801 and presided over by Alex. Addison.

The erection of the present court house was commenced
Sept. 10th, 1867, and it was completed in October, 1869. It is
located on the east side of the public square in Meadville, and
is constructed in the renaissance style, of pressed brick, with
stone trimmings. It has an iron roof and is fire-proof through-
out. Its cost, including fencing, flagging and furniture, was
8^49,000. It contains all the county offices, and is very conve-
nient in its internal arrangement. The Commissioners', Treas-
urer's, Recorder's, Clerk of the Courts' and Arbitration rooms
occupy the first floor; and the court room, Prothonotary's,Sher-
ilf's and Jury rooms, the second floor; The Janitor's rooms
are in the attic. The jail is a stone structure, located immedi-
ately in rear of the court house, and is fitted up with iron cells.
The sheriff's house is in front of the jail. It has been built
many years and does not meet the requirements of a modern

Tiie Poor House and farm, consisting of 215 acres of good
land, are located live miles north of Meadville anM onemileeast
of Saegertown. The cost of the house and outbuildings was
was $40,000. The estimated value of the property, including
personal property, is $55,000. The main building, wliich


is 45 by 68 feet and three stories high, was erected iu
1868, and the old part, or wing, which is 42 by 90 feet and
two and a half stories high, in 1854. A kitchen, 22 by 36
feet, is attached. The whole is warmed bv three heaters in
the basement: An abundance of water is suplied by a spring,
flowing through a pipe. The building is rather low for
good drainage. The first floor of the main building is
occupied by the family of the Superintendent, (E. 0. David,)
the director's office, a sewing room, store room, kitchen for the
family and three bed rooms. The second story is twelve feet
high and contains seven good sized rooms, with a hall in the
center. The third story contains nine comfortable rooms. All
the females are kept in the new building, except a few of ad-
vanced age, who occupy two rooms on the first floor of the wing.
There is a bath room, supplied with hot and cold water, in the
basement of this building. The second story of the wing con-
tains eleven rooms, which are used as dormitories. All the men
are kept in this apartment. A kitchen of good size adjoins

Online LibraryHamilton ChildGazetteer and business directory of Crawford County, Pa., for 1874 → online text (page 3 of 48)