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TROPICAL AMERICAN HUMMI\G-I5IRDS



YOUNG FOLKS' TREASURY

In I 2 Volumes

Hamilton Wright Mabie

Editor

Edward Everett Hale

Associate Editor




The Animal World

A Book of Natural History



By

THEODORE WOOD

Edited by

Ernest Ingersoll




New York

The University Society Inc.

Publishers



m



CoPYKICiUT, 190<I, BV

Thk Unitershv Sociktv Inc.



PARTIAL LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS,

ASSISTANT EDITORS AND

ADVISERS



HAMILTON WRIGHT MABIE

Editor

EDWARD EVERETT HALE

Associate Editor



Nicholas Murray Butler, President Columbia University.
William R. Harper, Late President Chicago University.
Hon. Theodore Roosevelt, Ex-President of the United

States.
Hon. Grover Cleveland, Late President of the United States.
James Cardinal Gibbons, American Roman Cathohc prelate.
Robert C. Ogden, Partner of John Wanamaker.
Hon. George F. Hoar, Late Senator from Massachusetts.
Edward W. Bok, Editor "Ladies' Home Journal."
Henry Van Dyke, Author, Poet, and Professor of English

Literature, Princeton University.
Lyman Abbott, Author, Editor of "The Outlook."
Charles G. D. Roberts, Writer of Animal Stories.
Jacob A. Riis, Author and Journalist.
Edward Everett Hale, Jr., English Professor at Union

College. •



PARTIAL LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Joel Chandler Harris, Late Author and Creator of "Uncle
Remus. "

George Cary Eggleston, Novelist and Journalist.

Ray Stannard Baker, Author and Journalist.

William Blaikie, Author of "How to Get Strong and How
to Stay So."

William Davenport Hulbert, Writer of Animal Stories.

Joseph Jacobs, Folklore Writer and Editor of the "Jewish
Encyclopedia. "

Mrs. Virginia Terhune ("Marion Harland"), Author of
"Common Sense in the Household," etc.

Margaret E. Sangster, Author of " The Art of Home-Mak-
ing," etc.

Sarah K. Bolton, Biographical Writer.

Ellen Velvin, Writer of Animal Stories.

Rev. Theodore Wood, F. E. S., Writer on Natural History.

W. J. Baltzell, Editor of "The Musician."

Herbert T. Wade, Editor and Writer on Physics

John H. Clifford, Editor and Writer.

Ernest Ingersoll, Naturalist and Author.

Daniel E. Wheeler, Editor and Writer.

Ida Prentice \A'hitcomb, Author of "Young People's Story of
Music," "Heroes of History," etc.

Mark Hambourg, Pianist and Composer.

Mme. Blanche Marchesi, Opera Singer and Teacher.



CONTENTS



PAGE

Introduction ........ xi

CHAPTER

I Apes and Gibbons ..... i

II Baboons ....... 7

III The American Monkeys and the Lemurs . 16

IV The Bats ..;.... 26
V The Insect-Eaters ..... 33

VI The Larger Cats ...... 47

VII The Smaller Cats ..... 60

VIII The Civets, the Aard-Wolf, and the Hyenas 68

IX The Dog Tribe 78

X The Weasel Tribe ..... 91

XI The Bear Tribe . . . . . . 102

XII The Seal Tribe . . . . . -113

XIII The Whale Tribe . . . . . .121

XIV The Rodent Animals ..... 136

XV The Wild Oxen . . . . . .157

XVI Giraffes, Deer, Camels, Zebras, Asses, and

Horses ....... 179

XVII The Elephants, Rhinoceroses, Hippopot-
amuses, and Wild Swine . . . 20T

XVIII Edentates, or Toothless Mammals . . 212

XIX The Marsupials 218



vn



viii


CONTENTS






CHAPTER






PAGE


XX


Birds of Prey




232


XXI


Cuckoos, Nightjars, Humming-Birds, Wood


-




peckers, and Toucans




243


XXII


Crows, Birds of Paradise, and Finches




254


XXIII


Wagtails, Shrikes, Thrushes, etc.




263


XXIV


Parrots, Pigeons, Pea-Fowl, Pheasants,


etc


273


XXV


Ostriches, Herons, Cranes, Ibises, etc.




281


XXVI


Swimming Birds "...




291


XXVII


Tortoises, Turtles, and Lizards .




299


XXVIII


Snakes ......




311


XXIX


Amphibians






321


XXX


Fresh-water Fishes






326


XXXI


Salt-water Fishes






337


XXXII


Insects






354


XXXIII


Insects (continued)






369


XXXIV


Spiders and Scorpion


■> . . .




387


XXXV


Crustaceans






397


XXXVI


Sea-Urchins, Starfishes, and Sea-Cucumbers


409


XXXVII


Mollusks




414


XXXVIII


Annelids and Coelenterates




427




Walks with a Naturalist ,




437




Nature-study at the Seaside




457




Our Wicked Waste of Life.




487




Index




497



(Mitch of the material in this volume is published by permission of E. P.
Dutton CI" Company. New York City, owners of American rights.)



ILLUSTRATIONS



Tropical American Humming-Birds . . . Frontispiece

FACING PAGE

Types of Apes and Monkeys 6

Photographic Portraits of Monkeys . . . . i6

Four Great Cats 48

Some Fierce Cats 64

A Wolfish Group 80

Types of Fur-Bearers 96

Types of Bears , . . .128

Types of Rodents -..,,..., 144

Four Types of Cattle 156

Wild Sheep and Goats 164

Goats and Goat- Antelopes 166

Types of Antelopes . .176

The Antlered Deer 184

Children's Pets at the Zoo 189

Wild Relatives of the Horse 196

Pachyderms and Tapir 206

Types of Marsupials . - . . . - . .220

Typical Birds of Prey 232

ix



X ILLUSTRATIONS

FACING PAGE

Four Handsome Birds 246

Finches and Weaver-Birds 260

American Insect-eating Song-Birds .... 264

Gaudy Tropical Birds 272

American Game-Birds 278

Four Great Game-Birds 280

American Wading Birds 296

Types of Water-Birds 300

Characteristic Forms and Markings of American

Birds' Eggs 312

North American Food and Game Fishes . . - 328

Insects Injurious to American Maple-Trees . . 360

Leaf-eating Insects of Shade-Trees . - . - 376

Life on the Sea-Bottom 4c8

North American Seed-eating Song-Birds . . . 436

Chickadee and White-breasted Nuthatch . . . 448



INTRODUCTION



THIS volume is a sketch of the animal life of the whole world.
More than a sketch it could not be in the space at the
author's command; but he has so skilfully selected his examples
to illustrate both the natural groups and the faunas which they
represent, that his work forms a most conamendable ground-
plan for the study of natural history.

Few writers have been so successful in handling this subject.
His style is singularly attractive to the young readers whom he
has in view; yet he does not depart from accuracy, nor ex-
aggerate with false emphasis some unusual phase of an animal's
character, which is the fault of many who try to "popularize"
zoology.

One may feel confident, therefore, that the boy or girl
who opens this volume will enjoy it and profit by it. The
sketch dwells on the animals most often to be seen in nature,
or in menageries, or read of in books of travel and adventure,
and will thus serve as a valuable reference aid in such reading.
But it will, and ought to, do more. It will arouse anew that
interest in the creatures about us which is as natural as breath
to every youngster, but is too rarely fostered by parents and
teachers.

Nothing is more valuable in the foundation of an educa-
tion than the faculty and habit of observation — the power of
noting understandingly, or at least inquiringly, what happens
within our sight and hearing. To go about with one's eyes half
shut, content to see the curtain and never curious to look at
the play on nature's stage behind it, is to miss a very large part
of the possible pleasure in life. That his child should not
suffer this loss ought to be the concern of every parent.

xi



xii INTRODUCTION

Little more than encouragement and some opportunity
is needed to preserve and cultivate this disposition and faculty.
Direct a youngster's attention to some common fact of wood-
land life new to him, and his interest and imagination will be
excited to learn more. Give him a hint of the relationship of
this fact to other facts, and you have started him on a scien-
tific search, and he has begun to train his eye and his mind
without knowing it. At this point such books as this are ex-
tremely helpful, and lead to a desire for the more special treatises
which happily are now everywhere accessible.

This suggestion is not made with the idea that every young-
ster is to become a full-fledged naturalist; but with the sense
that some knowledge of nature will be a source of delight
throughout life; and with the certainty that in no direction can
quickness of eye and accuracy of sight and reasoning be so well
and easily acquired. These are qualities which make for
success in all lines of human activity, and therefore are to be
regarded as among the most important to be acquired early
in life.

The physical benefit of an interest in animal life, which
leads to outdoor exercise, needs no argument. The mental
value has been touched upon. The moral importance is in
the sense of truth which nature inculcates, and the kindliness
sure to follow the affectionate interest with which the young
naturalist must regard all living things.

No matter what is to be their walk in life, the observing
study of nature should be regarded as the corner-stone of a
boy's or girl's education.

Ernest Ingersoll



MAMMALS

CHAPTER I
APES AND GIBBONS

FIRST among the mammals come the monkeys. First
among the monkeys come the apes. And first among
the apes come the chimpanzees, almost the largest of all
monkeys.

Chipmanzees

When it is fully grown a male chimpanzee stands nearly five
feet high. And it would be even taller still if only it could
stand upright.

But that is a thing which no monkey can ever do, because
instead of having feet as we have, which can be planted flat
upon the ground, these animals only have hind hands. There is
no real sole to them, no instep, and no heel; while the great toe
is ever so much more like a huge thumb. The consequence is
that when a monkey tries to stand upright he can only rest upon
the outside edges of these hand-like feet, while his knees have
to be bent awkwardly outward. So he looks at least three
inches shorter than he really is, and he can only hobble along
in a very clumsy and ungraceful manner.

But then, on the other hand, he is far better able to climb
about in the trees than we are, because while we are only able
to place our feet flat upon a branch, so as to stand upon it, he
can grasp the branches with all four hands, and obtain a very
much firmer hold.

1



2 THE ANIMAL WORLD

Chimpanzees are found in the great forests of Central and
Western Africa, where they feed upon the wild fruits which
grow there so abundantly. They spend almost the whole of
their lives among the trees, and have a curious way of making
nests for their families to live in, by twisting the smaller branches
of the trees together, so as to form a small platform. The
mother and her little ones occupy this nest, while the father
generally sleeps on a bough just underneath it. Sometime
quite a number of these nests may be seen close together, the
chimpanzees having built a kind of village for themselves in
the midst of the forest.

A Clever Specimen

If you visit the zoological gardens in New York, London, or
some other city, you may be quite sure of seeing one or more
chimpanzees. They are nearly always brought to the zoos
when they are quite young, and the keepers teach them to per-
form all kinds of clever tricks. One of them in the London
Zoo, who was called "Sally," and who lived there for several
years, actually learned to count! If she was asked for two,
three, four, or five straws, she would pick up just the right
number from the bottom of her cage and hand them to the
keeper, without ever making a mistake. Generally, too, she
would pick up six or seven straws if the keeper asked for them.
But if eight, nine, or ten were asked for she often became con-
fused, and could not be quite sure how many to give. She was
a very cunning animal, however, and when she became tired
of counting she would sometimes pick up two straws only
and double them over, so as to make them look like
four!

"Sally" could talk, too, after a fashion, and used to make
three different sounds. One of these evidently meant "Yes,"
another signified "No," and the third seemed to be intended for
"Thank you," as she always used it when the keeper gave her
a nut or a banana.

Two kinds of chimpanzees are known, namely the common
chimpanzee, which is by far the more plentiful of the two, and



APES AND GIBBONS 3

the bald chimpanzee, which has scarcely any hair on the upper
part of its head. One very intelligent bald chimpanzee was
kept in Barnum's menagerie, and was even more clever, in
some ways, than "Sally" herself.

The Gorilla

Larger even than the chimpanzee is the gorilla, the biggest
and strongest of all the apes, which sometimes grows to a
height of nearly six feet. It is only found in Western Africa,
close to the equator, and has hardly ever been seen by white
travelers, since it lives in the densest and darkest parts of the
great forests. But several gorillas — nearly all quite small ones
— have been caught alive and kept in captivity in zoos, where,
however, they soon died.

One of these, named " Gena," lived for about three weeks
in the Crystal Palace, near London. She was a most timid
little creature, and if anybody went to look at her she would
hide behind a chimpanzee, which inhabited the same cage, and
watched over her in the most motherly way. Another, who was
called "Pongo," lived for rather more than two months in the
London Zoo, and seemed more nervous still, for he used to
become terrified if even his keeper went into the cage. But
when the animal has grown up it is said to be a most savage
and formidable foe, and the natives of Central Africa are even
more afraid of it than they are of the lion.

Like most of the great apes, the gorilla has a most curious
way of sheltering itself during a hea\y shower of rain. If you
were to look at its arms, you would notice that the hair upon
them is very thick and long, and that while it grows downward
from the shoulder to the elbow, from the elbow to the wrist it
grows upward. So when it is caught in hea\y rain, the animal
covers its head and shoulders with its arms. Then the long
hair upon them acts just like thatch and carries off the water,
so that the gorilla hardly gets wet at all.

When the gorilla is upon the ground it generally walks upon
all fours, bending the fingers of the hands inward, so that it rests
upon the knuckles. But it is much more active in the trees,



4 THE ANIMAL WORLD

and is said to be able to leap to the ground from a branch twenty
or thirty feet high, without being hurt in the least by the
fall.

The Orang-Utan

Another very famous ape is the orang-utan, which is found
in Borneo and Sumatra. It is reddish brown in color, and is
clothed with much longer hair than either the gorilla or the
chimpanzee, while its face is surprisingly large and broad, with
a very high forehead. But the most curious feature of this
animal is the great length of its arms. When a man stands
upright, and allows his arms to hang down by his sides, the
tips of his fingers reach about half-way between his hips and
his knees. When a chimpanzee stands as upright as possible,
the tips of its fingers almost touch its knees. But when an
orang-utan does the same its fingers nearly touch the ground.
Of course, when the animal is walking, it finds that these long
arms are very much in its way. So it generally uses them as
crutches, resting the knuckles upon the ground, and swinging
its body between them.

But the orang seldom comes down to the ground, for it is far
more at its ease among the branches of the trees. And although
it never seems to be in a hurry, it will swing itself along from
bough to bough, and from tree to tree, quite as fast as a man
can run below. Like the gorilla and the chimpanzee, it makes
rough nests of twisted boughs, in which the female animal and
the little ones sleep. And if it is mortally wounded, it nearly
always makes a platform of branches in the same way, and sits
upon it waiting for death.

Orangs are often to be seen in zoological gardens, al-
though they are so delicate that they do not thrive well in cap-
tivity. One of these animals, which lived in the London Zoo
for some time, had learned a very clever trick. Leaning up
against his cage was a placard, on which were the words "The
animals in this cage must not be fed." The orang very soon
found out that when this notice was up nobody gave him any
nuts or biscuits. So he would wait until the keeper's back was



APES AND GIBBONS 5

turned, knock the placard down with the printed words under-
neath, and then hold out his paw for food!

As a general rule, orangs seem far too lazy to be at all savage.
Those in zoos nearly always lie about on the floor of their cage
all day, wrapped in their blankets, with a kind of good-humored
grin upon their great broad faces. But when they are roused into
passion they seem to be very formidable creatures, and Alfred
Russel Wallace tells us of an orang that turned upon a Dyak
who was trying to spear it, tore his arm so terribly with his teeth
that he never recovered the proper use of the limb, and would
almost certainly have killed him if some of his companions had
not come to his rescue.

Gibbons

Next we come to the gibbons, which are very wonderful
animals, for they are such astonishing gymnasts. Most mon-
keys are very active in the trees, but the gibbons almost seem
to be flying from bough to bough, dashing about with such
marvelous speed that the eye can scarcely follow their move-
ments. Travelers, on seeing them for the first time, have often
mistaken them for big blackbirds. They hardly seem to swing
themselves from one branch to another. They just dart and
dash about, upward, downward, sideways, backward, often
taking leaps of twenty or thirty feet through the air. And yet,
so far as one can see, they only just touch the boughs as they
pass with the tips of their fingers.

If you should happen to see a gibbon in the next zoo that you
visit, be sure to ask the keeper to offer the animal a grape, or a
piece of banana, and you will be more than surprised at its
marvelous activity.

The arms of the gibbons are very long — although not quite
so long as those of the orang-utan — so that when these animals
stand as upright as they can the tips of their fingers nearly
touch the ground. But they do not use these limbs as crutches,
as the orang does. Instead of that, they either clasp their
hands behind the neck while they are walking, or else stretch
out the arms on either side with the elbows bent downward, to



6 THE ANIMAL WORLD

help them in keeping their balance. So that when a gibbon
leaves the trees and takes a short stroll upon the ground below,
it looks rather like a big letter W suspended on a forked pole!

Gibbons generally live together in large companies, which
often consist of from fifty to a hundred animals, and they have
a very odd habit of sitting in the topmost branches of tall trees
at sunrise, and again at sunset, and joining in a kind of con-
cert. The leader always seems to be the animal with the
strongest voice, and after he has uttered a peculiar barking cry
perhaps half a dozen times, the others all begin to bark in chorus.
Often for two hours the outcry is kept up, so loud that it may be
heard on a still day two or three miles. Then by degrees it
dies away, and the animals are almost silent until the time for
their next performance comes round.

Several different kinds of gibbons are known, the largest of
which is the siamang This animal is found only in Sumatra.
It is a little over three feet high when fully grown. If you ever
see it at a zoo you may know it at once by its glassy black color,
and its odd whitish beard. Then there is the hoolock, which is
common in many parts of India, and has a white band across its
eyebrows, while the lar gibbon, of the Malay Peninsula, has a
broad ring of white all round its face. Besides these there are
one or two others, but they are all so much alike in their habits
that there is no need to mention them separately.



VOL. V. — I




TYPES OF APES AND MONKEYS



I. Diana Monkey.
4. Mandrill Baboon.



2. Orang-utan.

S. Capuchin Monkey.



3. Hanuman Monkey.
6. Spider Monkey.



CHAPTER II
BABOONS

HOW can we tell a baboon from an ape ?
That is quite easy. Just glance at his face. You will
notice at once that he has a long, broad muzzle, like that of a
dog, with the nostrils at the very tip. For this reason the
baboons are sometimes known as dog-faced monkeys. Then
look at his limbs. You will see directly that his arms are
no longer than his legs. That is because he does not live in the
trees, as the apes do. He lives in rough, rocky places on the
sides of mountains, where there are no trees at all, so that arms
like those of the gibbons or the orang-utan would be of no use
to him. He does not want to climb. He wants to be able to
scamj)er over the rocks, and to run swiftly up steep cliffs where
there is only just room enough to gain a footing. So his limbs
are made in such a way that he can go on all fours like a dog,
and gallop along so fast among the stones and boulders that it
is hard to overtake him.

The Chacma

Perhaps the best known of the baboons is the chacma, which
is found in South Africa. The animal is so big and strong, and
so very savage, that if he is put into a large cage in company
with other monkeys, he always has to be secured in a corner
by a stout chain. A chacma that lived for some years in the
Crystal Palace was fastened up in this way, and the smaller
monkeys, who knew exactly how far his chain would allow him
to go, would sit about two inches out of his reach and eat their
nuts in front of him. This used to make the chacma furious,
and after chattering and scolding away for some time, as if
telling his tormentors what dreadful things he would do to them

VOL. v. — 2 7



8 THE ANIMAL WORLD

if ever he got the chance, he would snatch up an armful of straw
from the bottom of his cage and fling it at them with both hands.
"If I fed the smaller monkeys with nuts, instead of giving
them to him," says a visitor, "he would fling the straw at
me."

Chacmas live in large bands among the South African moun-
tains, and are very diflficult to watch, as they always post two
or three of their number as sentinels. As soon as any sign of
danger appears one of the watchers gives a short, sharp bark.
All the rest of the band understand the signal, and scamper
away as fast as they can.

Sometimes, however, the animals will hold their ground.
A hunter was once riding over a mountain ridge when he came
upon a band of chacmas sitting upon a rock. Thinking that
they would at once run away, he rode at them, but they did not
move, and when he came a little closer they looked so threaten-
ing that he thought it wiser to turn back again.

An angry chacma is a very formidable foe, for it is nearly as
big as a mastiff, and ever so much stronger, while its great tusk-
like teeth cut like razors. When one of these animals is hunted
with dogs it will often gallop along until one of its pursuers has
outstripped the rest, and will then suddenly turn and spring
upon him, plunge its teeth into his neck, and, while its jaws are
still clenched, thrust the body of its victim away. The result is
that the throat of the poor dog is torn completely open, and a
moment later its body is lying bleeding on the ground, while the
chacma is galloping on as before.

These baboons are very mischievous creatures, for they come
down from their mountian retreats by night in order to plunder
the orchards. And so cautiously is the theft carried out, that
even the dogs on guard know nothing of what is going on, and
the animals nearly always succeed in getting away.

When it cannot obtain fruit, the chacma feeds chiefly upon
the bulb of a kind of iris, which it digs out of the ground with
its paw, and then carefully peels. But it is also fond of insects,
and may often be seen turning over stones, and catching the
beetles which were lying hidden beneath them. It \\\\\ even eat
scorpions, but is careful to pull off their stings before doing so.



BABOONS



The M.\ndrill



Another interesting baboon is the mandrill, which one does
not often see in captivity. It comes from Western Africa.
While it is young there is little that is remarkable about it.
But the full-grown male is a strange-looking animal, for on
each of its cheeks there is a swelling as big as a large sausage,
which runs upward from just above the nostrils to just below



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