Hamilton Child.

Gazetteer of Grafton county, N. H. 1709-1886 online

. (page 1 of 133)
Online LibraryHamilton ChildGazetteer of Grafton county, N. H. 1709-1886 → online text (page 1 of 133)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


iliiii



166



oeNEA^^ couu^'o-



iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiimiiii

3 1833 01085 9004




yn<^.





7-r




PART FIRST.



GAZETTEER



Grafton County, N. H



1709==1886.

COMPILED AND PUBLISHED BY

HAMILTON CHILD



AUTHOR OF WAYNE, ONTARIO, SENECA, CAYUGA, TOMPKINS, ONONDAGA, MADI-
SON, CORTLAND, CHEMUNG, SCHUYLER, STEUBEN. ORLEANS, HERKIMER,
CHENANGO, NIAGARA, ONEIDA, MONROE. GENESEE, S.ARATOGA, MONT-
GOMERY AND FULTON, ALBANY AND SCHENECTADY, RENSSELAER,
WASHINGTON, WYOMING, LEWIS, COLUMBIA, SULLR^AN, SCHO-
HARIE, OTSEGO, ULSTER, CHAUTAUQUA, ST. LAWRENCE,
BROOME AND TIOGA, CATARAUGUS, ALLEGANY AND OTHER
COUNTY DIRECTORIES IN NEW YORK STATE, AND ERIE
AND CRAWFORD COUNTIES, THE BR.^DFORD OIL DIS-
TRICT IN PENNSYLVANIA, BENNINGTON, RUT-
LAND, ADDISON, CHITTENDEN, FRANKLIN
AND GRAND ISLE, LAMOILLE AND ORLEANS
WINDSOR AND WINDHAM COUNTIES IN
VERMONT, BERKSHIRE CO., MASS.
CHESHIRE COUNTY, N. H.



PERMANENT OFFICE, - _ _ SYRACUSE, N. Y.

ESTABLISHED 1866.



"He that hath much to do, will do something wrong, and of that wrong must suffer the con-
sequence ; and if it were possible that he should always act rightly, yet when such numbers
are to judge of his conduct, the bad will censure and obstruct him by malevolence, and the
good sometimes by mistake." — Samuel, Johnson.



SYRACUSE, N. Y. :

The Syracuse Journal Company, Peintees and Binders.

Jime, 1886.



Almanac or Calendar for 20 Years.



D


C


B A


G


F


E


DC


B


*


G


1874


1875


1876


1877


1878


1879


1880


i88i


1882


1883


FE


D


■c


B


A G


F


E


D


C B


^


1884


1885


1886


1887


1888


1889


1890 1


1891


1892


1893



I 8


152229! Sun.


Sat.


Frid'y.

Sat.


Thurs.


! Wed.


Tues.


Mon.


2 9


162330 Mon.


Sun.


Frid'y.


Thurs.


Wed.


Tues.


3 to


17 2431 Tues.


Mon.


Sun.


Sat.


Frid'y.


Thurs.


Wed.


411


18 25'-..' Wed.


Tues.


Mon.


Sun.


Sat.


Frid'y.


Thurs.


512


1926 . . Thurs.


Wed.


Tues.


Mon.


Sun.


Sat.


Frid'y.


613


2027 . . Frid'y


Thurs.


Wed.


Tues.


Mon.


Sun.


Sat.


714


2128.. Sat.


Frid'y.


Thurs.
C


Wed.


Tues.


Mon.


Sun.


Jan. and Oct. A


B


D


E


F


G


May. B


C


D


E


F


G


A


August. C


D


E


F


G


A


B


Feb., March,

Nov. ^


E


F


G


A


B


C


June. E


F
G


G


A


B


C


D


Sept. and „
Dec. ^




B


C


D


E


April and 1 ^
July. ' ^


A


B


C


D


E


F



Exi'LANATioN.— Find the Year and observe the Letter above it; then look for the Month, and in ahne
with it find the Letter of the Year; above the Letter find the Day and the figures on the !cft, in the same
line, are the Says of the same name in the month.

Leap Years have two letters; the first is used till the end of February, the second during the remaindc
of the vear.



INTRODUCTION.

1169866



In presenting to the public the "Gazetteer and Business Directory" of Graf-
~ ton County, we desire to return our sincere thanks to all who have kindly
^ aided in obtaining the information it contains, and rendered it possible to
present it in the brief space of time in which it is essential such works should
be completed. Especially are our thanks due to the editors and managers
of the county papers for the uniform kindness they have evinced in calling
3L- public attention to our efforts, and for essential aid in furnishing material for
\- the work. We have also found valuable aid in the following : '"History of
A<V'Coos Country," by Rev. Grant Powers; "History of Warren," by William Lit-
tle ; "History of Bethlehem," by Simon BoUes ; "History of Charleston," by
Rev. Henry H. Saunderson ; "History of Northfield, Mass.," by J. H.
Temple and George Sheldon ; "Granite Monthly ;" "Belknap's New Hamp-
shire ; " "Gazetteer of New Ham])shire." by John Farmer and Jacob B.
Moore; "Gazetteer of New Hampshire," by Alonzo J. Fogg; "New Hamp-
V, shire Churches," by Robert F. Lawrence; "State Adjutant General's Re-
^ ports ; " "State Superintendent of Instruction's Report"; "New Hampshire
*^'' State Atlas," by Comstock & Cline ; '•'New Hampshire As It Is," by Edwin
A. Charleton'; "History of New England," by Rev. Henry White; "Hall's
'Eastern Vermont," and in the various pamphlets and reports of a number of
societies, institutions, corporations and towns. Our thanks are also due to
the clergy throughout the county, and to Prof. Charles H. Hitchcock, of
Dartmouth college ; Hon. Frederick Chase, of Hanover ; A. S. Batchellor,
V.sq., and James R. Jackson, of Littleton ; W. F. Flint, B. S., of Winchester,
N. H.; Hon. J. E. Sargent, of Concord ; Samuel Emery, of Lisbon ; Mark-
infield Addey, of Bethlehem and New York ; William A. Wallace, of Canaan ;
Rev. Charles A. Downs, of Lebanon ; Rev. J. Q. Bittenger, George W.
Chapman, W. F. Westgate, of Haverhill; Col. Thomas P. Cheney, of Ash-
land ; Ira. F. Chase, of Bristol ; Harry M. Morse, of Lisbon ; Dr. C. F.
Kingsbury, and Rev. E. P. Butler, of Lyme ; and to many others in and out
of the county, who have rendered valuable aid.

That errors have occurred in so great a number of names, dates and state-
ments, is probable, and that names have been omitted which should have-



4 INTRODUCTION.

been inserted, is quite certain. We can only say that we have exercised more
than ordinary diligence and care in this difficult and complicate'd feature of
book-making. Of such as feel agrieved in consequence of errors or omis-
sions, we beg pardon, and ask the indulgence of the reader in noting such
as have been observed in the subsequent reading of the proofs, and which are
found corrected in the Errata at the close of this volume.

It was designed to give a brief account of all the churches and other soci-
eties in the county, but owing in some cases to the negligence of those who
were able to give the necessary information, and in others to the inability of
any one to do so, we have been obliged to omit special notices of a few.

We would suggest that our patrons observe and become familiar with the
explanations at the commencement of the directory, on page 3, part 2d. The
names it embraces, and the information connected therewith, were obtained
by actual canvass, and are as correct and reliable as the judgment of those
from whom they were solicited renders possible. Each agent is furnished
with a map of the town he is expected to canvass, and he is required to pass
over every road and call at every dweUing and place of business in the town
in order to obtain the facts from the individuals concerned whenever possible.

The margins have been left broad to enable any one to note changes op-
posite the names.

The advertisers in "part second," we most cheerfully commend to the pat-
ronage of those under whose observation these pages may come.

The map inside the back cover will oe found, in connection with the direc-
tory, very valuable.

We take this occasion to express the hope that the information found in
the book will not prove devoid of interest and value, though we are fully con-
scious that the brief description of the county the scope of the work enables
us to give, is by no means an exhaustive one, and can only hope that it may
prove an aid to future historians, who will be better able to do full justice to
the subject.

While thanking our patrons and friends generally, for the cordiality with
which our efforts have been seconded, we leave the work to secure that favor
which earnest endeavor ever wins from a discriminating public, hoping they
will bear in mind, should errors be noted, that "he who expects a perfect
work to see, expects what ne'er was, is, nor yet shall be."

HAMILTON CHILD.



S^ZE¥1EE^



OIF



GRAFTON COUNTY, N. H.



"Thou shalt look
Upon the green and rolling forest tops,
And down upon the secrets of the glens
And streams, that with their bodering thickets strive
To hide their windings. Thou shalt gaze at once
Here on white villages and tilth and herds,
And swarming roads, and there on solitudes,
That only hear the torrent and the wind,
And eagle's shiiek." — Bryant.

FROM the foot-hills and mountains of Northern New Hampshire, wind-
ing amid a panorama of surpassing loveliness and fertility, across
Massachusetts and Connecticut, to mingle its waters with the saUne
floods of Long Island Sound, roils "America's Nile " — the grand old Con-
necticut. For nearly sixty miles along its eastern shore extends the territory
of Grafton county, with Coos upon the north and Sullivan upon the south.
It is a region of mountain and valley, of lake and stream, of sublime soli-
tudes and Athenian culture, of woodland, farm and field. Its attractiveness
is world renowned, and from the four winds gather thousands, season by sea-
son, to pay a just homage to its sublime beauty, its gentle loveliness, and its
salubrious climate. Extending far into its northern Umits lies the famous
White Mountain region, while in its southern and central parts, and all along
the Connecticut, are a thousand scenes of storied or of unsung loveliness.
Such is the background of the picture our work would paint — the scene of
the historic incidents it would relate. That the stranger may more readily
grasp its history, let us glance briefly at the history of its parent — the Granite
State.

In 1623 the English colonists, Capt. John Mason and Sir Ferdinando



6 GRAFTON COUNTY.

Gorges, jointly held a grant of land extending from the Merrimac to the Ken-
nebec rivers, and, during the following year, the first settlements were com-
menced thereon, at Portsmouth and Dover. November 7, 1629, the grant
was divided, and a separate grant made to Mason of that region west of the
Piscatauqua river, under the name of New Hampshire, while Gorges held the
portion east thereof, which was given the name of Maine. In 1641 Massa-
chusetts extended her jurisdiction over New Hampshire, and maintained her
authority here until T679. when, the case being brought before the highest
court of appeal in England on Colonial matters, it was decided that the claim
of Massachusetts was illegal, and New Hampshire was thereupon constituted
a separate Province. In 1686, the charter of Massachusetts having been
annulled, New Hampshire, Maine, Massachusetts and Narragansett were
united in one Royal Provmce under Piesident Dudley, and afterwards under
Governor Andros. In 1689, upon news of the English Revolution, the gov-
ernment of Andros was overthrown, and Massachusetts resumed under the
old charter. Some of the colony petitioning Massachusetts to be received
under control and protection till orders should come from England, Massa-
chusetts assented, and exercised a merely nominal authority over it. In 1692
the Province of New Hampshire was re-established by the English Govern-
ment, and ever after remained separate from its neighbor, finally becoming
one of the original thirteen States of the Union.

The Province was originally divided into five counties, of which Grafton,
known as "The Fifth," was established by an act of the- Colonial legislature
passed March 19, 1771, in which it was made to contain "all the lands in the
Province not comprehended in the other counties," viz. : Hillsborough,
Rockingham, Cheshire and Strafford, its name being given in honor of Au-
gustus Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton. This act erected into a county an
immense tract of land, extending south from what is now the Canada line for
a distance of nearly 150 miles. But this large territory it was not destined to
retain. The curtailment began as early as November 27, 1800, when the
township of Burton, whose name was subsequently changed to Albany, was
set off from Grafton and annexed to Strafford county. Three years later,
December 24, 1803, the whole of the northern half of Grafton county was set
off to form the new county of Coos, and finally, June 18, 1805, the area was
still further reduced by the annexation of the whole of a tract known as
"Nash and Sawyer's Location" to Coos county. After all these reductions,
by an act of the legislature passed January 2, 1829, the boundaries of the
county were fixed as follows, from which there has been made no material
change: —

"Beginning on the westerly bank of Connecticut river at the southwesterly
corner of Dalton ; thence on the westerly and southerly line of Dalton to }.
Whitefield ; thence on the westerly and southerly line of Whitefield to Bret-
ton Woods [Carroll] ; thence on the westerly and southerly lines of Bretton
Woods and of Nash and Sawyer's Location to the southeasterly corner thereof;
thence southerly on a straight line across the unlocated lands to the line of



BOUNDARIES.



the county of Strafford at the northwesterly corner of Burton [Albany];
thence southerly and westerly by the line, of the county of Stratford to the
southwest corner of Holderness, at the Pemigewassett or Merrimack river ;
thence down said river to the north line of Franklin ; thence westerly on the
northerly lines of Franklin, Andover, Wilmot, Springfield, Grantham and
Plainfield to the southwest corner of Lebanon, on the west bank of Connec-
ticut river ; and thence northerly on said bank to the bound first mentioned."

This places the county's 1,463 square miles of territory between 43° 27'
and 44° 22' north latitude and between 71° 20' and 72° 20' longitude west
from Greenwich, bounded north by Coos county, east by Coos, Carroll and
Belknap counties, south by Merrimack and SuUivan counties, and west by
the west bank of the Connecticut river, its greatest length being fifty-eight
miles and its greatest breadth thirty miles. It is divided into thirty-nine
towns, twenty-nine of which were granted under King George III. — eleven
in the second year of his unfortunate reign, in 1761 — and ten under the
State government, viz.: Alexandria, Ashland, Bath, Benton, Bethlehem,
Bridgewater, Bristol, Campton, Canaan, Dorchester, Easton, Ellsworth, En-
field, Franconia, Grafton, Groton, Hanover, Haverhill, Hebron, Holderness,
Landaff, Lebanon, Lincoln, Lisbon, Littleton, Livermore, Lyman, Lyme,
Monroe, Orange, Orford, Piermont, Plymouth, Rumney, Thornton, Warren,
Waterville, Wentworth and Woodstock.

The surface of Grafton's territory, though greatly diversified and present-
ing all shades of scenery from soft luxuriousness to Alpine grandeur, still
affords large areas of arable, productive land. In the northern section are
mountains belonging to the White Mountain range, Franconia mountains and
Carrigain mountain; a little to the southwest, in Benton, is Moosilauke, tower-
ing to an altitude of 4,811 feet, affording one of the finest prospects in the
county, while at the east and southeast is a part of the Whiteface, in Water-
ville, and the Campton mountains, in Campton and vicinity. The southern
section, though rough and broken, partakes more of a hilly than a moun-
tainous character. There are also several picturesque lakes scattered over
the surface of the territory, while it is abundantly watered by several river
systems. In the western section it is watered by the Connecticut and its
tributaries, the largest of which are the Lower and Wild Ammonoosuc rivers,
in the northern part, and Mascoma in the southern section. The Pemige-
wassett and its branches water the central portion. The principal bodies of
water are part of Squam lake, in the southeastern section, Newfound lake in
the southern, and Mascoma in the southwestern portion. To be more
definite in the description of these lakes and streams, —

The Lower Ammonoosuc has its source on the western side of the White
Mountains ; thence passing west through the southern portion of Carroll and
northern part of Bethlehem to Littleton ; thence in a southerly direction, through
the easterly part of Littleton, the westerly part of Lisbon, diagonally through
Bath, and joining the Connecticut near the westerly corner of Haverhill. A
considerable stream coming from Lincoln and Franconia passes in a north-



8 GRAFTON COUNTY.



westerly direction and joins the Ammonoosuc in Lisbon. Two miles from its
mouth it receives the Wild Ammonoosuc. coming from the northerly part of
Benton through Landaff. The Lower Ammonoosuc is noted for its romantic
falls in the vicinity of the White Mountains. It is said to be the wildest and
most rapid stream in New Hampshire, having a fall of 5,003 feet in its mean-
dering course of about fifty miles. It drains a surface of over 220,000 acres,
or 344 square mile of territory.

Baker's river is formed by two branches uniting in Wentworth. The
north branch has its source near Moosilauke mountain, in Benton, whence it
flows, in a southerly course, through Warren, to Wentworth, receiving in its
passage a considerable stream issuing from Baker's Upper pond, in the east-
ern part of Orford. The south branch rises in Orange, thence flowing north
through the easterly part of Dorchester, and uniting with the north branch
at the easterly part of Wentworth ; thence it pursues a southeast and easterly
course, through the southerly part of Rumney and northerly part of Plymouth,
where it forms a junction with the Pemigewasset, just above Plymouth village.
It drains a part or the whole of twelve towns, comprising an area of about
150,000 acres, and has an improved horse water-power of about 1,250.

The Mascomy, or Mascoma, river has its rise in Dorchester, and thence
flowing southerly through Canaan, it falls into the Mascoma lake, in Enfield ;
thence it runs a westerly course through Lebanon, dropping into the Con-
necticut opposite Hartford, Vt. The water-power is valuable on the stream
before it reaches the lake, which has been dammed so as to make it a fine
reservoir for the manufactories along the river from its outlet. In its course
of about twenty-five miles, the river has a fall of over 600 feet and waters a
territory of over 100,000 acres.

The Pemigewasset has its source in the White and Franconia mountains,
and passes through, or borders the towns of Lincoln, Woodstock, Thornton,
Campton, Plymouth, Holderness, Ashland Bridgewater and Bristol, this
county, in its course to Franklin, where it unites with the Winnipiseogee river
to form the Merrimack. Its most important tributaries are Baker's, Mad, New-
found, Squam, and Smith's rivers. It drains the whole or part of thirty-three
towns, covering on area of over 632,000 acres, or nearly 1,000 square miles.

Squam lake, the largest body of water, borders on the counties of Grafton,
Belknap and Carroll ; and on the towns of Holderness, Sandwich, Moulton-
borough and Center Harbor. It is about six miles long, and, in its widest
part, three miles in width. It is a splendid sheet of water, studded with a
succession of romantic islands. Its outlet is Squam river, which falls into the
Pemigewasset, in Ashland.

Newfound lake is pleasantly located in the towns of Bridgewater, Bristol
and Hebron, It is about seven miles long and three wide, and empties into
the Pemigewasset, at Bristol, by Newfound river.

Mascomy, or Mascoma, lake is a handsome sheet of water lying in En-
field. It is about four miles in length and a mile in width. The other streams,



GEOLOGICAL.



lakes and ponds of the county will be noticed in connection with the sketches
of the towns wherein they are located.

GEOLOGICAL.*

Topography. — The foundation for correct knowledge of the geology of any
district is to be gained by a study of its elevations and depressions, or its to-
pography. Two well-defined depressions call for notice — first, the valley of the
Connecticut, and second, the valley of the Pemigewasset. The first consti-
tutes the western boundary of the county. Connecticut river enters Little-
ton at an altitude of 750 feet above the level of the sea. It falls 290 feet
before reaching the mouth of the Passumpsic river, a distance of nine miles.
From here to the southwest corner of Lebanon the fall is 140 feet, reaching
to 320 feet above the sea. Excluding the falls at the upper part of the
course, the descent is at the rate of two feet and a trifle more, per mile. The
lowest part of the Pemigewasset river, in Ashland, is about 456 feet above
the sea. It rises to nearly 2,000 feet at the Profile House, in the Franconia
Notch, with very high mountains upon either side. The descent thence
fiortherly is to the Connecticut valley.

The Ammonosuc river has cut down as deep as the Connecticut, and hence
there is a triangular territory between these two streams, rising to over 2,000
feet for the culminating ridge. As this is noted for its deposits of copper and
gold, it has received the name of "Ammonoosuc raining district." East of the
Pemigewasset the White Mountains show themselves, the higher peaks being
as follows : —

Feet above sea level. Feet above sea level.

Mt. Lafayette 5,259. Tripyramid 4,200 to 4,000."

Twin mountain 5, 000. Mt. Osceola, 4,400.

Mt. Lincoln 5,1 00. Sandwich Dome 4,000.

Mt. Guyot 4r9oo. Mt. Huntington 3, 800.

Mt. Bond 4,800. Mt. Hitchcock 3,600.

Mt. Canigan 4,678. Mt. 'Garfield 4,500.

Mt. Hancock 4,420. Mt. Liberty 4,500.

Mt. Willey 4,33o. Mt. Flume 4,500.

Mt. Field 4,070.

The following are the heights along tlie watershed of the Connecticut and
Merrimack basins, beginning at the south line of the county and proceeding
northerly :

Feet above sea level. Feet above sea level.

Prescott Hill, Grafton t,7oo Ridge east of Dorchester,

Furd Hill, Grafton 1,800 Canaan 2,137

Summit N. R. R., Orange 990 Valley, lowest point, Dor-

Hoyt Hill, Orange 1,700 Chester 1,250

Road from Orange to Gro- Smarts Mountain, Dorchester, 3,200

ton. Orange 1,600 Gap, Orford 1,438



Prepared by Prof. Charles H. Hitchcock, of Dartmouth College.



GRAFTON COUNTY.



Feet ^bove sea level.

Mt. Cuba, Orford 2,927

Watershed, S. E. of Indian

Pond, Orford 1,100

Piermont Mtn., Piermont... 2,500

Road over Ore hill, Warren . . 1,542

Webster Slide Mtn., Warren. 2,210
Oliverian Notch, B. C. & M.

R. R., Warren 1,063

Mt. Moosilauke, Benton... 4,811

Notch, 1,655

Mt. Kinsman, Lincoln 4,200



Feet above sea level.

Profile Mountain, Franconia 3,850
Franconia Notch, Franconia 2,014
Mt. Lafayette, Franconia. . . 5,259
Mt. Garfield, Franconia. . . . 4,500

Gap, 3,000

Twin Mountain 4,920

New Zealand Notch, Liver-
more 2,123

Mt. Field, Livermore 4^070

White Mountain Notch, near

Crawford House 1,914



The foundation of this water-shed is supposed to represent the oldest rock
of the State, but it does not always appear at the surface. East of the Fran-
conic Notch the mountains are mostly eruptive granites. Many of them are
conical like the corresponding heaps of igneous debris collected around the
vents of volcanoes at the present day.

Classification — The following table shows what groups of rocks exist in the
county, arranged by age : —

STRATIFIED.



Paleozoic.



Eozoic.



Azoic.



Niagara group, upper silurian.

Coos group, mica schist and quartzites.

Clay slate, Cambrian.

Kearsarge group and fibrolite mica schist.

Auriferous conglomerate, ]

Lyman group, \ Huronian.

Lisbon group, |

Hornblende schist, J

Montalban, upper Laurentian.

Lake group, I middle Laurentian.

Bethlehem group, j

Porphyritic gneiss, lower Laurentian.



UNSTRATIFIED.



Basic.



Acidic



Diabase.
Uiorite.
Gabbro.
Porphyry.
Granite.
( Syenite.

The Loivcsf Group. — The oldest rock seen anywhere in the county of
State is a very co2.x%q gjieiss ox granite. The minerals being alike in both these
crystalline aggregates, it is necessary to determine whether they are arranged
in parallel lines or are promiscously mixed together, if we would say gneiss
ox granite. Well-defined ledges of this age are easily recognized because of the



GEOLOGICAL.



large quadrangular blotches of light-colored feldspar which thickly pepper
the mass and render the surface as conspicuous as the figures of a patch-work
bed-quilt. These crystals vary from half of one to three inches in length.
Quartz and feldspar are the essential constituents of the rock, while a third
mineral is commonly white mica and rarely hornblende or chlorite. Black
mica is the most common. Examination with a compound microscope some-
times reveals the presence of apatite in fine needles, and long slender hairs
of riitile in the quartz. The crystals oi feldspar are often twined, that is, they
have been cut in two along their greater length and one of the halves has been
turned half way around. Inasmuch as the crystal is not rectangular, the
halves do not match each other, and consquently reflect light differently on



Online LibraryHamilton ChildGazetteer of Grafton county, N. H. 1709-1886 → online text (page 1 of 133)